What is Wudu (Ablution)?
It is a special cleaning performed by washing the face, arms, and feet, and by wiping the head.
Wudu has several material and spiritual benefits. A Muslim who makes wudu at least 5 times a day forms a habit of cleaning, which protects him from causes of illnesses and purifies him of microbes. They are material benefits of wudu. Wudu has several spiritual benefits, too.
The Prophet (pbuh) addressed Anas bin Malik as follows: "Make your wudu properly and fully so that the guardian (hafaza) angels will love you and your life will be lengthened."
Wudu gives light to the face and joy to the heart. It is a means of forgiveness for minor sins. The Messenger of Allah expresses it as follows:
"If a person makes wudu as it is ordered and performs prayers as they are ordered, his minor sins are forgiven."
Wudu is a spiritual weapon of a believer. He protects himself from bad feelings and desires. He gets rid of the effect of the delusions and negative feelings that attack his mind as long as he has wudu.
People who have wudu are often protected and kept away from the evil of dirty and evil beings thanks to wudu.
It is stated in a hadith that it is possible for a person who dies when he has wudu to attain the rank of martyrdom.
It is certain as it is expressed by some hadiths that the wudu organs of believers will be bright, beautiful and luminous. It is a property that was not given to other ummahs.
Wudu was rendered fard by verse 6 of the chapter of al-Maida.
The following three conditions are necessary for a valid wudu:
1. Clean water must penetrate and cover the skin. That is, all of the surfaces of the organs necessary to be washed must be wetted. Otherwise, wudu will not be valid. The Prophet stated the following about the people who do not wet their heels while making wudu. "Woe on those heels in Hell!"
2. The elimination of that states that invalidate wudu; that is, the end of menstruation and puerperum. Leakage of urine and blood is also a state that invalidates wudu. A person must not make wudu before the leakage of urine or blood ends. If they leak continuously, it is regarded as an excuse. What is mentioned above is for those who do not have any excuses. Therefore, one must not make wudu immediately after urinating before the leakage stops.
Even very little leakage after making wudu invalidates wudu.
3. Scraping off the things like wax, oil, dough, glue, etc that prevent water from penetrating the skin.
There are four principles (fards) of wudu:
1 – Washing the face once.
2 – Washing the hands and the arms including the elbows once.
3 – Washing the feet including the heels once.
4 – To wipe one-fourth of the head.
It is fard to wash the arms, face and feet, the organs stated above, at least once.
It is sunnah to wash them three times.
The part of the face to be washed in wudu is the part from the top part of the head where hair grows to the bottom of the chin vertically and the part between the two earlobes horizontally. The hairless area between the starting place of beard and the ears is regarded as part of the face, hence it needs to be washed.
It is necessary to wash the skin at the bottom of the beard for the people with hirtellous beard. Those with bushy beard do not have to wash the skin at the bottom of their beard. It is enough for them to wet their beard.
Is it necessary to wash the inside of the eyes and the skin under the eyebrows and mustache?
No, it is not. It is not necessary to wash the inside of the eyes. Therefore, those who wear lenses do not have to remove their lenses when they make wudu. It is enough to wet the eyebrows and the mustache hairs. The skin under them does not have to be wetted.
However, it is necessary to wet the skin under the eyebrows and the mustache to wet while making ghusl.
Mash (wipe) lexically means to move the hand on something. It also means to wipe.
In religious terminology, it means to touch a place with wetness that has not been used anywhere else. The place that is touched can be the head, the khuffs worn on the feet or a wrapping on a wound. What matters is that the wetness should not be used anywhere else before. For instance, the wetness remaining after washing the arms cannot be used in order to wipe the head. For, this wetness was used on the arm. It is necessary to wet the hand again before the head is wiped. (However, it is permissible to wipe the arms with the wetness remaining from the head.)
The amount of the head that is fard to be wiped is one-fourth of it. The Messenger of Allah wiped the upper part of his forehead, that is, the front part of his head. Therefore, it is sunnah to wipe the front part of the face. However, any part of the head can be wiped as long as one-fourth of the head is wiped and the part below the ears is not wiped. For, the part of the head that can be wiped is the part over the two ears. If any one-fourth of that part is wiped, mash is all right.
* If a person lacks one or more wudu organs, he is exempted from washing it/them. However, if an organ is cut off but some part of it exists, the existing part needs to washed. For instance, a person whose hand is cut off needs to wash his hand up to his elbows. If his arm is cut off completely, he is exempted from washing it.
* If a person definitely knows that he has made wudu but doubts whether he has broken it, he is regarded to have wudu. For, certain knowledge is not removed by doubt. If the opposite is in question, that is, if a person knows that he has broken his wudu but doubts whether he has made wudu after it, he is regarded not to have wudu.
* If a person doubts during wudu or after it whether he has washed some organs, he needs to was those organs unless he is a person with delusions. If he is a person with delusions, his doubt is not taken into consideration. His wudu is regarded to be complete.
The paint left on the nails of a painter does not invalidate his wudu due to necessity. However, paints that form a layer on the nails and that prevent water from penetrating but that are not used due to a necessity prevent the validity of wudu.
* The inside of a boil which has improved but whose skin has not come off yet is not washed.
* If fingers have stuck to one another due to a temporary reason, or if a long nail has been curved inwards and covered the finger tip, or if one or some of the wudu organs have been covered with something that prevents water from penetrating the skin like, wax, dough, glue, oil paint, etc, they have to be removed.
* The dirt in the nail and on the body, the dirt caused by fleas and houseflies do not prevent wudu.
* If there is a tight ring on the finger, it is necessary to move it and allow water to pass under it.
* If hairy places are shaved after making wudu or ghusl, those places do not have to be washed or wiped again.
* If nails are clipped, mustache is trimmed and skin is raised after wudu, wudu is not invalidated.
Primary sunnahs of wudu are as follows:
1 - To wash the hands up to the wrists first if they are clean while starting wudu. If they are not clean, it is fard to wash them because they are the organs of cleaning. They need to be washed first lest they should make other organs dirty.
2 - To start wudu by uttering audhu- basmala... It is necessary to utter basmala at the beginning of wudu while washing the hands. If one forgets it and utters it later when he remembers, this sunnah is not regarded to have fulfilled. For, wudu is not like eating. Wudu is a single deed as a whole but in eating, every morsel is a separate deed. Even if basmala is forgotten at the beginning of a meal and it is remembered later, this sunnah is regarded to have been fulfilled.
It is stated in a hadith that if basmala is not uttered at the beginning of wudu, it is not regarded as complete wudu.
The following is stated in another hadith: "All parts of the body of a person become pure and clean if he makes wudu with basmala. If he does not utter basmala, only the wudu organs become clean."
* According to Hanbalis, it is wajib to utter basmala at the beginning of wudu. If it is abandoned deliberately, wudu is invalidated. If a person forgets to utter basmala, wudu is not invalidated but its reward decreases.
In fact, basmala, "is the beginning of all good deeds". It is necessary to utter this holy word not only at the beginning of worship like wudu and prayer but also every good and legitimate deed. As a matter of fact, it is stated in a hadith that all of the deeds that start with the name of Allah will be away from and lack goodness and bless.
3 - To have niyyah (intention).
Niyyah is necessary before or while washing the hands and the face. What is meant by niyyah is to know by heart and be aware that one is making wudu. Even if niyyah is not uttered by the tongue, the existence of the wish of niyyah in the heart is enough.
* According to Malikis and Shafiis, it is fard to have niyyah at the beginning of wudu. According to Shafiis, it is necessary to do it while washing the face. According to Hanbalis, niyyah is a condition for the validity of wudu. Wudu without niyyah is not valid.
4 - To use misvak, that is, to clean the teeth at the beginning of wudu.
If a person does not have any teeth or cannot use a miswak or a brush due to an illness in his gum, if a person does not have a brush or miswak, he needs to wash his gum by rubbing it with his thumb and index finger.
According to the statement of the Messenger of Allah, a prayer performed with wudu made by using a miswak is 70 times more virtuous than a prayer performed with wudu made without using a miswak.
Chewing gum for women when they are not fasting is regarded like miswak.
5 - To make Madmadah three times and istinshaq three times.
Madmadah means to fill the mouth with water, move this water in the mouth, wet the mouth and spit the water out of the mouth.
Istinshaq means to sniff water into the nose and make it reach soft parts.
It is not necessary to take water into the nose by breathing in. Making water flow into the nose is enough. Madmadah and istinshaq are sunnah al-muakkadah. Madmadah is performed before istinshaq. Both of them need to be performed three times. New water needs to be put into the mouth and the nose each time. If one of those issues is abandoned, this sunnah is not regarded to have been fulfilled.
Madmadah and istinshaq, which are sunnah in wudu, are fard in ghusl.
6 - To exaggerate madmadah and istinshaq...
That is, to send water up to the throat in Madmadah and up to the hard part of the nose. A person who is fasting should not exaggerate because water may go down the throat and invalidate the fast.
7 - To make wudu in a regular order.
That is to wash the face first, the arms after that, to wipe the head and then to wash the feet. Wudu becomes valid even if this order is not observed but a sunnah is abandoned.
According to Shafiis and Hanbalis, it is fard to observe the order.
8 - To start from the right.
That is to wash the right arm and foot first, and the left arm and foot after that. This sunnah is valid for the double organs.
9 - To wash three times.
That is, to wash each organ of wudu three times with three separate handful of water. The first washing is fard and the others are sunnah.
10 - To start washing the hands from the fingertips and the feet from the toes.
11 - To rub between the fingers and toes while washing the hands.
The places between the fingers of the unwashed hand are rubbed by the fingers of the washed hands.
The fingers of the hands are used in order to rub between the toes of the feet. The best way to rub between the toes is to start rubbing the little toe of the right foot and ending with the little toe of the left foot. Even if the feet are dipped in running water, it is mustahsan to rub between the toes.
12 - After the face is washed three times, it is necessary to put fingers among the beard under the chin with a handful of water.
The fingers are put in the bottom among the hairs of the beard and drawn upwards.
13 - To wipe the whole head by wetting the hand once. It is performed as follows:
Both hands are wetted completely. Then, the little and ring fingers of these hands are combined and placed on the front part of the head by making the finger tips touch one another. These fingers are drawn from the front part of the head to the nape. Then, the palms of both hands are placed on the sides of the head and they are drawn from the nape to the front part of the head.
14 - To wipe the ears.
There is no need to use new water to wipe the ears. The ears are wiped by the same wetness. The outside and back of the ears are wiped by the thumbs and the inside of the ears are wiped by the index finger. The little fingers are put in the hollow and moved a bit.
* According to Hanbalis, it is fard to wipe the inside of the ears because they regard the ears as part of the head.
* According to Shafiis, it is sunnah to wipe the head three times.
15 - To wipe the nape by the back sides of the hands.
The throat is not wiped. The neck is wiped with the wetness at the back of the hands without wetting it again.
16 - To rub the wudu organs as water falls on them.
17 - To wash the wudu organs without any interruptions.
That is, an organ needs to be washed before another organ dries. (It is called "wila" or "muwalat".) However, if an organ that is washed dries immediately due to hot weather, this sunnah is regarded to have fulfilled.
* According to Malikis, muwalat is fard.
The mustahabs (adabs) of wudu are as follows: If they are done, rewards are received. If they are not done, no blaming or punishment is in question.
1 - To stand in a high place in order to protect oneself from the splashing of water while making wudu.
2 - To turn toward the qiblah while making wudu .
3 - Not to ask help from anybody while making wudu. That is, to try to make wudu on one's own without the help of anybody unless one is ill or needs the help of others due to an excuse. If somebody helps a person voluntarily without being asked, there is no drawback to it. It does not violate adabs. As a matter of fact, it is written in hadith books that some Companions poured water out of a pitcher for the Messenger of Allah and received his dua though the Messenger of Allah did not ask help from them. This shows that there is no drawback to accepting the voluntary help of others like preparing water for wudu and pouring it.
4 - Not to talk while making wudu unless it is necessary. For, worldly talk prevents a person from reading wudu supplications.
5 - To intend to make wudu by the tongue along with the heart and to remember this intention (niyyah) throughout wudu.
6 - To utter basmala separately for each organ that is washed and to read wudu supplications reported from salaf. If a person does not know these supplications, he can utter salawat for the Messenger of Allah.
7 - To move the ring which is not tight and which allows the water under. If the ring is tight, it must be moved.
8 - To put water in the mouth and the nose through the right hand.
9 - To throw the water out of the nose using the left hand.
10 - Not to use water extravagantly or too thriftily while making wudu. That is, not to waste and not to act stingily.
Once the Messenger of Allah saw Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, one of the Companions, making wudu by using a lot of water. He said to him,
- What is this extravagance? Thereupon, Sa'd asked in astonishment: "Is there extravagance in wudu?"
Thereupon, the Prophet answered him as follows:
- Yes. Even if you make wudu near a river, it will regarded as israf (waste) if you spend too much water."
11 - To make wudu before the time for a prayer starts or to try to have wudu all the time except for an excused person.
It is very virtuous to make wudu before the time for a prayer starts because this prepares a person spiritually for worship and makes him turn to worship with his heart.
To have wudu all the time is a means of attaining great rewards and spiritual benefits. For, such a person can do any righteous deeds that need to be done by having wudu anywhere and anytime. He can perform prayers in congregation, perform supererogatory prayers and janazah prayers and can hold the Quran (mushaf) anytime. In short, it becomes possible to do all kinds of righteous deeds thanks to having wudu. Besides, if he dies when he has wudu, it is hoped that he will attain the rank of martyrdom.
It is stated in a hadith that angels always ask forgiveness for a person who has wudu all the time and goes to bed having wudu.
It is narrated that seven good qualities are granted to a person who has wudu all the time:
* Angels like his talk and visit him.
* The pen always writes rewards for him.
* All of the organs of that person glorify Allah.
* He always goes to the mosque and does not miss the congregation.
* Angels protect him from the harmful things that can hit him in the dark.
* During the time of death, he dies easily.
* He is protected by Allah Almighty.
12 - To make wudu though one has wudu. It is stated in a hadith that if a person makes wudu though he has wudu, he will be given ten rewards.
13 - To turn toward the qibla at the end of wudu and utter kalima ash-shahadah, and to pray as follows:
"Allahumma'j'alni minattawwabina wa'j'alni mina'l-mutatahhirin (O Allah! Make me among those who repent and purify themselves." (*)
14 - Not to make wudu with water heated under the sun. It is said that invisible harmful rays in the sun will penetrate into water and that it will harm the health of the person who makes wudu with it.
15 - (For those who make wudu with a pitcher) not to leave the pitcher empty and to fill it for the next wudu. It is said that this will enable a person to make Satan give up hope of delaying his prayer.
16 - To read the chapter of al-Qadr after uttering kalima ash-shahada at the end of wudu.
17 - To exaggerate while washing the arms, face and feet. That is, to wash the arms up to the shoulders, to wash the feet up to the knees and to wash the face down to the neck. The reason for this exaggeration is that the faces and wudu organs of the ummah of Muhammad will be bright and luminous on the Day of Judgment. This is something given to the Islamic ummah only.
It is recommended in a hadith to exaggerate while washing the organs of wudu in order to increase this brightness, luminosity and whiteness:
"Doubtlessly, my ummah will turn up with luminous faces and white wudu organs on the Day of Judgment due to the traces of wudu. Increase this luminosity and whiteness if you can."
18 - To perform a two-rak'ah prayer after wudu if it is not time of karahah.
Everything that is contrary to the sunnahs and adabs of wudu is regarded as makruh. Primary makruhs of wudu are as follows:
1 - To waste water; to use more than necessary water.
2 - To decrease the amount of water; that is, to wash an organ with very little water as if wiping it.
3 - To wash the organs by splashing water against them.
4 - To talk unnecessarily while making wudu.
5 - To ask for help while making wudu though there is no necessity.
Once the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was drawing water from a well. When Hz. Umar saw it, he ran toward him to help him. However, the Messenger of Allah stopped him and said.
"O Umar! Stop! I do not want help from anybody for prayer."
However, it is permissible to accept help if there is a necessity or if somebody offers help voluntarily.
1 – Any dirty things, liquid or substance like urine, feces, sperm, madi, blood, etc coming out of urinary tract and anus.
2 – Wind coming out of anus (farting).
3 – Apart from the urinary tract and anus, liquid like blood, pus, yellow water coming from any part of the body. The blood that comes out of the body does not invalidate wudu unless it flows or it diffuses on its own around the place where it comes out of. The pus and yellow water coming out of a wound. If this liquid, which does not diffuse on its own, is wiped, wudu is not invalidated. Blood extracted through cupping and leeches.
As for the liquids other than blood, pus and yellow water, they invalidate wudu if they flow due to an illness. For instance, if a person's eyes water due to an eye illness, his wudu is invalidated. The liquids that come out due to causes other than illnesses do not invalidate wudu. For instance, tears shed due to crying and laughing a lot or liquid coming out of the nose due to cold weather do not invalidate wudu.
Pure water coming out of blisters on the body is like blood and invalidates wudu according to a view. According to another view, it does not invalidate wudu. In the second view, there is great ease for the people who have scabies and smallpox. It is reported from Imam Hulwani that there is no drawback to acting in accordance with this view when there is a necessity. The wetness caused by eczema and the rash between fingers do not invalidate wudu.
*According to Shafiis, liquids like blood, pus, yellow water, etc coming from any organs except the urinary tract and anus do not invalidate wudu
4 – To vomit a mouthful. The thing vomited may be food, water or bile. If a person vomits in small amounts, his wudu is invalidated if it amounts to a mouthful all together.
5 – If a person spits saliva in which blood is more than or equal to water. Which one is more is understood from the color. If it is yellow, water is more; if it is reddish, it is equal; if it is red, blood is more. If water in the saliva is more than blood, wudu is not invalidated. If traces of blood are seen when a person bites a quince, apple, etc, his wudu is not invalidated.
6 – Sleep that makes a person lose his control invalidates wudu whether he sleeps on his sides, on his back, face down or leaning on his elbow. A short nap in which a person can hear the talks around him does not invalidate wudu.
When a person sleeps by leaning on something, his wudu is invalidated if he falls when that thing is removed.
7 – To faint and be unconscious for a short or long time.
8 – To laugh in prayer. To smile and to laugh are different. To laugh is aloud and it is heard. Therefore, it invalidates wudu if one laughs while performing a prayer. When wudu is invalidated, the prayer is also invalidated. To smile is silent; therefore, it does not invalidate prayer or wudu. However, if a person laughs slightly so that only he himself hears it, his prayer is invalidated but his wudu is valid.
* According to Shafiis, wudu is not invalidated even if a person laughs loudly while performing a prayer.
9 – Sexual intercourse or extreme touching and contact. According to Hanafis, if the skins of a woman and man touch each other, their wudu is not invalidated but if they contact each other extremely while they are naked or without any garment that will prevent them from feeling the heat of their bodies, caress, hug each other lustfully, their wudu is invalidated. According to the most of the Hanafi scholars, the criterion for the extreme contact is the hardening of the penis; According to Imam Muhammad, wudu is not invalidated unless some wetness like madi comes out. According to Malikis and Hanbalis, wudu is invalidated if sexual pleasure is felt.
10 – If a person who has made tayammum sees water, his wudu is invalidated.
11 – Wudu of an excused person is invalidated if the time for a prayer ends.
12 – If a person gets drunk by drinking alcohol or taking drug, his wudu is invalidated. It is haram to take intoxicants but the amount that is not enough to make a person drunk does not invalidate wudu.
1 – If blood comes out from anywhere in the body but remains where it is and does not diffuse, it does not invalidate wudu. Wiping this blood with the hand or a piece of cotton does not invalidate wudu.
2 – Blood clot, flesh or skin falling off from a wound.
3 – To touch private parts. There is no difference whether one touches the private parts of a woman or man. Wudu is not invalidated only by touching with the hand.
* According to Shafiis, if a man or woman holds his/her own or others' private parts with the inner part of his /her hand, his/her private parts, his/her wudu is invalidated.
4 – If a man touches any part of a woman other than her private parts, his wudu is not invalidated. However, if he is aroused and wetness called madi occurs, his wudu is invalidated.
* According to Shafiis, if a man touches a non-mahram woman, his wudu is invalidated. If he touches a mahram woman, his wudu is not invalidated.
5 – Vomiting less than a mouthful.
6 – To spit out phlegm. According to Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad, the amount of phlegm is not important.
7 – To sleep by sitting without losing his control, like sleeping cross-legged.
8 – To cry does not invalidate wudu. To laugh does not invalidate wudu except in prayer.
9 – The blood sucked by a flea, mosquito and housefly until they are full.
10 – To smile in prayer.
11 – To clip one's mustache, to have a haircut, to trim one's nails when one has wudu do not invalidate wudu.
12 – According to Malikis, if a person definitely knows that he has made wudu but hesitates whether he has broken his wudu or not, his wudu is invalidated but according to the other three madhhabs, his wudu is not invalidated.
It is more appropriate to act cautiously regarding issues whether wudu is invalidated or not. It is not necessary but it is more appropriate for an imam to make sure that he has wudu according to the other madhhabs, too.
There are three kinds of wudus in terms of religious properties:
1 - Wudus that are fard,
2 - Wudus that are wajib,
3 - Wudus that are mandub.
It is fard to make wudu for a person who has no wudu if he wants to perform a prayer, whether it is a supererogatory prayer or a janazah prayer.
It is also necessary to have wudu to perform a tilawah sajdah and to touch the Quran.
It is wajib to have wudu to circumambulate the Kaaba. If Kaaba is circumambulated without wudu, the circumambulation is valid but it becomes necessary to sacrifice an animal or to give sadaqah based the kind of circumambulation since a wajib is abandoned.
It is wajib to make wudu to touch tafsir books in order to show respect to the Quran.
It is mandub (mustahab) to make wudu regarding several other issues not mentioned above. Some of them are as follows:
* It is mandub to make wudu to hold religious books like fiqh, hadith, aqaid. Wudu is made to read these books in order to show respect to religious sciences.
Salaf scholars were very careful about this issue. Imam Hulwani said, "We attained this level in science due to the respect we showed to science. I never held any paper without wudu."
Imam Sarakhsi suffered from an intestine illness one night. He said, "I made wudu seventeen times that night in order to continue my scholarly study."
* It is mandub to make wudu before going to bed.
* To make wudu after getting up.
* To make wudu in order to have wudu all the time.
* To make wudu though one has wudu.
* To make wudu after accidental backbiting, lies, gossip and cursing.
* To make wudu after laughing aloud.
* To make wudu in order to eliminate one's fury.
The Prophet stated the following regarding the issue:
"Fury is of Satan. Satan was created out of fire. Only water can extinguish a fire. Thus, if any of you gets furious, he should make wudu."
* To make wudu in order to read the Quran out of memory.
* To make wudu in order to read and narrate hadiths.
* To make wudu in order to read or teach a religious subject.
* To make wudu in order to stand in Arafat and make sa'y between Safa and Marwa.
* To make wudu in order to get rid of the controversial issues like whether touching a woman invalidates wudu or not.
* To make wudu in order to wash a dead body and take part in funeral.
After covering the fards, sunnahs and adabs of wudu, let us see how to make a proper wudu:
* After intending to make wudu, audhu basmala is uttered and the hands are washed up to the wrists. If there is a ring/rings on a finger/fingers, it is/they are moved in order to ensure that water goes under the ring/rings.
* The right hand is filled water three times and the mouth is rinsed with that water. If the mouth has not been cleaned with miswak before wudu, the teeth can be rubbed with the fingers while the water is put in the mouth.
* Then, water is sniffed into the nose with the right hand three times; the water is ejected from the nose with the left hand.
* All parts of the face are washed by filling both hands with water.
* First the right arm, then the left arm including the elbows are washed three times.
* The hands are wetted and the front part of the head is wiped with the palm of the right hand.
* After the head is wiped, the ears and the neck are wiped with the same wetness remaining from the head or by wetting the hand again.
* First, the right foot, then the left foot including the heels are washed. Water is flown between the toes.
A person can obtain many rewards by reading wudu supplications (duas) during and after wudu.
After intending to make wudu, audhu basmala is uttered. Then, the following supplications are uttered while washing each organ:
Alhamdu lillahi'lladhi ja'ala'l-maa tahuran va'l-Islama nuran.
(Praise be to Allah, who made water a cleaner and Islam a luminous light.)
* While rinsing the mouth:
Allahumma ainni ala tilawati'l-Qur'an wa dhikrika va shukrika va husni ibadatik.
(O Allah! Help me with reading the Quran, mentioning your name, thanking you and beautifying my worshipping you.)
* While sniffing water into the nose:
Allahumma arihni raihata'l-jannati wa la turihni raihata'n-nar.
(O Allah! Make me feel the smell of Paradise; do not make me feel the smell of Hell.)
* While washing the face:
Allahumma bayyid wajhi yawma tabyaddu vujuhun wa taswaddu vujuh.
(O Allah! Make my face white not black on the day when some faces turn out tobe white and others black.)!
* While washing the right arm:
Allahumma a'tini kitabi biyamini wa hasibni hisaban yasira.
(O Allah! Give my book from my right side and make my reckoning easy.)
* While washing the left arm:
Allahumma la tu'tini kitabi biyasari wa la min warai zahri.
(O Allah! Do not give my book from my left side and from my back.)
* While wiping the head:
Allahumma azillani tahta zilli arshika yawma la zilla illa zillu arshik.
(O Allah! Shade me under your arsh (throne) on the day when there is no shade except the shade of your arsh.)
* While wiping the ears:
Allahuma'j'alni mina'lladhina yastamiuna'l-qawla fayattabiuna ahsanah.
(O Allah! Make me one of those who listen to the word and act in accordance with it in the best way.)
* While wiping the neck:
Allahumma a'tiq raqabati mina'n-nar.
(O Allah! Free my neck from Hellfire)
* While washing the feet:
Allahumma thabbit qadamayya ala's-sirati yawma tazillu fihi'l-aqdam.
(O Allah! Establish our feet firmly on the Sirat Bridge on the day when feet will shake.)
A state that continues all the time and that breaks wudu is called an excuse. For instance, being unable to hold one's urine, passing wind all the time, frequent nose bleeding, water coming out of a wound all the time are states of excuse.
A person who has an excuse that invalidates wudu is called an excused person.
The state that invalidates wudu must continue as long as a time period for a prayer for a person to be regarded as excused; that is, it is necessary for this state not to cease long enough to make wudu and perform a prayer. (This is the condition for an excuse to start.) It must appear at least once in every period of time for a prayer. (This is the condition for an excuse to continue.)
We will explain it by giving an example:
If the nose of a person starts to bleed at the beginning of the time for the noon prayer and continues until the time period for the noon prayer ends, the condition for the beginning the state of excuse occurs. If this bleeding occurs at least once in every period of time for a prayer, that person is regarded as excused.
For, it becomes certain that the excuse continues since it occurs in every period of time for a prayer; thus, the second condition of being regarded as excused occurs.
If that excuse does not occur during a period of time for a prayer, the state of excuse ends. Such a person is no longer regarded as excused.
Our religion makes things easier for excused people. The wudu of excused people continues as long as the excuses invalidating wudu continue. They perform their prayers in that state. They are not obliged to clean the place polluted by blood, pus, urine, etc again. For, as soon as they are cleaned, the pollution occurs again. For instance, the wudu of a person who cannot hold his urine is not invalidated by the leakage of the urine and it is not necessary to wash the place polluted by urine. Such a person can perform his prayer though his garment or the place he prays is polluted.
In return for this ease supplied by our religion, there is something that needs to be taken into account by the excused people.
A person who determines that he is excused needs to make a separate wudu for each time period for a prayer; he can perform as many supererogatory or missed prayers as he wishes during this time period. He can also perform witr and janazah prayers.
The wudu made by an excused person is valid only for the time period he is in. When it ends and the time period for the next prayer starts, his wudu is invalidated. He needs to make a new wudu for the new time period. For instance, if an excused person makes wudu during the time period of the morning prayer, this wudu is valid up to the time when the time period for the morning prayer ends. When it ends, that is, when the sun rises, his wudu is invalidated. He cannot perform any other prayers with this wudu.
Another issue that needs to be taken into consideration is that they cannot lead a prayer in front of the people who are not excused. Therefore, it is not appropriate to force excused people to lead prayers.
The wudu made by an excused person for the morning prayer is invalidated when the sun rises; therefore, they need to make wudu again for eid and duha prayers.
The urine, blood, etc that contaminate the clothes of an excused person due to his excuse does not harm his prayer as long as his excuse continues. The menstruation and puerperal periods of women are subject to different fiqh decrees; other bleedings and leakages are regarded as excuses.
According to Imam Shafii, an excused person needs to make a separate wudu for each prayer.