The Expedition of Tabuk

(The month of Rajab, 9th year of the Migration / AD 630)

The 9th year of the Migration is the year when Islam spread in the Arabian Peninsula with all of its grandeur. On the one hand, people came to Madinah in large groups to become Muslims and to pay allegiance to the Messenger of God; on the other hand, he sent officials and governors to arrange the religious and administrative affairs of the tribes that became Muslims. To sum up, Islam experienced its most magnificent and splendid period in the 9th year of the Migration.

However, there were some states that could not put up with the magnificence of this bright sun. One of them was the Byzantine Empire, which was one of the strongest states of that time. Heraclius was the Byzantine Emperor then. He was preparing a big army as a result of the provocations of the Christian Arabs living around in order to eliminate the religion of Islam and its followers. The tribes of Juzam, Lahm, Amila, Ghassan and others decided to join the army of Heraclius.[1]They planned to attack Madinah like a flood and to destroy Muslims. 

The Messenger of God was informed about the situation and started to make prepartions.

When the Prophet set off for an expedition, he did not use to tell people about his purpose; he used to act and talk as if he was going somewhere else.

This time, he did not do so. He told people about the distance of the place, he told the mujahids clearly that it was a period of famine and scarcity and that the number of the enemy was very big.[2]

When the preparations for the war started in Madinah, the Prophet sent some Companions to the Muslim tribes around and asked them to send mujahids for the war.[3]

The Help of the Rich

There was drought and famine everywhere. Most of the mujahids that would take part in the war had no money to buy weapons and to spend on war preparations. 

The Messenger of God asked the rich Muslims to help for war preparations and equipment.

The rich Muslims answered this call immediately.

Hazrat Umar’s Help

Hazrat Umar was one of the first people to answer the call of the Messenger of God. He said to himself, “I will surpass Abu Bakr today.” He brought half of his property to the Prophet. 

The Messenger of God asked, “O Umar! What did you leave to your family?”

He said, “As much as I brought to you.”[4]

Hazrat Abu Bakr’s Help

Hazrat Abu Bakr brought all of his property, which amounted to four thousand dirhams[5]of silver to the Prophet.

Hazrat Umar wanted to find out what he brought.

The Prophet said, “O Abu Bakr! What did you leave to your family?”

He said, “I left God and His Messenger to them.”[6]

Upon this sacrifice, Hazrat Umaru’l-Faruq started to cry and said, “May my mother and father be sacrificed for you, O Abu Bakr! You always surpass me in all of the races of goodness. I have now realized that I will never be able to surpass you.”[7]

Hazrat Uthman’s Help

Hazrat Uthman, who was called Dhun-Nurayn (the Possessor of two Lights), had prepared a trade caravan to send to Damascus. When he heard the call of the Prophet, he gave up sending the caravan to Damascus and gave the three hundred camels with the goods on them to the Messenger of God. He also gave fifty horses and one thousand coins of gold.

Upon this sacrifice of Hazrat Uthman b. Affan, the Messenger of God said, “O God! I am pleased with Uthman; You be pleased with him, too.”[8]

 Abdurrahman b. Awf’s help

Abdurrahman b. Awf joined the help campaign of the Messenger of God with four thousand dirhams.

He said, “O Messenger of God! I am giving you four thousand dirhams; I have left four thousand for my family.”

The Messenger of God said, “May what you brought here and left for your family be abundant.”[9]

Due to the effect of the prayer of the Messenger of God, when Abdurrahman b. Awf died, each one of his four wives received eighteen thousand mithqals of gold as inheritance.[10]

Many Muslims did their best to join the help campaign. Some of them brought dates; some brought their camels for the service of the army. None of them avoided help; nobody paid attention to the size and amount of what they brought. Some brought a lot of things; others brought few things.  .

The Person who Brought One Sa’ of Dates

Abu Aqil came to the presence of the Messenger of God with one sa’ of dates in his hand.

He said, “O Messenger of God! I carried water all night in return for two sa’s of dates. I left one sa’ for my family and brought one sa’ to you in order to attain my Lord’s consent.”

The Messenger of God was affected by this incident and said, “May God make what you brought here and left for your family abundant.” He ordered the dates to be put into the dates of sadaqah.[11]

Ulba b. Zayd, who was a very poor Muslim, wanted to join the help campaign but he had almost nothing to give. He prayed God: “O God! You ordered us to make jihad. However, you did not give me an animal to make jihad on.” Then, he brought some things that he used at home to the Messenger of God.

He said, “O Messenger of God! I have nothing that I can give as sadaqah. I am giving the things that I am using. If anyone distresses me, says bad things about me or says, ‘Can this thing be given as sadaqah?’, I will forgive him.”[12]

The Prophet said, “May God accept your sadaqah.”

The following day, the Prophet asked his Companions, “Where is the person who gave sadaqah last night?”

Nobody moved.

This time, the Prophet said, “Let the person who gave sadaqah last night stand up.”

Ulba stood up.

The Messenger of God said, “I accepted your sadaqah. Good news for you! I swear by God, in whose hand is the existence of Muhammad that you were recorded in the registry of those whose sadaqahs were accepted.”[13]

Ulba became very glad when he heard this.

Sacrifices of the Muslim Women

The sacrifices made by the Muslim women were also commendable. Without any hesitation, they gave all of their jewels around their necks, hands and ears to the Messenger of God for the war preparation of the army that would make jihad.

Umm Sinan of the tribe of Aslam says,

“I saw a cloth laid on the ground in front of the Messenger of God in the house of Aisha. There were ivory bracelets, arm-bands, rings, anklets, ear-rings, belts to tie the feet of camels and things that could be used in making preparations for the war sent by the women.”[14]

Thanks to those contributions, many Muslims who had difficulty in taking part in the war due to famine, drought and poverty were provided with weapons and equipment; thus, they got ready for the expedition. 


There were so many people who wanted to take part in the war that even the financial help of the rich Companions were not enough to equip all of them. Those who did not have anything said to the Messenger of God that they would join the expedition voluntarily but they were not accepted because it was impossible to find camels for some, weapons for others and food for others.

There were seven people whose demands were rejected; they were known as “Bakkaun,”, that is, “Cryers”:

Salim b. Umayr, Amr b. Humam, Ulba b. Zayd, Irbaz b. Sa­riyya, Abu Layla Abdurrahman b. Ka’b, Abdullah b. Mughaffal and Harami b. Abdullah.[15]

Those seven people went to the presence of the Prophet during the war preparations and said, “O Messenger of God! We want to join the expedition but we have no camels to ride and no food to eat on the way.”

The Messenger of God said, “There are no animals left to give you.” They started to cry and left.[16]

God Almighty stated the following for those self-sacrificing Companions:

“Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mount, and when thou saidst "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses.”[17]

The Companions who left the Prophet by shedding tears fearing that they would not be able to take part in the war were equipped by the rich Companions when this verse was sent down. According to a narration, Hazrat Uthman b. Affan equipped three, Hazrat Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet, equipped two and Yamin b. Umayr equipped two of those Companions for the war.[18]

Munafiqs Become Active

Heat, famine and drought were affecting people badly. It was the time when the fruits in the orchards ripened. It was the season when people desired to sit in the shade of the trees in their orchards and groves in order to be protected from the scorching sun. And at that time, the Islamic army was getting ready for a war against the Byzantine Empire, one of the biggest states of the world. How could the people who had love of the world, goods and property instead of love of God in their hearts could take part in this war and put up with the hardships?

As a matter of fact, it was seen that the munafiqs, who were tied to the world with unbreakable connections and who preferred the life in the world to the life in the hereafter, started to stir up trouble. In order to cause mischief and dissuade the Muslims from taking part in the war, Abdullah b. Ubay, their leader, spoke as follows:  

“Does Muhammad think the Byzantine Empire is a toy? I can see him and his Companions as captives now.”[19]

Some other munafiqs said, “Is it possible to fight when it is so hot?”[20]

Upon those statements of the munafiqs, God Almighty sent down the following verse:

“Those who were left behind (in the Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the Messenger of God: they hated to strive and fight with their goods and their persons, in the Cause of God: they said "Go not forth in the heat. Say "The fire of Hell is fiercer in heat." If only they could understand!...’”[21]

Some of them used their love of women as an excuse for not taking part in the war. Thereupon the following verse was sent down:

“Among them is (many) a man who says: "Grant me exemption and draw me not into trial." Have they not fallen into trial already? And indeed hell surrounds the Unbelievers (on all sides).”[22]

Many more munafiqs asked the Prophet to be exempt from the war through various excuses. Thereupon, the Prophet gave permission to more than eighty munafiqs. 

In fact, the excuses that they told the Prophet were false. They were not people that believed in God and His Messenger truly and heartily. God Almighty informed the Prophet about their state as follows:

“Only those ask thee for exemption who believe not in God and the Last Day and whose hearts are in doubt so that they are tossed in their doubts, to and fro.”[23]

In the next verse, God consoled Muslims so that they would not lose hope by looking at those who did not want to take part in the war as follows: “If they had come out with you, they would not have added to your (strength) but only (made for) disorder, hurrying to and fro in your midst and sowing sedition among you…”[24]

The fact that the group of munafiqs did not take part in the war based on lame excuses did not cause the mujahids who were heartily connected to God and His Messenger to hesitate before joining the army for jihad. 

The Islamic Army is Ready

Despite all kinds of troubles and impossibilities, the Messenger of God prepared his army in the military camp in Thaniy­yatu’l-Wada. The army consisted of thirty thousand people. Ten thousand of them were cavalrymen.[25]

The Prophet appointed Muhammad b. Maslama as his deputy in Madinah.[26]

Hazrat Ali also went to Thaniy­yatu’l-Wada with the Islamic army. The Messenger of God summoned him and said, “Either I or you will stay in Madinah.”[27]Then, he said that Ali would stay in Madinah and take care of both families in Madinah.

Hazrat Ali started to cry; he said, “O Messenger of God! I want to be with you wherever you go. That is what I wanted most. Are you leaving me with the children and women?”[28]

The Prophet said, “Do you not want to be to me as Aaron (Aaron) is to Moses (Musa)[29]? There is only one difference; there will be no prophets after me.” Thereupon, Ali returned to Madinah very quickly.[30]

Before giving the command of proceeding, the Prophet gave the biggest standard to Hazrat Abu Bakr;[31]he gave the biggest flag to Zubayr b. Thabit.

The Islamic Army Sets off from Madinah

It was Thursday in the month of Rajab.

It was before the sunset. With the command of the Messenger of God, the Islamic army set off from Madinah toward Tabuk. Despite all kinds of troubles and unfavorable conditions, there was no hesitation and laxity in the mujahids who set off voluntarily for jihad in the way of God. They knew that they would attain endless bounties and the beauty of God in the hereafter in return for the temporary heat and troubles in the world. The scorching heat of the sun could not affect the coolness in the hearts of the believers. Material troubles and impossibilities could not eliminate their love and enthusiasm for the sake of God. They continued to walk with those lofty and holy feelings.

Hazrat Ali Catches up with the Islamic Army

After the Prophet left Hazrat Ali in Madinah, the munafiqs started to talk against him. Their aim was to cause disturbance among the Muslims using it as a pretext. They said,

“The Prophet left him in Madinah because he probably did not want to take Ali with him.”[32]

When Hazrat Ali heard it, he took his weapons and set off toward the Islamic army. He found the Messenger of God in a place called Jurf.

The Prophet asked him, “O Ali! Why did you come?”

Hazrat Ali said, “O Messenger of God! The munafiqs said you did not appreciate me; they said, ‘You did not take me with you for something that you saw and you did not like in me”[33]

The Prophet realized why he had come and smiled.

He said, “They told lies. I appointed you as my deputy for the people I left behind. Go back at once. Be my deputy for my and your household.”[34]

Hazrat Ali confirmed the words of the Prophet and returned to Madinah at once.[35]

There were many munafiqs left in Madinah. It can be said that the Prophet left Ali in Madinah in case they tried to cause some mischief and trouble.

Three Famous People

Along with some munafiqs, unfortunately three sincere Muslims stayed behind in Madinah due to their neglect. They were Ka’b b. Malik, Hilal b. Umayya and Murara b. Rabi’.[36]

We will narrate what happened to them after the Prophet’s return to Madinah.

Abu Dharr Stays Behind and a Miracle Takes Place

The Islamic army was proceeding under the command of the Messenger of God despite the scorching sun and the desert.

Meanwhile, the mujahids said, “O Messenger of God! Abu Dharr stayed behind because his camel does not walk.”

The Messenger of God said, “If there is some goodness in it, God will make him catch up with us.”[37]

Abu Dharr stayed behind because his camel was very weak. When he realized that his camel would not be able to walk, he put his possessions on his back and walked under the sun to catch up with the army.

When the army was resting in a place, they saw someone approaching; he was Abu Dharr. The mujahids told the Messenger of God about it. The Prophet said,

“May God show mercy on Abu Dharr! He will live alone, die alone and will be resurrected alone.”[38]

Many years after this statement of the Prophet, during the caliphate of Hazrat Uthman, Abu Dharr was living in Damascus.

Once, he recited the following verse: “…And there are those who bury gold and silver and spend it not in the way of God: announce unto them a most grievous penalty”[39].

Muawiya said, “It is not about Muslims; it is about the People of the Book.” Abu Dharr said, “No, it is both for us and the People of the Book.”

They discussed and argued about it.

Thereupon, Muawiya complained to Hazrat Uthman about him by writing, “Abu Dharr is disturbing the people of Damascus.”

Hazrat Uthman called him to Madinah from Damascus.

When Abu Dharr came to Madinah, the Caliph, Hazrat Uthman, said to him, “Stay with me; I will meet all of your needs.” However, Abu Dharr rejected his offer by saying, “I do not need any worldly things.”

This time, Hazrat Uthman said, “If you wish, move to a place near here and stay there.”

Abu Dharr accepted this offer and said, “Let me go to Rabaza.”

Upon the permission of Hazrat Uthman, he went to Rabaza, which was three destinations away from Madinah.

After a while, he became ill. Only his wife and his servant were with him. He said to them, “When I die, wash me and enshroud me. Then, put my body in the middle of the way. Tell the first travelers that come with their animals, ‘This is Abu Dharr, a Companion of the Messenger of God (pbuh). Help us bury him.’”

When his wife started to cry, he said, “Why are you crying?”

His wife said, “What will I do if you die? I have nothing, not even a shroud to wrap you.”

Thereupon, Abu Dharr said, “Stop crying.” Then he said,

“Once we were in the presence of the Messenger of God with some people. He said,

‘One of you will die in the countryside; a group of believers will perform his janazah prayer.’

All of the people that were there together with me died among groups of people. Only I am living now. I am dying in the countryside now. Watch the way. You will see that what I say is true.”[40]

After these words, he died in the 32th year of the Migration when he was with his wife and servant only, confirming the news that the Messenger of God had given twenty years ago.

When he died, his wife and servant fulfilled his will; after washing and enshrouding his body, they put him in the middle of the way.

Just then, a small group of Iraqis who were on the way to umrah came. Abdullah b. Mas’ud, the famous fiqh scholar was among them.  

His servant stood up and said, “This is Abu Dharr, a Companion of the Messenger of God (pbuh). Help us bury him.” Abdullah b. Masud could not help crying and repeated the words uttered by the Messenger of God years ago:  “Abu Dharr will live alone, die alone and will be resurrected alone”

Then, they buried the dead body of this great Companion together.[41]

The Islamic Army in Hijr

The Islamic army arrived at the place called Hijr. It was the eighth place of stop over.

Hijr, which was eight marhalas away from Madinah and which was on the way to Damascus, was the place where Thamud, the tribe of the Prophet Salih (pbuh), was destroyed through a cloud of dust sent by God Almighty after midnight.[42]

When the Prophet arrived there, he said, “Enter the houses of the people who were incurred by the wrath of God by crying and fearing that you could be incurred by wrath.”[43]

The mujahids drew water from the well of Hijr and kneaded dough with it.

Thereupon, the Messenger of God said, “Do not drink the water of that well; do not make wudu it. Give the dough that you kneaded to the camels. Do not eat it.”[44]

The Rain Prayer of the Prophet

There was a shortage of water in the Islamic army, which settled in Hijr. There was no water left in the water bottles of the mujahids. Hazrat Umar narrated that moment as follows:

“We were so thirsty that we thought our necks would break due to thirst. We looked for water among our things but could not find any and knelt down there. One of us slaughtered his camel and drank the water in its hump.”[45]

The Rumors of the Munafiqs

Some of the munafiqs who were among Muslims used it as an opportunity to start a rumor: “If Muhammad were a real prophet, he would ask God for rain and make it rain as Hazrat Musa asked God for rain and made it rain for his tribe.”

When the Prophet heard these talks, he said, “They speak like that? I hope God will send you rain.”[46]

Hazrat Umar went on narrating as follows:

“In the face of those hardships and troubles, Abu Bakr could not help saying to the Messenger of God (pbuh):

‘O Messenger of God! God will accept your prayer. Please pray for us’

The Messenger of God (pbuh) said, ‘Do you want it?’

Abu Bakr said, ‘Yes, o Messenger of God!’

Thereupon, the Messenger of God (pbuh) opened his hands and prayed. Before he finished his prayer, it got dark. First, it started to drizzle; then, it poured down. The mujahids filled their water containers.

When we left the place where we had settled, we saw that it had rained only where the army had stopped. There was not even a drop of rain outside that place.”[47]

Thus, the Messenger of God received such grants and favors from God with only one prayer and request.

The Messenger of God received many miracles, grants and favors throughout his life. It is one of the proofs of his prophethood. The belief of the Muslims who saw those grants and favors strengthened and their ranks elevated.

Qaswa Gets Lost

During the expedition, Qaswa, the camel of the Messenger of God got lost.[48]The Companions looked for it for some time but could not find it.

The munafiqs used it as an opportunity to utter words that would disturb the Messenger of God. One of them, Zayd b. Lusayt said, “It is something to wonder. Muhammad says he is a prophet; he gives news from the sky but does not know where his camel is.”[49]

When those mean words of the munafiq was reported to the Messenger of God, he said, “By God, I only know what God informs me; I cannot know anything else.” Then, he added, “Now God has told me that Qaswa is in the valley between this and that mountain; its halter is stuck in a tree. Go and bring it back to me at once.”[50]

When the Companions went to the place described by the Messenger of God, they found the camel with its halter stuck in a tree just as the Prophet had said and took it to him.[51]

The Messenger of God knew the unknown only when God Almighty informed him and told people about the unknown things. It was one of the miracles given to him by God. 

All of the news related to the future that the Messenger of God told people as a result of being informed by God took place exactly as the Companions witnessed them.[52]

The Islamic Army in Tabuk

Eventually, after a tiring travel under scorching heat and on scorching sand, the Islamic army arrived in Tabuk, which was the nineteenth place of stop over.

However, there was no Byzantine army or anybody else there. The Emperor of the East Rome gave up the attempt that he had made preparations for due to lack of courage in the last minute.

Abu Haythama Comes

Abu Haythama was a sincere Muslim. He stayed in Madinah and did not join the Islamic army just because of his negligence.

A few days after the Islamic army left Madinah, he returned home from work. He saw that his wives had cleaned the arbor and prepared cold sherbet. When he saw it, it dawned on him. He stood at the entrance of the arbor. He looked at the things that his wives had prepared for him and said, “Sub­hanal­lah! The Messenger of God (pbuh) is carrying his weapons on his back under the scorching sun, wind and heat and Abu Haythama is sitting in the shade with two beautiful women among material things.” Then, he turned to his wives and said, “By God, I will not enter the arbor of either of you unless I go and catch up with the Messenger of God (pbuh). Go and prepare some food for my journey at once.”[53]

When Abu Haythama’s food was prepared, he set off from Madinah toward Tabuk. When the Islamic army, stopped in Tabuk, the mujahids saw a cavalryman coming.

They said, “Look, a cavalryman is coming.”

The Prophet said, “Is he Abu Haythama? I hope he is coming.”

When he approached, the Companions recognized him. They said, “O Messenger of God! By God, he is Abu Haythama.”

Abu Haythama went to the presence of the Messenger of God and greeted him.

The Messenger of God said, “Abu Haythama! You were almost destroyed.”

When he narrated what had happened, the Messenger of God prayed for him.[54]

The Prophet’s Sermon in Tabuk

The Islamic army was waiting in Tabuk.

The Prophet stood up. He leaned against a date tree and made the following speech:

“Shall I tell you who is the best and worst person among people? The best person is the one who works in the way of God on his horse, camel or on his two feet. The worst person is the one who reads the Book of God but does not benefit from it.

 Verily the most veracious discourse is the Book of God. The most trustworthy stronghold is the word of piety. The best of the religions is the religion of Ibrahim. The best of the precedents is the precedent of Muhammad. The noblest speech is the invocation of God. The finest of the narratives is this Quran. The best of the affairs is that which has been firmly resolved upon. The worst in religion are those things which are created without sanction. The best of the ways is one trodden by the Prophets. The noblest death is the death of a martyr. The most miserable blindness is the waywardness after guidance. The best of the actions is that which is beneficent. The best guidance is that which is put into practice. The worst blindness is the blindness of the heart.

  The upper hand (the hand that gives) is better than the lower hand (the hand that receives). The little that suffices is better than what is abundant and alluring. The worst apology is that which is tendered when death stares one in the face. The worst remorse is that which is felt on the day of Resurrection.

  Some men come to Friday prayer with hesitance and delay. And some of them remember God with reluctance. The tongue which is addicted to false expression is a bubbling spring of sins.

  The most valuable possession is the contentment of heart. The best provision is that of piety. The highest wisdom is fear of God, the Mighty and the Great. The best thing to be cherished in the hearts is faith and conviction; doubt is infidelity.

  Impatient wailing and fulsome laudation of the dead is an act of ignorance. Betrayal leads one to the fire of Hell. Drinking amounts to burning. Obscene poetry is the work of the devil. Wine is the mother of all evil. The worst thing eaten is one which belongs to the orphan. Blessed is he who receives admonition from others.

  Each one of you must resort to a place of four cubits (grave). Your affairs would be decided ultimately in the next life. The worst dream is false dream. Whatever is in store is near.

  To abuse a believer is transgression; raising arms against him is infidelity. To backbite him is a disobedience of God. Inviolability (and sacredness) of his property is like that of his blood.

  He who swears by God (falsely), in fact falsifies Him. He who pardons others is himself granted pardon. He who forgives others, is forgiven by God for his sins.

  He who represses anger, God rewards him. He who faces misfortunes with perseverance, God compensates him.

O God! Pardon me and my ummah! O God! Pardon me and my ummah! O God! Pardon me and my ummah!

   I seek the forgiveness of God for me and you.”[55]

The Order of the Prophet Regarding Plague

When the Prophet was in Tabuk, he heard that an epidemic of plague occurred in Damascus. Thereupon, he said to his Companions, “If plague occurs in a place where you are, do not leave that place, do not flee; if plague occurs in a place, do not approach that place.”[56]

Plague is an infectious disease. In the past, it was called “Black Death” in Europe because it was terrifying.  The Prophet attracted people’s attention to this disease and stated more than fourteen centuries ago that people had to act cautiously regarding this disease. With his words mentioned above, the Messenger of God indicated “quarantine”, which has an important place in medicine.

The Prophet Consults with his Companions

The Prophet, who stopped in Tabuk, asked the view of his Companions whether to proceed to Damascus or not. 

Hazrat Umar said, “O Messenger of God! If you have been ordered by God to proceed, then proceed.”

The Prophet said, “If I had been given an order by God regarding the issue, I would not have asked about your views.”

Thereupon, Hazrat Umar said,

“O Messenger of God! The Byzantines are very crowded. There is not even one Muslim there. We approached them very much. The fact that we approached them very much probably intimidated them. If you deem it appropriate, we had better return this year, or God will inform you about His order.”[57]

The Messenger of God deemed the view of Hazrat Umar appropriate and did not go beyond Tabuk.

Five Things that were Given to the Prophet Only

The Islamic army was waiting in Tabuk.

After performing tahajjud prayer, the Prophet said to the Companions waiting around him,  

“I was given the following five things that had not been given to the prophets before me:

1) Every Prophet used to be sent to his own nation only but I have been sent to all mankind.

2) The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform tayammum, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due. No prophet before me was granted this privilege. Their nations could perform prayers only in churches and synagogues.

3) The booty has been made halal (lawful) for me yet it was not lawful for any prophet before me.

4) I have been given the right of intercession.

5) I was helped by God by His frightening my enemies from a distance of one month's journey.”[58]

The Prophet Sends Khalid b. Walid to Dumatu’l-Jandal

The Messenger of God, who decided not to go beyond Tabuk, wanted to send Khalid b. Walid with four hundred cavalrymen to Du­ma­tu’l-Jandal, to the King of Kindas, Ukaydir b. Abdul­malik, who was a Christian.

Khalid said, “O Messenger of God! How can I go and find him in such a big country that I do not know very well with such a few people.”

The Messenger of God said, “You will definitely find him while he is hunting oryxes and catch him. When you catch him, do not kill him; bring him to me.”[59]

Thereupon, Khalid proceeded to Du­ma­tu’l-Jandal, one of the towns of Damascus nearest to Madinah. When he arrived there, he saw Ukaydir hunting oryxes as the Messenger of God had said and caught him;[60]then, he took him and his brother to the Messenger of God. The Prophet invited them to be Muslims but they did not accept it. However, they agreed to pay jizyah. Thereupon, they were not killed. Then, they left Tabuk and returned to their land.[61]

The King of Eilat Comes to the Prophet

Before the Prophet left Tabuk, Yuhanna b. Ru’ba, the King of Eilat[62]came to the presence of the Prophet and said he wanted to make peace. The Prophet and Yuhanna signed a treaty.[63]

The Prophet had the following written for Yuhanna and the people of Eilat:


This is a writing of security for Yuhanna b. Ru’ba and the people of Eilat that are on ships in the sea and walk on the earth:

Both they and the people of Damascus, Yemen and the sea that are together with them are under the protection of God and Muhammad, His Messenger. Their goods will not save them when any of them commits a bad deed. It is not permissible to prevent anyone from obtaining water, following any route in the sea or on the land. 

This was written by Juhaym b. Salt and Shurahbil b. Ha­sa­na by the permission of Messenger of God.”[64]

Treaty with the People of Jarbah and Adhruh

While the Islamic army was in Tabuk, the people of Jarbah and Adhruh, who were Jews, asked for security by paying jizyah. The Prophet accepted their offer. A treaty stating that they were given security and protection was signed.[65]

A Piece of Food Becomes Enough for the Army

The army was getting ready to leave Tabuk. Meanwhile, some Companions went to the Prophet and said that some mujahids ran out of food and that they were having difficulty. They said, “O Messenger of God! Will you let us slaughter the camels that carry our water and eat their flesh?”

The Prophet said, “All right! You are allowed.”

Thereupon, they started to make preparations to slaughter the camels.

Meanwhile, Hazrat Umar came. He asked them not to slaughter the camels. Then, he went to the presence of the Messenger of God and said, “O Messenger of God! Did you let them slaughter the camels that people ride on?”

The Prophet said, “They complained me about lack of food. So, I let them.”

Hazrat Umar said, “O Messenger of God! If the mujahids act like that, there will be no camels left to ride on. Tell them to bring the food that they have. Put them together and pray for abundance on them. God will accept your prayer and increase them.”

The Messenger of God said, “All right!”

The mujahids brought the food that they had and put them on a leather cloth that the Prophet put on the ground. Some of them brought a handful of dates; some brought a handful of flour; others bought a handful of millet, etc. 

The food items on the cloth were not very much. They probably weighed three sa’s  (3.120 grams) or less.

The Prophet stood up, made wudu, performed a two-rak’ah prayer and prayed God Almighty to increase the food. Then, he said to his Companions, “Fill your plates.”

Everybody filled their plates; no plate was empty. They ate the food on the cloth until they became full. Then, they saw that the same amount of food was still present on the cloth.[66]

Leaving Tabuk

After staying in Tabuk for twenty days, the Prophet set off from Tabuk toward Madinah.[67]

Ammar b. Yasir was holding the halter of the Prophet’s camel. Huzayfa b. Yaman was behind, riding the camel.

Meanwhile, the Messenger of God was informed by God Almighty that a group of munafiqs would try to assassinate him at night. Therefore, the Messenger of God was watching out and acting carefully.

He saw through darkness that a group was coming toward him. They were the munfiqs that planned the assassination. They planned to attack the Prophet in the narrow pass ahead.

The Prophet ordered Huzayfa to scatter them. Huzayfa walked against them, shouting, “O enemies of God!” They were scared, ran away and joined the ranks of the army.[68]

When Usad b. Khudayr found out that the munafiqs attempted such an assassination, he got furious. He asked the Prophet to allow him to kill the munafiqs in the army. The Messenger of God said, “I do not want people to say, ‘After the war with the polytheists ended, Muhammad started to kill his Companions.’”

Usad b. Khudayr said, “O Messenger of God! They are not your Companions.”

The Messenger of God said, “Since they express that they are Muslims by uttering kalima ash-shahada, we cannot touch them.”[69]

Masjid ad-Dirar

When the Prophet was getting ready for the Expedition of Tabuk, a group of Quban munafiqs went to the presence of the Messenger of God and said, “O Messenger of God! We built a mosque for the people who cannot walk far on rainy and cold nights and for ill people. We want you to come and lead a prayer in our mosque.”[70]

What they said seemed to be the expression of an innocent intention. However, the intention that they concealed was something bad. Their aim was to divide the Islamic congregation even if it was in a small scale, to attract some people from the Quba Mosque to the mosque that they built and to try to abuse them. Abu Amir Rahib Abdi Amr, whom the Prophet had described as an obvious sinner[71], promised to help them. He said, “Build a mosque and stock as many weapons as you can in it. I will go to the Byzantine Emperor. I will bring soldiers here and expel Muhammad and his Companions from Madinah.”[72]

However, the Messenger of God did not know about their evil intentions. Therefore, he had said to them, “Now, I am about to go on the Expedition of Tabuk. If we return from Tabuk and if God wills, I will lead a prayer in your mosque.”[73]

Their real aim to invite the Messenger of God was to make their mosque holy and legitimate. If they managed it, it would be better for them to attract people there and to abuse them.

Was such a mosque really necessary?

No... However, the munafiqs needed such a place of gathering in order to spread their views of mischief.

The Expedition of Tabuk ended. The Prophet was returning to Madinah with his Companions. When they approached Madinah, the munafiqs asked the Prophet to keep his promise about their mosque.[74]

However, God Almighty did not allow them to realize their evil intentions; He informed His Messenger about their real intentions by sending down the following verses:

“And there are those who put up a mosque by way of mischief and infidelity― to disunite the Believers and in preparation for one who warred against God and His Messenger aforetime. They will indeed swear that their intention is nothing but good; but God doth declare that they are certainly liars.

Never stand thou forth therein. There is a mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on piety; it is more worthy of thy standing forth (for prayer) therein. In it are men who love to be purified; and God loveth those who make themselves pure.

Which then is best?― he that layeth his foundation on piety to God and His Good pleasure?― or he that layeth his foundation on an undermined sand-cliff ready to crumble to pieces? And it doth crumble to pieces with him, into the fire of Hell. And God guideth not people that do wrong.

The foundation of those who so build is never free from suspicion and shakiness in their hearts until their hearts, are cut to pieces. And God is All-Knowing Wise.”[75]

Thereupon, the Prophet called Malik b. Duh­shum and Asim b. Adiyy and gave them the following order:

“Go to that mosque, whose people are oppressors; demolish it and burn it down.”[76]

The order of the Prophet was fulfilled immediately. The mosque which is described as “Masjid ad-Dirar (Mosque of Harm)” was demolished and burned down.[77]

Approaching Madinah...

While the Messenger of God was approaching Madinah, he said to his Companions, “There are such people in Madinah that they are regarded to have been with you anywhere you went and any valley you walked through.”

The Companions were astonished; they asked, “O Messenger of God! How can they be regarded to be with us when they were in Madinah?”

The Prophet explained the issue: “They remained in Madinah due to their excuses. Does God not say the following in His book?”: ‘Nor should the Believers all go forth together: if a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when they return to them― that thus they (may learn) to guard themselves (against evil).’ (at-Tawba, 122) I swear by God, in whose hand of power my existence is that their prayers are more effective than our weapons on the enemy.”[78]

Love of Uhud

While approaching Madinah, the Messenger of God looked at Mount Uhud and said, “There is Mount Uhud. It loves us and we love it.”[79]

Meeting in Thaniyyatu’l-Wada

When the Muslims in Madinah heard that the Prophet was coming, they all went up the hill called Thaniyyatu’l-Wada to meet him. The women and children had the joy of seeing the Messenger of God again. They expressed this feeling by saying, “The white moon rose over usfrom the valley of al-Wada / And we owe it to show gratefulnesswhere the call is to God.”[80]

Arriving in Madinah

Finally, the Messenger of God arrived in Madinah with his army after a tiring journey in the month of Ramadan.[81]

Great Victory

The Islamic army did not confront anybody in Tabuk. However, it was a great success for the Islamic army to cover such a distance under very hard circumstances and to attempt to confront the enemy. This expedition was also a clear challenge to the Byzantine Empire, one of the biggest states of that time. The fact that the challenge was not responded was very significant. This showed that there was no power to face the power of Islam.   

Three People for whom the Earth Seemed Narrow

Ka’b b. Malik, Murara b. Rabi’ and Hilal b. Umayya were three sincere and sound Muslims. However, they did not join the army for the Expedition of Tabuk and remained in Madinah due to their negligence; they did not have any legitimate excuses. 

Ka’b b. Malik was a poet from the tribe of Khazraj of Ansar. He was one of the three poets that joined the Pledge of Aqaba. He recited heroic poets that aroused heroism.[82]Before the Expedition of Tabuk, he had joined all of the battles except the Battle of Badr. On the day of Uhud, when there was a tumult and everything was in a mess, he recognized the Messenger of God from his bright eyes under his helmet and called out to the Companions to gather around the Messenger of God. He received eleven wounds on that day.[83]

Murara b. Rabi’ and Hilal b. Umayya were two companions from the People of Badr; they had high ethics and virtues.[84]

Why did They not Join?

Ka’b b. Malik, one of those three people, narrates the reason why he remained in Madinah as follows: 

“...The Messenger of God fought that war (the Expedition of Tabuk) at the time when the fruits had ripened and the shade looked pleasant. God's Messenger and his Companions prepared for the battle.

I started to go out in order to get myself ready along with them, but I returned without doing anything. I would say to myself, 'I can do that.' So I kept on delaying it every now and then till the people got ready and the Messenger of God and the Muslims along with him departed, and I had not prepared anything for my departure, and I said, ‘I will prepare myself for departure one or two days after him, and then join them.'

In the morning following their departure, I went out to get myself ready but returned having done nothing. Then, again in the next morning, I went out to get ready but returned without doing anything. Such was the case with me till they hurried away and the battle was missed (by me). Even then, I intended to depart to take them over. I wish I had done so! However, I could not do it.”[85]

The situation of the other two Companions was no different. They did not remain behind with bad intentions. They acted neglectfully and remained behind. This situation caused them to experience a hard test and trouble.

They Go to the Prophet to Seek Forgiveness

When the Messenger of God was in his mosque, those three Companions came and asked for forgiveness. They stated clearly why they had remained behind. 

Ka’b b. Malik narrates the time when they asked for forgiveness as follows:

“The Messenger of God arrived in the morning, and whenever he returned from a journey, he used to visit the Mosque first of all and offer a two-rak'ah prayer therein and then sit for the people.

So when he had done all that (this time), those who had failed to join the battle of Tabuk came and started offering (false) excuses and taking oaths before him. They were something over eighty men; God's Apostle accepted the excuses they had expressed, took their pledge of allegiance asked for God's Forgiveness for them, and left the secrets of their hearts for God to judge.

Then I came to him, and when I greeted him, he smiled a smile of an angry person and then said, 'Come on.'

So, I came walking till I sat before him.

He said to me, 'What stopped you from joining us. Had you not taken part in the Pledge of Aqaba?’

I said, ‘Yes, O Messenger of God! I promised to help you at any rate.

 O Messenger of God! By God, if I were sitting before any person from among the people of the world other than you, I would have avoided his anger with an excuse. By God, I have been bestowed with the power of speaking fluently and eloquently, but by God, I knew well that if today I tell you a lie to seek your favor, God would surely make you angry with me in the near future, but if I tell you the truth, though you will get angry because of it, I hope for God's Forgiveness. Really, by God, there was no excuse for me. By God, I had never been stronger or wealthier than I was when I remained behind you.”[86]

After this talk of Ka’b, the Messenger of God said, “As regards this man, he has surely told the truth. So get up till God decides your case.”[87]

The other two Companions spoke like Ka’b. The Prophet told them to go and wait until God sends down a verdict about them.[88]

Prohibition of Talking

The Messenger of God forbade all the Muslims to talk to those three people until God sent His verdict to him through revelation.[89]

Upon this prohibition, everybody was keeping away from them. The people they wanted to talk to, even their relatives, did not want to talk to them; they did not even respond when they greeted them. From then on, the earth seemed narrow to them despite all its spaciousness and it started to depress their souls and squeeze their hearts. 

Ka’b b. Malik describes this depressing and troublesome state as follows:

“My two fellows remained in their houses and kept on weeping, but I was the youngest of them and the firmest of them, so I used to go out and witness the prayers along with the Muslims and roam about in the markets, but none would talk to me, and I would come to the Messenger of God and greet him while he was sitting in his gathering after the prayer, and I would wonder whether the Prophet moved his lips in return to my greetings or not.

Then I would offer my prayer near him and look at him stealthily. When I was busy with my prayer, he would turn his face towards me, but when I turned my face to him, he would turn his face away from me.”[90]

Yes, those three Companions were undergoing such a painful and exemplary test. Ka’b, who saw that nobody wanted to talk to him, went to Abu Qatada, his cousin, and greeted him. Abu Qatada did not reply his greeting. How could Abu Qatada reply the greeting of someone that the Messenger of God did not reply? It does not matter whether he was a close relative or a brother.   This shows the love and loyalty of the Companions to the Messenger of God.

Ka’b b. Malik, said to Abu Qatada, who did not reply his greeting, “O Abu Qatada! I beseech you by God! You know how much I love God and His Messenger.”

Abu Qatada kept quiet. Ka’b asked him again but he remained silent. When  I asked for the third time, he said, "God and His Messenger know it better.”

When Ka’b received this answer from Abu Qatada, his uncle, whom he loved very much, started to cry and left that place crying.[91]

The Letter from Jabala to Ka’b

Ka’b and his friends were still being boycotted by the Messenger of God and the Muslims when Ka’b received a letter from Jabala b. Ayham, the Christian ruler of Ghassans. The following was written in the letter:

"I have been informed that your friend (the Prophet) has treated you harshly. God does not let you live at a place where you feel inferior and your right is lost. Do not stay there; join us; we will treat you respectfully as you deserve."[92]

When Ka’b read the letter, he said to himself, 'This is also a sort of a test.' Then, he tore the letter into pieces and burned it down;[93]Thus, he showed his loyalty to the Messenger of God.

Another Prohibition…

The test of Ka’b and the two Companions got more severe after forty days passed. The Messenger of God sent them the following message: 

“Do not approach your wives.”[94]

When Ka’b received this order, he said to his wife, “Go to your parents’ house and remain with them till God gives His verdict in this matter.”[95]

Ka’b b. Malik and the other two Companions, Murara b. Rabi’ and Hilal b. Umayya, were undergoing a tough test and their loyalty to God and His Messenger was being measured. As it was seen, they clearly showed the loyalty that fitted them.

The Insight in the Woman Companion

Hilal b. Umayya, one of those three people, were too old to look after himself. He always cried due to the boycott. He did not eat or drink anything. He only drank very little water or milk.

When he was informed about the order of the Prophet, his wife went to the presence of the Messenger of God and said,

“O Messenger of God! Hilal b. Umayya is too old to look after himself. There is nobody else to look after him. Will you let me serve him and look after him?”

The Messenger of God said, “You can look after him without letting him approach you.”[96]

The woman said, “O Messenger of God! By God, he cannot move toward me or anything else. By God, he has been crying since the day he was boycotted; I fear that he will be blind.”[97]

The Expected Verdict

The suffering of the three Companions ended on the fiftieth day. God Almighty sent His verdict about them through the following verse:

“(God turned in mercy also) to the three who were left behind: (they felt guilty) to such a degree that the earth seemed constrained to them, for all its speciousness and their (very) souls seemed straitened to them― and they perceived that there is no fleeing from God (and no refuge) but to Himself. Then He turned to them, that they might repent: for God is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.”[98]

They are Given the Good News!

When God Almighty stated that he forgave those three Companions, their painful and tough test that lasted for fifty days ended.

After performing the morning prayer, the Messenger of God told his Companions that God Almighty accepted the repentance of those three people.

Thereupon, Zubayr b. Awwam mounted his horse and rode very fast to give the good news to  Ka’b b. Malik, Murara b. Rabi’ and Hilal b. Umayya.

Meanwhile, Ka’b was sitting in his house. Just then, Zubayr came and gave him the good news; he prostrated. All of his troubles disappeared. His small house became as wide as the world. The distress in his spirit was replaced by relief and joy. He took off his garment and dressed Zubayr with it due to his joy.[99]

When Hilal b. Umayya heard that his repentance was accepted, he prostrated at once. He did not get up for a long time. The Companion who gave him the good news said, 

“I thought he was going to die due to his joy.”

Murara b. Rabi was given the good news by another Companion.

Ka’b in the Presence of the Prophet

Ka’b b. Malik wanted to learn that his repentance was accepted from the Messenger of God himself. Therefore, he started to walk toward the mosque of the Prophet. The people who saw him said, “O Ka’b! We congratulate you on God's Acceptance of your repentance.”

Ka’b entered the mosque and kneeled down before the Messenger of God.  The face of the Messenger of God was bright with joy. He replied Ka’b’s greeting with a smile. Then, he said, “Be happy with the best day that you have got ever since your mother delivered you.”

Ka’b said, “O Messenger of God! Is this forgiveness from you or from God?'

The Prophet said, “It is directly from God.”[100]

Ka’b, who was relieved of the stress, was very happy. He said, “O Messenger of God!  Because of the acceptance of my repentance, I will give up all my wealth as alms for the sake of God and His Messenger.”

The Prophet said, “Keep some of your wealth, as it will be better for you.”[101]


[1]Ibn Sa’d, Tabaqat, Vol. 2, p. 165.

[2]Ibn Hisham, Sirah, Vol. 4, p. 159; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.

[3]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.

[4]Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 5, p. 615.

[5]One dirham is three grams.

[6]Tirmidhi, ibid, Vol. 5, p. 615.

[7]Tirmidhi, ibid, Vol. 5, p. 615; Ibn Athir, Usdu’l Ghaba, Vol. 3, p. 327.

[8]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 161.

[9]Tabari, Tafsir, Vol. 10, p. 197.

[10]Ibn Athir, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 315-316.

[11]Tabari, ibid, Vol. 10, p. 194-195.

[12]Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, Vol. 2, p. 500.

[13]Ibn Kathir, Sirah, Vol. 4, p. 9.

[14]Waqidi, Maghazi, Vol. 3, p. 991-992.

[15]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 161; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.

[16]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 161; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.

[17]at-Tawba, 92.

[18]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 161-162.

[19]Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1041.

[20]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 160.

[21]at-Tawba, 81.

[22]at-Tawba, 49.

[23]at-Tawba, 45.

[24]at-Tawba, 47.

[25]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 162; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 166.

[26]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 162; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 165.

[27]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 24.

[28]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 24; Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 3, p. 86.

[29]When Hazrat Musa went to the mount Sina, he left his brother Harun to rule and look after his tribe.   

[30]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 24; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 86.

[31]It is stated that the Messenger of God gave the biggest standard to Hazrat Abu Bakr in his last expedition because he wanted to indicate that Abu Bakr would be the first Caliph after his death.

[32]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 163.

[33]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 163; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 24-25.

[34]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 163; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 24.

[35]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 163; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 25.

[36]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 162; Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 3, p. 143.

[37]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 167; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 145.

[38]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 167; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, Vol. 4, p. 64.

[39]at-Tawba, 34.

[40]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 233-234.

[41]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 168; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 235.

[42]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 165.

[43]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 165; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 90; Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 2286.

[44]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 164-165; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 144.

[45]Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 16.

[46]Ibn Qayyim, Zadu’l-Maad, Vol. 1, p. 156.

[47]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 165; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 144; Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 16.

[48]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 166.

[49]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 166.

[50]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 166.

[51]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 167; Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 16-17.

[52]Qadi Iyad, ash-Shifa, Vol. 1, p. 650-651.

[53]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 163; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 144.

[54]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 163; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 144.

[55]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 3, p. 37; Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 23-25.

[56]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 416; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 1737-1738.

[57]Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 119.

[58]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 304, Vol. 5, p. 248; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 70; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 370; Nesaî, Sunan, Vol. 1, p. 210-211.

[59]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 169-170; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 146.

[60]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 170; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 146.

[61]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 170; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 146.

[62]Eilat is one of the first Jewish cities. It was named after Eilat, one of the grandchildren of Ibrahim (pbuh). It is the end of Hejaz and the beginning of Damascus.

[63]Ibn Sayyid, Uyunu’l-Athar, Vol. 2, p. 221.

[64]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 289.

[65]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 169; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 289-290.

[66]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 11; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 1, p. 57; Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 17.

[67]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 170; Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 168; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 147.

[68]Ibn Kathir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 36.

[69]Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1043-1044.

[70]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 174; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 147.

[71]Abu Amir was a relative of Abdullah b. Ubay b. Salul, the leader of the munafiqs. During the Era of Jahiliyyah, he acted like a priest. When Muhammad (pbuh) was sent as a prophet, he started to envy the Prophet. When the Prophet migrated to Madinah, he went to Makkah with some men that he gathered. During the Battle of Badr, he fought against the Muslims. The Prophet named him as “obvious sinner”. After the conquest of Makkah, he went to Damascus.  

[72]Ibn Qayyim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 12.

[73]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 174; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 147.

[74]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 174; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 147.

[75]at-Tawba, 107-110.

[76]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 174; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 147.

[77]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 174; Tabari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 147.

[78]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 168; Waqidi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 1056-1057; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 341; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Vol. 3, p. 12.

[79]Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 5, p. 425; Muslim, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 1011.

[80]Ibn Qayyim, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 12; Halabi, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 123.

[81]Ibn Sa’d, ibid, Vol. 2, p. 167.

[82]Ibn Athir, Usdu’l Ghaba, Vol. 4, p. 248; Ibn Hajar, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 302.

[83]Ibn Athir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 247.

[84]Ibn Athir, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 343.

[85]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 176; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 87.

[86]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 177; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 87-88.

[87]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 177; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[88]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 177; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[89]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 177; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[90]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 178; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[91]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 178; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 458; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[92]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 179; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 458; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[93]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 179; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[94]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 179; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[95]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 179; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[96]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 179; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 458; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[97]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 179; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 458; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 88.

[98]At-Tawba, 118.

[99]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 180; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 89.

[100]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 180; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 89.

[101]Ibn Hisham, ibid, Vol. 4, p. 180; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 459; Bukhari, ibid, Vol. 3, p. 89.

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