FAQ in the category of Hadith (are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad)

1 Could you explain the hadith “There are three things that are essential for happiness: a righteous wife, a spacious home, and a sound means of transportation.” ( Musnad, 1:168)? Could you give some detailed information on home?

Regarding this issue, the Prophet (pbuh) has a hadith as the following:

There are three things that are essential for happiness: a righteous wife, a spacious home, and a sound means of transportation(Musnad, 1:168) 

Not all the people have the opportunity to afford a spacious house or a detached house with a garden. It is not a sin to dwell in a small home within the bounds of financial possibilities. However, for those who can afford a spacious house, it would be much better. To comply with the needs of our religion, it is best to dwell in a spacious detached house.

In the prayer, if the means of transportation is not uttered like a horse or camel but the word transportation is used, it will make the description a lot wider. This might also be understood as a car today. 

Spaciousness of the house may be considered figuratively. For example, the idiom “much ash in their hearth” indicates that the mentioned person is hospitable and generous. A spacious house may be regarded as  stimulation for hospitality in the same way. Besides, it might be a stimulation for having a plenty of children.

1.(401) – Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: “I built a house by myself when I was with Allah’s Messenger ( peace and blessings be upon him). This house served as a shelter from the rain and shade under the sun. And I did not receive any help from God’s creatures in its construction.” 

2.(402)- In another narration: “ I have not even put a brick on another brick since the death of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him).”, he says. Bukhari, Istizan (Asking for permission), 53; Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 13 ( 4162).

3.(403)- Qays ibn Abi Hazm (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates:  "We went to visit Khabbab Ibn al-Arat (may God be pleased with him) after he had been cauterized seven times. He said, 'Our Companions who came before us have gone and this world did not cause the loss. We have been struck by an affliction for which we find no place to put it down except the earth. If it were no that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) forbade us to pray for death, we would pray for it.'.Then we came to him another time while he was building a wall and his and he said:

'The Muslim is rewarded for everything on which he spends money except for what he spends on dust.' ( Bukhari, Marda, 19; Da’awat, 30, Riqaq, 7; Tamanni, 6 – Muslim, Zikr, 12; (2681) – Nasai, Janaiz, 2, ( 4:3-4) 

EXPLANATION 

Khabbab Ibn al-Arat is one of those who converted into Islam first. He is originally from Tamim and he settled in Mecca as a kind of refugee. Being a stranger and without a person to protect him, he became exposed to the roughest kinds of torture. Tortures of cautery and lapidation left wounds on his body, which were to last lifelong. 

In the narration, Khabbab ( may Allah be pleased with him) commemorates those who were exposed to tortures and troubles in the previous period and who died without reaching the period of victory and abundance: “ They did not receive any worldly payment in return for their service; but we attained the period of victory and abundance that victory brought. It is as if we are rewarded in the world for our service.”, he means.  

One of the people whom Khabbab refers to is Mus’ab Ibn Umayr (may Allah be pleased with him). Although he was wealthy before Islam, when he converted into Islam, his family disinherited him and he was incapacitated from all sorts of financial support. Despite great financial shortage, he kept on serving for Islam and when he died as a martyr at the battle of Uhud, people could not find a shroud. Pulling his garment over his face left the feet open; he was buried with his feet covered with bushes.

Regarding the issue of abomination of building, scholars submitted different views. They are in an agreement on the matter that it is makrooh (abominable) to construct a building more than necessary and just for effect. On the contrary, they agree that it is not makrooh if the building is constructed to meet indispensable needs. However, although some scholars state that the money spent on the building does not bring a sin or thawab (reward for good deeds), there are some scholars who state it is thawab. The second view should be the principle. 

4.(404)- Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) came out, and on seeing a high-domed building, he said: What is it? His companions replied to him: It belongs to so and so, one of the Ansar. He said nothing but kept the matter in mind. When its owner came and gave him a greeting among the people, he turned away from him. When he had done this several times, the man realized that he was the cause of the anger and the rebuff. So he complained about it to his companions, saying: I swear by Allah that I cannot understand the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). They said: He went out and saw your domed building.

So the man returned to it and demolished it, leveling it to the ground. One day the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) came out and did not see it. He asked: What has happened to the domed building?

They replied: Its owner complained to us about your rebuff, and when we informed him about it, he demolished it. He said: “Every building is a misfortune for its owner, except what cannot, except what cannot, meaning except that which is essential.” (Abu Dawud, Good Behaviors, Book 41, 5218).

6.(406)- Abdullah ibn 'Amr ( may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, went by while I was repairing a hut I owned. He said, 'What is this?' I replied, 'I am mending my hut, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.' He said, 'The death is too swift for that.' 

In another narration, he said “I foresee that the arrival of God’s command (death) is swifter than this (being demolished)”. Abu Dawud, Good Behaviors, 169, (5235), (5236); Tirmidhi, Zuhd, 25, (2336); Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 13, (4160). 

7.(407)- Dukayn ibn Sa'id al-Muzani (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: “We came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and asked him for some corn. He said: Go, Umar, and give them what they want. He ascended with us a room upstairs, took a key from his apartment and opened it.” Abu Dawud, Good Behaviors, 170, (5238) 

8.(408)- Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: God’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “ If you have conflict on construction of roads, make them seven spans’ breadth.” ( Bukhari, Mazalim, 29; Muslim, Musakat, 243, ( 1613); Tirmidhi, Ahkam, 20, (1355); Abu Dawud, Aqdiyyah, 31, (3633), Ibn Majah, Ahkam, 16, (2338). 

EXPLANATION 

This narration is important in terms of the Prophet’s caring for the matter of city planning. As we will see in the next issues, he cared for municipal matters as well. 

Scholars, explaining a narration about the construction of roads, state that the breadth of a road is not limited to this number as in the hadith. It is stated that this number is about the main road which every people use and secondary roads and private roads could be constructed according to needs of people and main roads could be wider. 

1) DWELLING AND CULTURE 

One of the important points of the matter of training and education is dwelling. Dwelling, in which people spend more than half of their life time, is important not only in a single respect but a plenty of respects. In the Qur’an, a relation is made between both the power and might of past nations and their commitment of injustice and disorder, and their dwelling; the conditions of their dwelling are mentioned so that people will take lessons from them. 

This verse tells us that the power that Sheba tribe obtained could be seen on their dwelling : 

Indeed, there was a sign (a meaningful lesson) for the people of Sheba to take from their abode –two (lovely, vast expanses of) gardens, on the right and on the left." (the Qur’an, Saba, 34:15) 

Likewise, in the narration of the power of Thamud tribe, it is stated that they built homes and cities by “hewing rocks in the valley ( to make their dwellings)” (the Qur’an, al-Fajr, 89:8-9). In the following verse, it is stated that wrong-doing result in the destruction of civilizations and  turning dwellings into ruins; people are expected to consider these ruins:

 “Those then are their houses, all lying in utter ruins because they were lost in wrongdoing. Surely in this is a sign (an important lesson) for a people seeking knowledge.” (the Qur’an, an-Naml, 27:52) 

 In the verse below, beside the splendor of dwellings illustrated with the advanced level that a materialistic civilization reaches, it is also pointed out that people would be exposed to a cultural change and would be spoiled due to this splendor : 

“And were it not that all people would become one community (around unbelief), We might well have provided for everyone who disbelieves in the All-Merciful roofs of silver for their houses, and (silver) stairways on which to go up, And (silver) doors for their houses, and (silver) couches on which to recline. And also adornments of gold (and other jewelry). Yet all this is nothing but a (fleeting) enjoyment of the present, worldly life.” (the Qur’an, az-Zukhruf, 43:33-35) 

The relation between human and dwelling mentioned in these verses has become an area of investigation as a separate branch of science. The researchers of this new discipline which we call the Sociology of Place and Space claim that as the researches progress, they will reach laws which are objective, particular to practical sciences and valid everywhere.

Depending on the researches carried out and the progress made so far, they can already describe the dwelling as “a manifestation of culture in a certain civilization” and “ a seal put on the earth by a society”. According to them, on this seal, people can read about “ the spiritual state of that particular society, financial status and problems and troubles that society becomes exposed to”. 

The following idiom in Turkish language “(cleanliness of) a lion can be understood from the place he sleeps”, is given an identity for it which is scientific and far-reaching like saying “an individual.. a society.. and even a civilization is understood from their dwellings”; they mention about the differentiation between the culture of a society and their dwelling in an agreement with the impossibility of separation of one from the other. As a result, it has been suggested that the dwelling in which an individual lives should suitable for his culture, otherwise the dweller adjusts it to his lifestyle by making some repairs on the dwelling or it adjusts people to its way by making some changes on people’s emotions, opinions, conception and behavior (that is, in their culture). The certainty of this matter made the experts of this subject say : “We think we make our dwellings but in fact it is our dwellings that make us.” 

In a collateral way to those who claim that religion, law, politics etc., which is called superstructure are to change depending on the economical conditions, which is called infrastructure, the same idea has sometimes been stated as “ Exposing the dwelling and lodgment to a consistent change can only be made by changing the structure of a family and society”. It has been thus pointed out that due to a change which might occur in cultural, technical and economical life as a result of a serious discipline, dwelling may change itself. 

There is no doubt that these statements describe a fact which is very difficult to deny. If we were compare the dwellings of primitive people to those of a nation which has reached a high level of technique, we would find proofs which confirm these statements. 

So, in this case, what is the place of dwelling which is not only a shelter for people to protect from any conditions of weather and to provide security but is also home for cultural and spiritual values, in the Sunnah (customs of the Prophet)?

Since discipline, on the one hand, is  the transfer the culture of a community to individuals and, on the other hand, is helping people to ensure their happiness both in this world and in the hereafter, how did Muhammad (peace be upon him), who introduced himself as a teacher, a mentor and a guide who shows the ways for happiness in the hereafter, regard dwelling, which plays one of the most important roles in human life, and how did he consider a dwelling to be suitable for the system he brought? Learning them is useful maybe necessary for our topic. As a matter of fact, in a number of books which were seriously written on systematical discipline and morality, we may encounter parts that are related to the matter of dwelling. In these parts, with the agreement of authors, dwelling is considered to be one of the essential needs of man.

For example, Kınalızade describes a dwelling as a place and shelter which helps people to preserve the five essentials (mother, father, children, servant and food) which they need to ensure the continuity of the generation and he states that this may be made of stone, wool, leather etc. In Ahlak-i Hamide it is stated that human’s provision of place to shelter his essential requisites in order to retrieve them when need arises is one of the qualifications which distinguish him from animals.

Kari says when people start a construction, they should intend to protect themselves from weather conditions as well as to perform prayers inside it. Although in some of these books, we may find detailed information - on structural techniques – which ranges from materials to be used in the construction to methods of construction to be followed, issues like planning, positioning the building according to other buildings, conditions of sanitation etc are not found at the same frequency and sufficiency. For example, it reads that the building should be spacious but not tall; however, not sufficient information is provided. Nevertheless, a dwelling as a place for training and education has great importance in especially its planning and appropriateness for human needs. Moreover, a single-handed consideration on dwelling would be ultimately insufficient approach to the issue.

On the other hand, in the Qur’an and sunnah, a large amount of detailed information on the disciplinary respect of the dwelling is present; and the relation of the dwelling to other buildings is also pointed out therein. We may find information on dwelling especially in the sunnah. In narrations repeated frequently, the Prophet (peace be upon him) describes the dwelling as one of the three essentials for personal happiness: There are three things that are essential for happiness: a righteous wife, a suitable home, and a sound means of transportation.”. The quality of being “ suitable” mentioned herein is an absolute expression. As we are going to tell you about soon, even though some features of a dwelling like being spacious, having good neighbours, being close to a mosque and so on have been counted as the conditions of a dwelling to be suitable, it is open to any other additions and other desired features according to changing contidions and developing concepts of every period. 

In summary, we are herein going to analyze the instructions which the Prophet (peace be upon him) suggested about dwelling. The matters to be examined are going to be under two subtitles.

1. Dwelling in micro-plan

In this part, after dealing with dwelling alone and stating the features and parts of it that are described in the sunnah, we are going to tell you about the outlines of an ideal dwelling plan according Islam and dwelling policy of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

2. Dwelling in macro-plan

In this part, examining the dwelling as a part of a city as a whole, we are going to deal with the relation of a dwelling to other buildings which are a sort of outer expansion of a dwelling and which are complementary elements.

1. DWELLING IN MICRO-PLAN

From the point of view of training and education, we encounter primarily the qualifications which a dwelling needs to have as a separate unit. In other words, what are the qualifications of a dwelling that will make the dwellers content? What should its breadth, number of rooms, furnishing, decor etc be like? Are the any measures that the Sunnah suggests on this matter, if so what are they? In this case, we are herein going to try explain this issue and we are going to deal with breadth (spaciousness)  which the first and most important of all.

a.  SPACIOUSNESS

In the sunnah, the spaciousness of a dwelling is an inevitable and indispensable qualification. In various hadiths which describe the features of a “suitable dwelling”, spaciousness has always been stated as the first condition. By this statement, the plentitude of rooms (to utilize) in number has been separately mentioned.

There are a number of annotations and narrations which affirm that the spaciousness of the dwelling has been insistently pointed out in the Sunnah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replies Uqba Ibn Amir who asks how the salvation will be as: “Watch your language, expand the space of your house, cry for your sins ( repent).”. This meaning is stated in the narration of Thawban : “ Happy are those who watch their language, who expand the space of their house and who cry for their sins”. There is another narration that the Prophet (peace be upon him) prays : “ O my Lord! Forgive my sins, expand my house and bless my sustenance.”

In some narrations, the spaciousness of a house is considered to be the luck of the house while its narrowness is deemed to be unfortunate and narrowness has been stated as one of the three things which cause people misery: “ There are three things which cause misery for people: ‘an ill-mannered wife, a bad dwelling and a bad means of transportation’”.  We may find evidence that the Prophet (peace be upon him) meant narrowness by a dwelling being bad, in Hakim’s decree :

“Badness of a dwelling is its narrowness ( that is), rooms ( to utilize) being few in number.” In a quotation referring to Tabarani by Ibn Hajar, it was stated that this narrowness meant not parts being few in number but narrowness of the space.

In some narrations, after Hejira, due to complaints of women about the narrowness of their houses, we see that the Prophet (peace be upon him) deals with this issue seriously. Firstly, he placed the Immigrants into the houses of people in Medina and after that, he parcelled out places for them to build houses. Giving most of the names of the people who were given a place to build a house and also information on the exact place of these parcels, as-Samhudi adds that a majority of these parcels mentioned were situated around Masjid Nabawi.

Although it is stated that the main feature of a “bad dwelling” is narrowness, in some narrations, bad neigbours and being too distant to hear the adhan have been also pointed out. Gurani also adds to these “having a bad air”.  

Some other narrations show us that the sunnah suggests people should like their dwellings and reorganize a dwelling which the dwellers does not like into a pleasant form and if this is not possible, they should abandon it. According to the narration of Anas (may Allah be pleased with him),  a person (who considers his new dwelling to be unlucky for him) – that is a woman in Mutawwa’s narration - goes to the Prophet and asks : “ O, Allah’s Messenger! We used to live in a house where we used to be large in number and rich; and we moved to a different house where we became reduced in number and poor. (what do you suggest?)  and the Prophet replies : Regard that place to be unfortunate and abandon it”. Hattabi indicates that the suggestion to abandon that place has not been given because of that place being unfortunate itself but people’s considering that place to bring them bad luck.

In the same way, He replies to a person (from Yemen) who complains that the plague takes place where they live : “Give up turning back there, because infection of that disease causes a massacre”. Likewise, to Halid Ibn Walid who complains about the narrowness of his house, he suggests: “Raise your building above and pray to Allah for spaciousness.”

Although with these narrations, it s understood that the house should be spacious and should have many rooms, we do not encounter an exact measure or number on the breadth of the place on which the house is built and the number of rooms. We might explain this with the unfixed volume of a family because families may be large in number of members and it may only consist of a wife and husband. Consequently, providing a certain number for the house would be wrong according to the sunnah.

b. PLANNING

After giving some general information on the matter how a dwelling should be made, depending on certain statements (from hadiths and from the verses of the Qur’an), a question like “is it possible to make a basic plan for the parts of this house?” may arise. This is essentially a matter which has been dealt in the Qur’an. The information on the minimum measures of the house of Muslim family and a plan for a normal house has been provided therein. Adding details from the sunnah to this information from the Qur’an, a plan that is suitable for Islamic discipline and Islamic view on worldly life can be easily obtained.

As stated before, the size of a dwelling depends on the number of members of the family in the first place. The type of the family depicted in the Qur’an is a type of family of which the bounds are certain and which is called the core family in today’s sociology, which consists of parents, children (and a servant). All the other relatives should have their own houses and their own ways of living. We understand it from this verse: 

“There is no blame on the blind, nor any blame on the lame, nor any blame on the sick (for eating only to satisfy their need without causing any harm and waste, in the house of any healthy, well-off person), and neither on yourselves, that (in case of need and without prior invitation) you eat in your spouse's and children's houses, or your fathers' houses, or your mothers' houses, or your brothers' houses, or your sisters' houses, or your paternal uncles' houses, or your paternal aunts' houses, or your maternal uncles' houses, or your maternal aunts' houses, or in the houses for which you are responsible, or in the houses of any of your close friends (who should be happy to see you feeling free to eat at their home). There is no blame on you if you eat together or separately. “  (the Qur’an, an-Nur, 24:61)

Although at the end of the verse, it is stated that it is permissible to stay together, what is the most appropriate is to separate.

We understand from the following verse that there should be at least two rooms in a house where there are children or a servant and it is necessary to use separate rooms at certain times (which is left for having a rest) in a day:

“O you who believe! Let (even) those whom your right hands possess (as slaves), as well as those of you (your children) who have not yet reached puberty, ask for your permission (before they come into your private room) at three times (of the day) – before the Morning Prayer, and when you lay aside your garments in the middle of the day for rest, and after the Night Prayer. These are your three times of privacy. Beyond these occasions, there is no blame on you nor on them if they come in without permission – they are bound to move about you, some of you attending on others. Thus, God makes clear for you (the instructions in) the Revelations. God is All-Knowing, All-Wise. And when your children reach puberty, let them ask you for permission (whenever they want to enter your private room), even as those (who have already reached the same age) before them ask for it.” (the Qur’an, an-Nur, 24:58-59)

Explaining the reason why these verse were sent, Ibn Abbas states that at that time people did not use curtains in their houses and while a man was having a sexual intercourse with his wife, a servant or children in the house came up and for this reason, these verses command people to use curtains. Ibn Kathir notes that Ibn Abbas deplores because people do not comply with what the verse suggests them although the verse is totally clear.

In this case, the house of a Muslim should have at least two separate parts which are connected by a door. These parts certainly need to be separated with a wooden door or a fabric curtain.

On the other hand, the sunnah suggests that children should have separate beds beginning from seven years of age. This separation is indefinite in the hadith. Even though it is understood that children can stay in the same room until they reach puberty, separating their rooms after puberty, especially separating rooms of boys and girls seems appropriate for their discipline. It also seems that there is no clarity which may hinder us from getting this meaning out of the hadith.

In this case the minimum number of rooms should be three:
1. Parents’ room
2.
Room for girls
3.
Room for boys

According to the sunnah, a Muslim should consider the possibility of guests. The Prophet (peace be upon him) encourages people to have guests in their houses and offer them food, service, etc with statements like “Those who believe in Allah and in the Resurrection Day, should entreat their guests.”, “ Everything has its own alms and the alms of a house is a banquet.”. The Prophet also states, “A guest has his right to stay in a house for one day and night”, confirming that the length of time for a guest to stay in a house is three days.

A hadith which confirms that it is necessary to consider the guest factor no matter what happens while planning the house also deals with the number of beds in a house:

In a house, people should have three beds: one for the husband, one for the wife and one for a guest and the fourth belongs to the devil.”

As can be understood, the real purpose herein is not stating the number of beds there should be in a house. As a matter of fact, children’s beds are not mentioned. The hadith says yes to a question and hesitation like ‘can the wife and husband have separate beds (even rooms?’) and it reminds a bed (and a room) for possible guests. The expression “the fourth bed belongs to the devil” as the sharihs states, refers to extravagant furnishing just for effect and to boast of. As a matter of fact, when Ibn Zubayr sees three beds next to his wife, he says “One belongs to me and the other to my wife and the third to the devil. Take it out.” And he does not even mention the bed for a guest.

In practice, our last proof which confirms that the first Muslims considered this matter while planning a house is a sentence from Shi’ratu’l Islam: One of the sunnah about dwelling is a room for banquet (guest room) because in a hadith, it has been stated “ Everything has its own alms, and the alms for a house is a banquet”.

Apart from these, the Qur’an commands people to take care of their aging parents, which needs to be taken into consideration while building a dwelling. 

In this case, there is no limit put on the maximum number of rooms in a Muslim house, which should include at least two rooms; and this has been an option for Muslims according to their needs and financial conditions; however, it is recommended that both the place and the number of rooms should be sufficient, in other words, it should bring flexibility for needs.

Another factor that should be included in the plan of a house is the courtyard. As will be seen when we talk about the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) house plan, the courtyard is an indispensable part of a house. In a plenty of narrations which tell about the conditions of a house, the courtyard is mentioned. This case made Muslim regard courtyard as a part of the house and it resulted in building houses with yards even in the cities recently. However, today’s conditions make people forget about the concept of the courtyard and yard especially in big cities.

PLAN OF THE PROPHET’S HOUSE

The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) house consisted of nine cells surrounded by a courtyard which was about 100 spans per edge. Two of these cells were made during the construction of Masjid Nabawi and the others were made afterwards when need arose. This type of dwelling consisted of separate rooms of which the doors opened to the courtyard that surrounded the dwelling resembles  the types of house still used as a dwelling in cities of Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia and Arabian Peninsula. Narrations inform that these separate rooms of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) house are square shaped of 10x10 spans and 7 or 8 spans of height. According to the relevant narrations about Aisha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) room, her door was made of prickly juminus or ur’ur (which grows in India and resembles ebony and plane tree). The door is one-winged and is directed to the direction of Damascus. Some narrations note that the afternoon sun fell on this room.

Kattani gives an exaggerated depiction and prediction about the plan and extension of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) dwelling. Since they do not depend on proofs, we deem it inappropriate to mention it here.

In the books that were written later, the measure of the height of a room in a building given as “in the sunnah, this is the sufficient measure and it is six spans” might be taken from here. About the “sufficient measure” on the spaciousness of a room, it is said “it depends on the number of people who live in”.   

c. THE FLEXIBILITY OF THE HOUSE

As is understood, the necessary spaciousness and the number of rooms in a house differs according to need that are possible to change. However, a building is made for once and it is fixed. In this case, should people plan a house by considering the maximum extension that the family is possible to reach in future? Nevertheless, children will grow up and marry and leave the house and they will all result in the reduction of the size of the family. We can find several narrations in the sunnah in any case and from them we conclude that the house should have a flexible plan. 

Some of the mentioned annotations inform us that the Prophet (peace be upon him) put up a tent called “khidr” in a corner in his house for the girls who reached the age of puberty to stay in. In addition, it is stated that he used to sit in front of the tent when he wanted them to marry and said “this person wants to marry that person (calling the names of the boy and the girl)”. If the person inside remained quiet, he would let them marry; if she did not, she used to knock on the tent; and the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to understand that she did not want and he would not give permission for the marriage.

From some other annotations, we can understand that the Prophet (peace be upon him ) used to have a straw mat and he used to lay it (to sit on) during the day and at night, he used to make it a curtain (in the house to separate rooms). According to the narration of Zayd Ibn Thabit (may Allah be pleased with him), it is reported that this separation with a straw mat used to be made in the masjid (mosque). However, it does not mean that it might not be done in the house. It is reported as follows, in the narration of Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) in Musnad:

“We used to have a straw mat.  We used to lay it during the day and separate our rooms at night.”

There are a number of clear narrations which prove that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to put up a tent in the rooms and separate them. According to the narration of Ruzayna (may Allah be pleased with her), one of the freed slave of the Prophet, “In Aisha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) room, there was a tent made of branches of date tree and which was used to be hidden in (when need arose)”. Considering clear narrations about the presence of dust and cobwebs inside it, we understand that this tent was not used often.

To summarize, considering various narrations, it is understood that the Prophet sought possibilities to expand the house by resorting to precautions like drawing curtains in the rooms on the purpose of privacy etc, putting up small-sized tents and the house itself was in a state to enable such attempts.

We should finally state this point that the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) house was within a plan which enabled each wife of his to own a room. Moreover, as we stated previously for some other reasons, children of the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not stay with him. He had children in Medina only from Mariyah, his Egyptian wife. She did not use to stay in one of the rooms next to masjid like his other wives; she used to stay somewhere else. As a matter of fact, we also mentioned before that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to often visit his child staying in the house of his wet-nurse (may Allah be pleased with her).

d.FIXED COMPONENTS

On the issue of the fixed components of a house like toilet, bathing cubicle, it is understood that even though some of these components have been present in a house since ancient times, some others were added to houses as a need of Islamic culture and discipline; and it justifies those who support the idea that “considering a dwelling as a seal on the representation of a culture, each constructive component in a house contributes to the pleasure, belief and habits in dwellers’ culture” according to the sociology of place and space. If we exclude the components of the houses in Jahiliyyah Period like ovens used jointly by one of the neighbors, kitchen which sometimes no smoke came out from the chimney for two months – due to financial problems, mashrubah, which was generally on the top floor of houses and which was entered through a ladder and which was only a detached room, sahwa, which was built inside the house in order to place goods in and covered with a curtain and  - which also means a shelf, a hollow on a wall that was used to place goods in it, a hole to let the light and air through (kawwa), a fixed cell which, considering the descriptions, was built inside the house to place goods in it and of which the top was covered and which is similar to a sofa, etc,  mahda which was small-sized and built in a bigger room, hifsh, which women in Jahiliyya period used to stay in for a year as a sign of mourning for the loss of their husbands and which was narrow and of which the ceiling was too low, parts of a house like toilet, bathing cubicle, guest room and a room in which to perform prayers have generally been included in the plans of Muslim houses as a necessity of the Islamic culture. In the books on morality,“ in terms of the sunnah on building”: a toilet, a place to make wudu and ghusl (bathing cubicle), a place for banquet (guest room – yet it would be good to call banquet room-), are included; the fact that in the hadiths, the statement “ everything has its own alms and the alms of a house is a banquet” is used almost with the same wording  is sufficient to state the generality of this plan.  

Let us have a look at the important components which Islam brought :

TOILET: We learn form narrations of Bukhari, Muslim and other books of the sunnah that in Arabic communities before Islam, toilet was not included in the plan of a house as it was not included in the European houses and palaces. Those who needed to urinate and defecate used to go out of the town. At first, the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his wife used to carry on this tradition. However, narrations show that women, making use of the darkness of the night used to go every evening to “particular places” called Manasi outside of Medina to defecate and the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to go out so distant from town “that nobody could see him” and he even went away to a place called Mughammis which was two third parasangs’ distance to Mecca (on the road to Taif). This situation continued until the command of covering (tasattur) was received; only after that were toilets built. We understand from a narration Samhudi noted that a toilet was between Aisha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) cell and Fatima’s ( may Allah be pleased with her) cell.

A religious duty did not only change the plans of buildings with addition of a toilet but it also affected the direction of a toilet. Hadiths from the Prophet (peace be upon him) stating, “While defecating, neither face nor turn your back to the Qibla”, defined the directions of the toilets in Muslims’ houses. The Prophet sent Sahl Ibn Hanif as a messenger to Mecca in order to let the people of Mecca know about this decision. Narrations show that Muslims who went to Egypt and Damascus complied with this order even in the toilets which were made in the past and were directed to Mecca. Scholars discussed depending on annotations in the sunnah about the matters that this prohibition is also valid for open places like meadows but it is not valid for covered places, that the back part of the body can be turned while the front cannot, and this prohibition is also valid for the Jerusalem direction (that is, for both Qiblas). Apart from these, features like keeping water handy in toilets, building it in a way that it will be easy to provide water in have originated from the related orders in the sunnah.

BATHROOM : Bathroom is also an important component like toilet. As we have just stated, even if it was included in some houses before Islam, it became an indispensable component of a house after Islam. It is necessary for both taking ablution (wudu) and full ablution (ghusl). Narrations about the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) taking a bath in a basin during his illness, Aisha’s (may Allah be pleased with her) taking full ablution with the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the same place and in order to show his sister who asked her the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) way of full ablution, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used a little water while taking ablution, her taking a bath behind a curtain with a little water, proves the presence of a particular place to take ablution in her cell. Likewise, in the hadith narrated from Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her): “ The Prophet (peace be upon him) returned from a journey. I had drawn a curtain (on which there were some symbols of winged horses) (over the sahwa) in the house while he was away. He ordered me to pull it down. I pulled it down. I and the Prophet ( peace be upon him) had a bath taking water from the same bucket.”, Kirmani dwells on the possibility of this sahwa which a curtain drawn over in the narration to be a bathing cubicle because of Aisha’s  beginning to mention about ablution for no reason while she was mentioning about the curtain. Depictions about sahwa which we are going to talk about later, strengthen this possibility. In this case, we can conclude that there was a bathing cubicle in Aisha’s cell.

Another point which supports it is about the basin which we have just mentioned and in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) took a bath while he was ill: It is stated in the narration that the basin belonged to Hafsa. The Prophet (peace be upon him) who stayed in Aisha’s room could not take a bath in the bathing cubicle because of his illness; he took a bath in Hafsa’s basin since it was more convenient.

e. A NARROW HOUSE AND CHILDREN

A bad dwelling, which is considered to be one of the main factors which cause complaints and troubles in the worldly life in the hadith, is harmful for each dweller at any age but it damages the children the most. Showing the importance of a dwelling on children’s discipline and healthy development, it is said “ The main place in a lodgment should be for children. A lodgement should be built considering the needs of the children”. Today’s researchers found that the ratio of child death is higher in inappropriate houses than in appropriate ones. Among survivors, the ratio of those who commit infant crimes and are sent to the court and who are sent to hospital due to various psychological and physical damages is also a lot higher.

Besides, the effect of such narrow houses on the development of a child’s personality is eminent. We stated with examples while we were examining the relationship of the Prophet (peace be upon him) with children that the Prophet (peace be upon him) avoided any interference with children other than showing great affection to them and he never resorted to beating a child. However, in a narrow dwelling, a suitable environment is set for children’s exposure to being scolded, warned and beaten due to their satisfying their curiosity with examining things by touching them, having fun, jumping around, making noise, etc.

The modesty of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) house and his suggestion of modesty to Muslims, his looking down on worldly appealing adornments might be evaluated from the point of disciplining a child. As is today, adornment components which appeal to children like appealing pictures, baubles, colorful and bright table cloths increase the possibility of a child to touch and harm them as their numbers increase. And if they are kept within children’s reach and placed -due to narrowness and wrong planning of the house – in the area of daily wandering, this kind of house will cause great discomfort for a family with children. For this reason, we cannot but appreciate our houses in old times. Compared to today’s armchairs, tables which are ready to shatter and appeal to children with various adornments over them, the sofas, cushions which are secure in every way and suitable for the child factor and adornments kept (on shelves or on walls) away from children’s reach are helpful for parents in disciplining children. Although spacious and good-planned dwellings can reduce relatively the damage of these new conditions, in narrow houses – which are the majority due to economical and social conditions -, it is not possible.

Let us listen to the negative effect of narrowness on children’s psychological development and discipline from researches : “ If the number of people per room increases from 2 to 2,5, the child becomes a person who gets easily angry and who makes smashing and breaking a habit”. This statement conforms to another research group’s assumption : “If the extension of a house is too narrow which leaves eight or ten square meters per person, the relationship between parents and children becomes ultimately tense and parents cannot help but yell at and scold the children”. Talking about these researches, we need to state that in crowded and narrow dwellings, children are in danger of performing behavioral disorders. Psychological development of the child becomes blocked in the end and the delay occurring as a result can be never fixed unless conditions improve. Some sorts of psychological disorders which occur in children caused by sleeping in the same room with parents is now a widely known fact.

Problems caused by narrow dwellings do not only affect the dwellers but they also cause negative results and social discomfort in the community. Take a look at this passage regarding the issue: 

Economical and Social Results of Bad Dwellings and Endeavors to Recover Them:

“Events regarding this issue display a desperate situation which is impossible to ignore in humane and moral respects and which lead people to rebel. A bad dwelling, on the one hand, increases social inequality, which is the main reason and, on the other hand, it is the sole reason for the damage and destruction of the individuals and the families.(…)”

“When bad dwellings become together as groups, they bring into existence, havens which make it possible for people cast out of society to come together. Thus, recovery of people becomes far more difficult. On the other hand, families which cannot afford to live in any better place become prone to deterioration. This case does not result only in psychological problems but they also cost a lot to governments. It is even said that a shanty house is a “luxury element”. Department of Social Services attempted to estimate in number the costs of sickness and delivery to hospitals for families who live in shanty houses. The cost the government pays is really too much. And it is sometimes so expensive that it costs far cheaper to build perfectly furnished houses for these families. In this assessment, neither the possibility of infection to neighbors, nor labor productivity or the pains that the families are to bear and deterioration have been taken into consideration.

For example, slums in Cleveland, USA, are a heavy burden. Although only ten percent of the population live there, 26 percent of social services like police security, fire department and 36 percent of costs for the whole city are spent there. This ratio is the same as other cities in the USA.”

In recent researches, it is seen that western people who understood that narrowness of dwelling causes deterioration of the child, changed the concept of dwelling in parallel with their economical conditions, and reached the decision to allocate one room for each dweller. We learn from the news in the newspaper Le Monde that in France, in 1976, a principle decision was made aiming at a legal obligation for kitchens to be at least 12 m² in dwellings which were to build from then on, on the purpose of providing the best atmosphere for the relationship of a mother who spent most of her time in the kitchen in a day with her children.

Another issue legalized considering the needs of the children is about the width outside the lodgment. According to this precaution that aims to recover – at least reduce – the damage and deterioration caused by the courtyard factor which we stated as a “component of a dwelling” while we were examining the Islamic way of dwelling and which is ignored in mass buildings which we call modern “block constructions”,  0,75 – 1,000 m² space must be left empty per lodgment –legally for now – in mass constructions in France.

Considering that in France, which gives importance to these precautions, the number of children is low due to the low rate of child birth, winters are rather calm and relatively short and there are usually little or big parks and playgrounds etc in quarters in every city, nursing houses, kindergartens and the pavements are quite broad, we might see that our country has to increase such precautions and include different numbers against the number of children, length of winter and other impossibilities. In Istanbul, children are not able to live their youth in places which lack gardens and parks and pavements are narrow, and is crowded regarding the population. It is some kind of coincidence that these unlucky children can healthily develop.

This case can be deemed the same for all big cities. In a place like Erzurum, the situation of children  who have to stay inside for eight months because of the climate needs to be considered while building a new dwelling. 

f.FURNISHING

There are also some narrations about the furnishing in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) house. As in their adornment, modesty is the first principle in furnishing as well. Stating that he himself examined the house of the Prophet (peace be upon him) during his visit due to Ila event, Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) provides us with some precious information. According to what he narrated, in this visit he only saw a pillow which the Prophet (peace be upon him) put his head on and which was filled with filament, and a straw mat which did not cover his whole body and which was made of date leaves and some raw leather hanging over him and leaves which are used to adorn the leather. Seeing that the straw mat left some scars on bare parts of the Prophet’s body, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) started to cry due to what he saw. When the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him why he cried:

“How can I not cry? This mat left scars on your body and there is nothing more to be seen in this room. While those Khusraws and Kaisers are living in abundance in rivers, food (on golden thrones, silky and satin beds), you, The Messenger of Allah, (are living in scarcity), we have to make a good bed for you?. “ And the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied as follows (in a narration):

“ I am not fond of this world at all. I consider myself in this world as a traveler who lies in the shade of a tree and then leaves.”

Thus, after stating that modesty is important according to the Prophet (peace be upon him), we can begin to mention about the main furnishing.

SOFT FURNISHINGS: As a soft furnishing in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) house, a straw mat made of date leaves as we stated above is usually mentioned. As stated before, this mat, which is laid to sit on during the day, is used as a curtain to separate the house at night.

Although Arabs knew carpets, it is understood that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Muslims generally did not use them. Besides, some of Honored Companions considered it to be abominable to use carpets because the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not use carpets. However, this following narration shows that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not use it due to financial problems and he considered it to be permissible : Jabir narrates : “When I got married, the Prophet asked me :”Did you buy some carpets?” and I replied : “what to do with carpets?”. He said: “ Know that in the near future, people will be using carpets.”

It is stated that this permission is only for carpets laid on the floor and putting carpets on the wall just for adornment is not considered to be permissible. We see in the explanation of Muslim that the Prophet (peace be upon him), said to Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) who hung a carpet over a door, “ Allah did not order us  to dress up stones and earth”, and made her pull it down.

In one of Bukhari’s explanation, Abu Ayyub (may Allah be pleased with him) who was invited by Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) hesitated seeing a wall covered with a cloth. Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “ Women defeated us in this matter (we could not make them obey our words). Abu Ayyub replied : “Even if I could be afraid of others (placing in their homes such an unacceptable thing), I would have not expected this from you.” And he returned.

Depending on other narrations, Ibn Hajar states that this invitation was made due to Ibn Umar’s son’s wedding. Abdullah Ibn Yazid also refused to go in and began to cry when he saw the cloth covering the wall as an adornment. When he was asked the reason, he said : “ How can I not cry? I remember the Prophet (peace be upon him) say “ The world will win over you…you will go outside with a dress and turn back home with another dress on you. You will cover your houses like the Kaaba is covered”.

In summary, Ibn Hajar, who provides various narrations on this matter, states that the issue of placing a carpet etc on the wall is “the old conflict” and he adds that Shafi’is consider it to be makrooh. Hanafis, though, does not advice exaggeration in such adornment.

BEDSTEAD: One of the furniture in the house of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is a bedstead. Narrations show that a puppy which Hasan, the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) grandson, used to play with sometimes went under this bedstead and even died there. Underneath this bedstead which sometimes goods like basin, documents were placed and small pets could go was usually empty.

Suheyli gives this information: “The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) bedstead was made of wood attached together with filament.” It was sold in the time of Bani Umayya. A man bought it for 4000 dirhams.

We learn from Abu Rifa’a (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had a chair with iron legs and from Ali’s (may Allah be pleased with him) narration that the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) daughter Fatima’s hands became calloused and wounded due to using a hand mill.

BED: It has been stated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) who forbade people to have more beds in their houses than necessary had one bed of his own and the covering of this bed was leather and it was filled with date tree filaments. The same has been stated for his pillow. This bed which may be deemed to be quite hard in this state represents the modesty and ascetism of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

If the suggestions in the books of discipline on the matter of making children’s beds hard were not taken from these narrations, they must have been taken from the words of doctors. We have not encountered any narrations attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) regarding the issue.

CURTAIN: It is clear that curtains were commonly used in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) cells for the reason that they are means of especially covering. Considering the attribution of the word as-Sijf used in the sentence “he drew the curtain of the room open” from Bukhari to a type of curtain which is divided into two in the middle, we can assume that the Prophet (peace be upon him) might have used a  two-winged curtain (which is more useful).

BASIN: Some narrations atate that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had a basin made of date timber and he used this at night and placed it under his bedstead. Even though some scholars mentioned about the contradiction of these two hadiths depending on hadiths like “do not keep urine in the house because angels do not enter the house where urine is kept” and “urine is not to be kept in a basin in the house”, the real meaning of this prohibition as Suyuti stated might be its being kept for a long time. Moreover, there are narrations which state that the Prophet (peace be upon him) wanted a basin (in order to urinate) during his illness and while he was ill again, he took a bath in a basin. In this case, as a component which provides flexibility in the house, basin must have played an important role among all the other things in the house.

LAMP: According to this sentence stated in a narration about tahajjud (night prayer) “ At that time, there was no lamp in houses” reported by Aisha ( may Allah be pleased with her) lamp was not used in Medina in the beginning. Besides, some narrations mention that this was first brought by Tamim ad-Dari who converted from Christianity. In any case, lamp might have begun to be used in the houses during the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) time. We understand from the explanation in al-Adabu’l Mufrad by Bukhari that the Prophet (peace be upon him) noticed a mouse took the wick that was left still burning to the attic and he prevented a possible fire to break out. In Hakim’s assumption, we encounter the explanation that this wick was taken back and left near the Prophet (peace be upon him) and it caused a dirham-size burn. It is probably right after this event that the Prophet (peace be upon him) firmly suggested to put out lamps before going to bed. 

g. PRIVACY

Another function sought in a house is its provision of privacy for the dwellers. The Sunnah paid great importance to this issue as well. A house with respect to the sunnah is not only a shelter to protect from cold and warmth but it is also a place for maintaining privacy that is natural for man.  For this reason, the house was called “forbidden” and it was forbidden to enter herein without the permission of the owner.

According to the statements about the Sunnah, violating privacy is not only done with entering but also with gazing at. For this reason, it is said “no body should gaze at one’s house without permission; whoever gazes, it is as if he has entered it” and this action is mentioned within the meaning of “unacceptable actions”.

As asking for permission is imposed because of eyes, it will be necessary to pay attention not to even glance at the house without the permission yet to be given. For this reason, when knocking on the door, it has been ordered not to face the door but look sideways. It is stated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) acted so. The decree “Someone who was caught gazing at a house and whose eye was taken out due to gazing have no right to demand if he applies for a diyah (blood money).” confirms the severity and importance of this matter.

Showing the comb in his hand to a man who gazed through his window at his house, The Prophet ( peace be upon him) said: “ if I had known you had been gazing at inside, I would have struck this comb into your eye.” According to Ibn Abbas’ narration, when the Prophet (peace be upon him) caught Hakem Ibn Abi’l Asi ( may Allah be pleased with him) gazing at inside, he said to him “You will not live in Medina as long as I am alive” and he sent him on exile to Taif.

The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) statement “ if a person goes to a house whose door is left open (or does not have a curtain in the entrance) and looks inside, it is not his fault but the fault of the owner of the house.” shows that not only should the passers-by or the visitors to the house but also everyone be careful on the matter of violating privacy. Every family should take necessary precautions to maintain privacy and they need to be careful about the curtains or door etc, which contributes to this maintenance. Otherwise, it will be the dwellers of the house to blame on the issue of violation of privacy.

This hadith calls for Muslims to carefully install the components of privacy while planning a house. Doors and windows need to be placed in the most appropriate plan for this purpose. The empty place (hall) generally left behind the entrance doors might have been planned for this reason. In this case, ignoring this feature in some new planning should be considered as a incompleteness. 

 INTERNAL PRIVACY

As we stated when we examined the possible plan for a dwelling, privacy that has been ordered to be maintained not only against the people who are in the family but also against all the members of the family except for the wife and the female slave affects the plan of the house. According to the narration by Jabir : “The Prophet (peace be upon him) said : ‘ A person should ask for permission from his children, mother no matter how old she is, from his brothers and sisters and from his father.’”; each of these people should be placed in a state which they are to ask for permission from one another – at least at three times of the day as the Qur’an suggested – if they live together.

We can respond to a possible objection to the hadith above as “ this is about the people who live in separate houses” with this hadith: “ Ata’ Ibn Yasar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: “A man came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and asked ‘ O, The Messenger of Allah! Should I ask for permission when I enter my mother’s room?’ He said: ‘ Yes’ and the man again : ‘ What if I live with her in the same house?’, The Prophet said : ‘ Ask for permission’. But the man objected : ‘ I am serving her’. Then the Prophet said to the man ( angrily) : ‘Ask for her permission. Would you enjoy seeing her naked?’. When the man answered :’No!’, the Prophet said : ‘ So, you should ask for her permission whenever you go into her room’”.

Especially in this last narration, it is stated that people need separate rooms in the house where they spend most of their lifetimes in order to act freely.

A Muslim family should not stay in narrow dwellings except for scarcity. Members of the family, who have reached the age of puberty – even those who are approaching the age of puberty – and parents should have separate rooms of their own, this is the exact type of dwelling that the sunnah desires people to have.

We should repeat here that sociologists today insistently point out the disadvantages of narrow dwellings. They are disadvantageous in many aspects. In brief, in narrow dwellings and in neighborhoods consisting of these dwellings, it has been found out that some social values are lost in time and are replaced with newer ones which contradict society, and as a result of the change of the conception and behavior, new attitudes occur. For this reason, those who dwell in narrow and inappropriate places called slum or shanty house, are deemed as “abnormal” and as “the loss of the society”. Researches found out the fact that those who have dwelt in such places for a long time cannot become accustomed to the new situation when they move to appropriate dwellings and to become adjusted to newer and normal life conditions, “they need to be monitored all the time and re-disciplined”. In such developed countries as Netherlands, Belgium, England, USA and France, which are dealing with this issue intensively, “these socially spoiled people” are made obliged to stay in mediocre lodgments, which have been particularly built, for a certain time (10-12 months) before they are given normal homes, with the consideration to reeducate them and reintroduce them to the society. 

“The sterility of the civilized” ( la stérilité du civilisé), in other words, reduction in the birth rates, which is displayed as the reason for the civilizations to collapse in the statement of Spengler, who became famous with his work titled The Decline of the Western Civilization ( Le Declin de L’Occident), being related to the conditions of dwelling on a large scale by sociologists seems interesting. It is reported that the conclusion from various researches has been made as “as a result of losing control of behavior, in narrow and inappropriate dwellings, birth becomes a physiological case and increases while this rate increases normally among families who live in appropriate dwellings and in the middle type of dwellings between these two, this rate decreases.”

h. ADORNMENT (DECOR)

Another point which has been particularly dealt with in the sunnah is the decor of the dwelling. The Prophet (pbuh) displayed sensitivity to each thing in the house and to the suggestive components that were manifest on things. If he came across the presence of components or shapes, which contradicted Islamic culture and represented other cultures, both in his own house and in the houses of Honored Companions, he used to express his dislike either verbally or actually or with his mood.

In Bukhari’s explanation from the narration of Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to deform the cross-shape on anything in the house.

The prohibition is not only limited with things which included cross-shapes but also with illustrations imitating Allah’s ability to create. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated the prohibition from keeping such illustrations at home with severe expressions like:

“No angel enters a place where there is illustration.”
“It is illustrators who will be exposed to the severest punishment.”
“Those who make illustrations in the world will be told “ Blow a spirit to your illustration” in the Doom’s day but they will not be able to blow”.

In one of the narrations regarding this issue, Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) narrates an event: “The Prophet (pace be upon him) returned from a journey. In his absence, I had drawn a curtain on which there were illustrations (of winged-horses). He ordered me to pull it down and I did.”. In another version of this hadith, she says “ I had drawn a curtain on which there were illustrations, over the sahwa (cell on the wall). When the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw it, he pulled it down and said : “Those who will be exposed to the severest punishment on the Doom’s Day are those who imitate Allah’s creatures.”. Then I made one or two pillows out of this curtain.”. In another report, she says: “ I made two cushions and they were in the house and the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to sit on them.”

Based on this hadith, scholars gave permission for illustrations that have no shadow to be made on things like carpets, beds, etc, which are used in disapproved situations like sitting on them or treading on them. Stating that this view belongs to the majority of the scholars, which are the members of Honored Companions and the Ensuants (Tabiin), Nawawi mentions the names of Thawri, Malik, Abu Hanifa and Shafi’i regarding the issue. In an explanation of Nasai, Gabriel, who arrived at the house of the Prophet, did not want to enter his house and said: “ How can I enter? You have a covering which includes illustrations on it. Decapitate the bodies in the illustrations or make it a rug to tread on. We, angels, do not enter a house where there are illustrations.”

After the Prophet (peace be upon him) arrived at the house of his daughter, Fatima (may Allah be pleased with her), as stated in the narration of Abdullah Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), to pay a visit and as stated in the narration of Safina Abu Abdurrahman, due to the invitation to dinner, returned without entering the house because of an elaborated curtain on the door.

In Abdurrazzaq’s explanation, by the time he arrived at the house that he was invited for dinner, he saw it was adorned with various colors and standing at the door, he counted the colors and saying “If only it had been of one color”, he returned without entering the house. As will be confirmed by the examples below, the Prophet (peace be upon him) suggested simplicity in adorning the house with his this kind of behavior.

Scholars have made this judgment from those narrations: “In order to enter a house where there is forbidden stuff and attend an invitation there, it is best to remove those forbidden things; but, if it is not possible, it is best not to enter or attend”. However, it is clear that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said “If only it had been of one color” in the last example, and he replied to Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), who asked the reason why he returned, “ What am I supposed to do with the world and elaboration?” and likewise he said “because it reminds me of the world”, “because the illustrations distract my attention while I am praying”, “because whenever I get in the house, I remember the world” and in some versions of the related hadith including his order to Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) to pull down the curtain that we mentioned above; and they all show the Prophet’s sensitivity about the causes that may hinder the religion that he is trying to acknowledge people about, from being well established.

He just wanted that people should turn to the Qur’an with all their efforts  and that they should try to comprehend its truth and live with it. Moreover, just for this reason, he forbade to write anything other than the Qur’an and prohibited visiting graveyards, which was considered to be a kind of worshipping of Jahiliyya. On the other hand, due to the inconsistency in human nature as he stated “The human heart is between the two fingers of Allah; He plays with it however He wants”, he was afraid of reoccurrence of the old deviations of denial despite belief and good deeds. For this reason, the Prophet (peace be upon him) advanced in his fastidiousness on those issues and he did not want to leave an open door. One of the most meaningful examples of his consideration of the situation people were in is this sentence that he said to Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) in order to state the reason why he did not attempt to replace the Kaaba, which had been placed on a wrong base, to its right base: “Your people are close to Jahiliyya Age. For this reason, I fear this (construction I might do) may cause hatred in their hearts”.

In this case, the Prophet (peace be upon him), who took the moods of people who were ”close to Jahiliyya Age” into consideration, struggled hard against anything that might be a sign of polytheism. Maybe idols or icons, or a style of vowing that belonged to that particular time or a style of greeting etc, were all forbidden.

Scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence formulizing prohibitions as regards to discipline as “Placing the worshipping living things in a way that displays respect is forbidden, treading on them is acceptable”, defines the disciplinary respect of this prohibition which comes with the sunnah. Illustrations of trees are excluded from this prohibition. However, narrations also inform that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had the trees that people canonized at that time destroyed.

Control of the Houses

Narrations about the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) having the whole Mecca checked and “having the idolatries destroyed, having high tombs flattened and having the illustrations covered”, shows how serious his fastidiousness had become. In some of these narrations, the fact that a man from Medina, who was employed for this issue, objected by saying “O the Apostle of Allah! I do not want to enter the houses of my people” and that Ali was sent instead of him shows that the state even had the houses checked to monitor whether the prohibition the state imposed regarding this issue was applied or not.

To summarize what we have told, the adornment and elaborative components in the house are also considered as a means of suggestion. The house should not include components which are against the life philosophy of a Muslim.

Eventually, we should note this: Illustrating on the wall and clothing is forbidden due to two reasons according to Dahlawi: 1. To prevent unnecessary spending and boasting,

2. Not letting any inclination to idolatry. 

I. SPIRITUAL ATMOSPHERE

Because of the fact that parents are primarily responsible for the discipline of the child , one of the main functions of the house is to provide the child with the best atmosphere in children’s spiritual discipline in the first place. For this reason, in the very course of its construction, the house is desired to be clean from the material and spiritual dirt and it is said “Avoid using haram bricks in your buildings because this is the very reason for its possible destruction”. In the narration by Wahb Ibn Munabbih with the note “I read it in the Torah”, it is stated “The result of a building made (by force) with the strength of the weak is to be destroyed; the end of haram money is to become poor.” And such advice is often to be found in the related chapters of our books on morality.

There is no doubt that building a house will rightfully earned money (or paying its rental fee with rightful earning) does not conclude the matter. It is necessary to restrain from any kinds of forbidden things, and to comply with the obligatory deeds in order to render the house a place for good training and education; in other words, it is necessary to practice Islam actively. For this reason, forbidden toys, silk beds (carpets, pillows, curtains etc.), golden or silver plates or trays etc are forbidden in the house.

Another important point is that houses should not be regarded only as places to sleep, to eat or drink or to have a rest or places for security; such an atmosphere should not be made actively dominant. The Prophet (peace be upon him) states it with his word: “Do not turn your house into tombs”. What hinders houses from turning into tombs is worshipping and invocations committed in the house: like reciting the Qur’an, performing prayers, meditation and controlling the soul. For this reason, a number of narrations reported from various resources order people to perform prayers at home:  

“Do not turn your houses into tombs. Recite the Qur’an. Satan cannot enter a house where the Qur’an is recited.”
“If a person recites the Qur’an in his house, the house expands for the dwellers and the angels stay there; devils escape and goodness increases. As for a house where the Qur’an is not recited, it becomes narrow for the dwellers, angels leave it and devils invade it and goodness reduces.”
“Perform your supererogatory prayers in your house, do not turn them into tombs.”
“The prayer performed in the house is the light; therefore, enlighten your houses (with prayer)”
“When you perform your prayer in a mosque, leave a share for your houses too, because God bestows a particular favor on the house due to this prayer.”
“The most precious prayer after the obligatory prayer is the one which you perform in your houses.”

Moreover, it is understood from some narrations that as a result of these encouragements, special prayer rooms were built in houses. We understand from a narration reported by Bukhari that this application began in the period of Mecca and (perhaps for the first time) and Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) built a prayer room in a corner in his courtyard. In Medina, we find that people went to the Prophet with various excuses in order to take his permission to let them build prayer rooms in their houses. The Prophet (peace be upon him) showed that he regarded their demands normal by going to houses on invitation and performing the prayer in the place where they wanted to build a prayer room. The final part of a long narration by Ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) strengthens the possibility that this prayer room could be a specific cell. In the hadith, Ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) asks what he should do in case of sedition. The Prophet (peace be upon him) says : “Get into the place where your people and relatives stay”. Ibn Mas’ud asks : “What if it comes to there?”. The Prophet (peace be upon him) says : “ then go into your house (in which you stay with your family)”. Ibn Mas’ud asks: “ What if it comes there, too?”. Then the Prophet (peace be upon him)replies : “Then go into your prayer room”. Likewise, in another narration, it is mentioned about a prayer room in the house of Zainab Bintu Jahsh (may Allah be pleased with her) before she married the Prophet (peace be upon him).

To summarize, after the stimulation given to build prayer rooms in the house, some Muslims included this in their dwellings in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and scholars also concluded that it was permissible.

The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) insistent suggestions on practicing the religion at home like removing the forbidden stuff from the house, reciting the Qur’an, performing the prayers and even building prayer rooms in the houses are for the education of the children to be raised in the house because, by doing so, they will be able to hear the religious issues with their own ears from the elders, to see with their own eyes and to practice them.

 J. POLICY OF DWELLING

Narrations about the dwelling show us the presence of a policy of dwelling that was suggested by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and which was observed by the following Caliphs carefully. In other words, we find out that the government kept good track of constructions of dwelling for the sake of continuality of some cultural values due to the firm relation of dwelling with culture and interfered immediately with the illegal types of construction as soon as they occurred and had them demolished. One can conclude from the following examples we are to provide that individuals and families are not totally free regarding the issue of construction of a dwelling and the idea that the right of the government to intervene had always been reserved settled well in the conscience of people.  We will examine the examples that lead us to this assumption within the frame of areas where interference was made.

1. PROHIBITION OF UNNECESSARY CONSTRUCTION

We should state that although expansion in dwelling is recommended, people are advised not to spend extravagantly on building and not to build unnecessary constructions. The Prophet (peace be upon him) says “All the money should be spend for the sake of Allah; there is no benefit in what is spent on building.” There are such prohibiting statements in other narrations as “Each extra building that a person makes is a burden on his back”, “Do not build a house in which you are not going to dwell in”, “Whoever builds houses more than necessary will be forced to carry them on his back on the Doomsday”,”When Allah wants evil for a person, He makes them spend his money on building.”, etc.

As it can be understood from Bukhari’s naming a chapter as “ chapter of hadiths about building” in order to list the hadiths regarding the issue, some Muslim scholars who acted upon the hadiths we presented above, have come to an agreement on the abomination of constructing extra buildings and regarded “the money to be spent on construction as abominable”. Ibrahim Naha’i, one of those who considered it as abominable, indicated his point of view with a moderate statement: ‘building houses that are necessary does not bring benefit or sin’.

However, it has been also stated that this prohibition is only for making extra buildings and building to boast and to show off; not for the ones built to dwell in and to take shelter from cold and warmth. Essentially, the Prophet (pbuh) himself stated “Whoever is to build a house without committing injustice and exceeding the divine bounds, he will be granted with “thawab of neighbourhood” as long as the creatures of God make use of it.” 

We cannot regard the hadith of Abdullah Ibn Amr as strong which those who regard spending extra money and effort on building as abominable present as evidence. Although this narration shows the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying to Abdullah Ibn Amr who was repairing his house with mud that “I foresee death to come quicker than the demolishing of this house”, regarded this occupation to be abominable, we find from Habbatu’bnu Khalid and Sawa’ Ibn Khalid (may Allah be pleased with them)’s narration that the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself repaired his house as well. Moreover, it is recorded that Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) warned people when he was in the pulpit, saying “ O people! Repair your houses”. In this case, judging only by the reflection of some hadiths and making the judgment as “ According to Sunnah, it is wrong to invest money in building” will be far from reality.

After stating that those who see no harm in construction present these verses from the Qur’an
“"And remember and be mindful that He established you securely on the earth so that you build castles on its plains and hew out dwellings in the mountains." (the Qur’an, al-A’raf, 7:74) and “Say: "Who is there to make unlawful the beautiful things (obtained from plants, animals and minerals) that God has brought forth for His servants, and the pure, wholesome things from among the means of sustenance?"” (the Qur’an, al-A’raf, 7:32)
and the words of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the hadith “When Allah bestows a blessing upon a person, He likes seeing the reflection of that blessing on this person” as proofs, (addressing to himself), Samarkandi says: “What is best is to spend not on worldly things but for the hereafter. However, these are not forbidden :
1. Not to earn money out of forbidden ways
2. Not to do injustice against a Muslim or those who are not Muslim due to construction
3. Not to quit an obligatory deed for Allah (because of construction).”

Al-Hakimut-Tirmidhi, noting Umar’s (may Allah be pleased with him) interference on building, says: “If the building is the necessary size, they can build it, expecting thawab from Allah because the need for a building is like the need for food, clothing and a means of transportation”.

It is best to describe the dislike about building as stated in the hadiths with extravagance. We can find Muslims’ view on this issue in these words that Muhammed Ibnu’s Sammak bravely yelled at the face of Harun ar-Rashid when he built a tall palace:

“You raised the earth, and quit the religion. If this has been made with your money, you should know that you are one of those who are extravagant. Allah does not like extravagant people. But if this is made with the money of somebody else, then you are an oppressor. Allah does not like oppressors.”

The instruction of prohibition from spending extravagantly on building is stated as follows in Akhlaq al-Alaiyya: “Restrain from extravagance in the height of the buildings, adornment and embellishing the roof. It is clear in the hadiths that if a person raises a building more than six spans, angels say : “Where are you going, O the cursed?”

Extravagance and spending more than necessary is not acceptable. Especially, the habit of repairing and becoming addicted to redecorating because of boredom of the same appearance is a hard trouble and a bad manner.”  

2. A HOUSE FOR EACH PERSON

It would be wrong for one to conclude from the examples above that the Prophet (peace be upon him) disapproved that each person should have a normal house. On the contrary, the essence of the policy as regards to this issue is based on making each family has a “spacious” house. Various narrations like charging the state with the duty to make each appointed civil servant obtain a house and like his disapproval of any Muslim selling his house or real estate unless he invests this money on a house or real estate again, by saying: “Unless replaced with the new one, this money will not be of any good for them” are undeniable proofs that the Prophet (peace be upon him) followed a policy “ a normal house for each Muslim”.

3. THE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDINGS

The Prophet never agreed with the idea of making tall buildings. As narrations will show, one of the aspects he disapproves about dwelling is the height of the building. Moreover, he moved to the ground floor of the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (may Allah be pleased with him), in which he stayed for seven months as a guest when he arrived in Medina; and for the request of Abu Ayyub (may Allah be pleased with him) for the Prophet (peace be upon him) to move upstairs after a while, he replied: “ The ground floor is more comfortable”, “ It is best for us to stay downstairs for those whom we are in touch (The Honored Companions)”. However, because of Abu Ayyub’s (may Allah be pleased with him) insistence saying, “I am not going to walk over the floor under which you stay”, he went (unwillingly) and lived upstairs to make his host pleased and Abu Ayyub (may Allah be pleased with him) stayed downstairs.

Furthermore, the ceiling of the first mosque built under the supervision and with the participation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the ceilings of the rooms for his family are as low as hands’ reach.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated in various ways his dislike and disapproval of raising the buildings tall and described this as “one of the signs of the Doomsday”. In the well-known hadith of Jibril, after replying the question about when the Doomsday would come, saying “I do not know”, he added that one of the signs of that day was “When cowboys compete each other to raise their buildings”. Likewise, in another narration, he said the Doomsday would come “when buildings became taler and thinner”. In addition, stating that people would make their houses resemble colourful, embroidered and striped clothes, he indicated his disapproval of external adornment of a house, which is also regarded as extravagance.

The Prophet (peace be upon him), who did not recommend people to make tall buildings, provided an approximate number in this narration:

“If a person raises his building more than seven (ten in another narration) spans, he will be yelled “ O Allah’s enemy, where do you (desire to) go?”

Ibnu’l Arabi deduces the meaning of warning against constructing tall and large buildings from this verse : اَلَمْ تَرَ كَيْفَ رَبُّكَ بِعَادٍ اِرَمَ ذَاتِ الْعِمَادِ    (Have you not considered how your Lord dealt with the (tribe of) ‘Ād) (the Qur’an, al-Fajr, 89:6)

Although the reasons for prohibition of constructing tall buildings are not defined in the hadith, they are defined as extravagance, boasting, looking at other people’s private lives by scholars of Islamic jurisprudence. In addition, it is possible to find different reasons from the revelation of the hadith. In this term, one of the disadvantages that is especially found out today is the psychological and social disorders that buildings that exceed the proportion by human measures cause in people. Today, in big cities which are described as “ infernal machine”, “devil city”, this situation is also recorded as one of the reasons for lunacy and psychological states similar to this, which are increasing rapidly. Tall buildings do not only tread on human spirit with their grandeur but they also reduce the interest of those who dwell in them in nature and affect human relationships, leading them to a negative state.

Considering the disturbance of the life in apartments and conditions that make it impossible to choose neighbors, in big cities, it is understood how people are left in loneliness despite the crowd. Sociologists state, “as long as relations remain superficial, individuals will be solitary in the crowd no matter how these relations increase”, “what clears off solitude is not only to see and to listen but also to be seen and to be listened to”. We can find the same thing in different words from Farabi (d.950), an Islamic philosopher. He deems the ideal city which he means by al-Madinatu’l Fadila” as the place for people to gather in order to help each other to supply the necessary things which lead to happiness. ”A city which does not imply the sense of society and helpfulness and which leads people to solitude is not the ideal city. For him, an ideal city is like a healthy, complete and perfect body in every aspect, in which the organs help each other to carry out the purpose.”

We should note this finally that it seems that to raise a building due to needs and to get rid of narrowness is acceptable because the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied Khalid Bin Walid who was complaining about the narrowness of his house as : “ Raise your building toward the sky and ask God for expansion”.

4.INTERFERENCE

Some narrations show that the sunnah did not only give a number of recommendations and advice on dwelling but it also interfered if the qualifications for a building were not complied with.

Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) came out, and on seeing a high-domed building, he said: What is it? His companions replied to him: It belongs to so and so, one of the Ansar. He said nothing but kept the matter in mind. When its owner came and gave him a greeting among the people, he turned away from him. When he had done this several times, the man realized that he was the cause of the anger and the rebuff. So he complained about it to his companions, saying: I swear by Allah that I cannot understand the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him). They said: He went out and saw your domed building.So the man returned to it and demolished it, leveling it to the ground. One day the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) came out and did not see it. He asked: What has happened to the domed building? They replied: Its owner complained to us about your rebuff, and when we informed him about it, he demolished it. He said: “Every building is a misfortune for its owner, except what cannot, except what cannot, meaning except that which is essential.”. Likewise, a similar reaction was shown against the tall building that his uncle Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) had made. Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) offered as much money for charity as the building was worth in return for the building not to be demolished. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not accept this. Even though, Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) insistently kept on his proposal, the Prophet (peace be upon him) never accepted this deal and told him to demolish it. And the building was demolished.

The hadith about the demolishing of the house of Suwaylimu’l Yahudi is worth mentioning as a different example of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) interference with the dwelling. According to Ibn Hisham’s record, hypocrites (munafiqs) were gathering in the house of Jewish Suwaylim, trying to hinder people from participating in the expedition during the preparations for Tabuk expedition. Sending a group administered by Talha Bin Ubaydullah (may Allah be pleased with him), the Prophet (peace be upon him) commanded them to demolish Suwaylim’s house. Talha (may Allah be pleased with him) carried out the command.

Here we see the reason for the interference to be a negative action against the government and we will later provide similar examples after the Prophet (peace be upon him).

An example of interference that can be found in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) life is about temples. The event of Masjid Dirar, the memory of which was made eternal in the Qur’an, should concern our issue. According to the information from our sources, while the Prophet (peace be upon him) was on an expedition in Tabuk,  a group of ten people among the hypocrites in Medina were thinking of building a masjid in order to come together because they could not unite due to the successful policy that the Prophet (peace be upon him ) followed against them. When Muslims returned from the expedition and arrived at Zi-Awan near Medina, they sent a man to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: “O the Prophet! We have built a masjid for the patients, for those who are in need and for the rainy and dark nights and we want you to lead a prayer there (and do the opening)”. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied : “You go now, I have not yet finished my journey and I have something to do now. When we arrive in Medina, we will come if Allah wills…”  

However, a revelation from Allah that arrived after a while informed the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the real purpose of the hypocrites:

“Some among the hypocrites – who have adopted a mosque out of dissension and unbelief, in order to cause division among the believers, and use as an outpost to collaborate with him who before made war on God and His Messenger – will certainly swear: "We mean nothing but good (in building this mosque)," whereas God bears witness that they are surely liars.Do not stand in that mosque to do the Prayer. The building (systems, plans, and lifestyles) which the hypocrites have founded will never cease to be doubt and disquiet in their hearts (that are crushed by fear and anxieties), unless their hearts are cut into pieces (and they themselves die).” (the Qur’an, at-Taubah, 9:107-110)

Due to this revelation, the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent some men to demolish this building which was made “out of dissension and in order to cause division among the Muslims” and which would never cease to be doubt and disquiet in their hearts as long as they stayed alive”.

Narrations state that the place of Masjid Dirar was made a dump and the Prophet (peace be upon him) never used the road that led there. Comparing the command to build the Taif Masjid over the place where the temple of Taif used to be to this sunnah, the reaction against the undesirable building is understood.

Narrations show that in parallel with these examples found in the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) sunnah, specific dwellings and even public buildings were interfered on similar purposes in the following ages by Caliphs. According to the narrations of Mulayh Bin Awf as-Sulami, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was informed that Sa’d Bin Abi Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with him) had a carved door made for his house and a hut made of rush for his pavilion. Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) sent Muhammad Ibn Maslama (may Allah be pleased with him) ordering him to burn down the mentioned door and the hut. In an explanation by Al-Hakimu’t Tirmidhi, being informed that Abud-Darda added a toilet to his house in Humus, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) sent him in exile as a punishment, saying “O Uwaymir! Persian and Greek buildings could have been an example for you on adorning the world. Allah destroyed them (for their extravagance). As soon as you receive my letter, leave Humus and go to Damascus”.

When Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) heard that the Amir of Humus built a special room for relaxing called illiya on top of his house, he wrote a letter to him right away and ordered him to “collect woods and burn it down”. When he heard that Kharijatu’bnu Huzafa (may Allah be pleased with him) made a similar thing in Egypt, he wrote to Amr Ibnu’l-As, the governor of Egypt, saying “Kharija wants to gaze at the privacy of his neighbours; when you receive my letter, demolish it.”

Form the narration of Tamimu’d-Dari (may Allah be pleased with him), we learn that people made tall buildings in the time of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him). The instruction of “Do not raise your buildings” by Umar ( may Allah be pleased with him) to governors that Abdullahu’r-Rumi mentioned might be after the act of constructing tall buildings. Perhaps, as a result of Umar’s (may Allah be pleased with him) care for this, another example that indicates Umar’s care for dwelling about the house that Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas, who lived in Kufa, needed to dwell in, is about adornment. the following is mentioned in an explanation by Abdurrazzaq: being informed that a woman from Basra, called Hadra adorned her house drawing coverings over the inner walls of the house, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote to Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (may Allah be pleased with him), the governor of Basra, ordering him to tear these curtains of adornment. Likewise, if he was to be invited by a Persian farmer, he first asked whether there were illustrations in their house and if he learnt that there were, he would refuse the invitation.

Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) also interfered houses which negatively affected public morality. In this term, he had some people burn the house of Ruwayshudu’s- Thaqafi, which was a kind of place where alcoholic drinks were produced and sold.  Sa’d Ibn Ibrahim noted that he saw the house as ember.

In summary, these examples both from the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) show that any kind of building is under supervision and control of the state – with respect to either height and expansion or adornment and purpose of utility. This case seems to be more carefully applied especially in the first periods. Suyuti notes that when  a group of Rafizis gathered to perform prayers together and insulted the Honored Companions and did not perform the Friday prayer, and began corresponding with Qaramita, Caliph Muqtadir Billah applied to scholars about the matter of demolishing the Narasa masjid and received the fatwa that it was like “Masjid Dirar”; he demolished it and made that place a graveyard.

Suyuti, who gave a fatwa on the issue of demolishing the undesirable buildings which sheltered those who were engaged in harmful activities against society and who showed bad examples of bad manners with their way of living and behavior, brough out a separate work on this important issue called Raf’u Manari’d-Din and Hadmu Binai’l Mufsidin.

5. THE CONCEPT OF DWELLING

Considering the points we presented in order to describe the policy of dwelling of the Prophet (peace be upon him), it may be concluded that each Muslim desires to have such a concept of dwelling.

1. A dwelling is one of the main principles for worldly happiness (and spiritual as a result).

2. A good dwelling depends on its spaciousness, neighbors, being close to social facilities, being well-air-conditioned, being close to cultural and economical facilities like mosques, schools, markets.

3. The spaciousness of a dwelling is measured with the number of rooms and the spaciousness of the rooms depending on the number of dwellers.

4. A dwelling should be simple and should not include components of adornment which represent a foreign culture and which cause controversial suggestions against belief and morality.

5. A dwelling should not include extravagant spending on furnishing and adornment.

6. A dwelling should not be tall-built

7. Each dwelling should include components like toilet, bathroom and kitchen.

8. The government can interfere with illegally built dwellings.

We can understand that every Muslim should have such a concept of dwelling from the presence and inclusion of these qualifications with some little differences in the books of training and education.

6. DWELLING IN ACCORDANCE WITH TO ISLAMIC RULES

After explaining the qualifications that a dwelling should include and the concept of dwelling which each Muslim should comply with, it would be useful to present the description of the scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence on the dwelling that the husband is obliged to provide for his wife. This type of dwelling might be called licit or legal dwelling. We will herein examine the conditions that scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence regard that a dwelling should have in order to provide a normal Islamic life, and the minimum qualifications that are necessary for a dwelling. As you can see, the child factor has not been mentioned. The obligatory conditions that should be provided for a woman which is supposed to have no children, on marriage are in question. So, what happens when the children are born? This is unclear in books on Islamic Jurisprudence. Here is the exact description extracted from the doctoral dissertation titled “ Islam Hukukunda Karı-Koca Nafaka Mükellefiyeti” by Dr. Ruhi Ozcan:

A. The conditions sought in a legitimate dwelling:

1. It should be suitable to let the wife to do her religious and worldly tasks.

2. It should be among good neighbors who can manage to hinder the husband from a possible commitment of an injustice to his wife.

3. It should provide the wife with the security of life and property.

4. It should be suitable to let the husband have sexual intercourse with his wife.

5. Water should be also provided by the husband in the dwelling along with all other needs. The presence of a water tank or well or a fountain in the dwelling does not prevent the legitimacy of this spot.

6. Even though the husband’s relatives cannot stay in the dwelling unless the wife permits it, she cannot hinder any sort of female slaves of the husband and children that were born from different women and are too little to understand sexual relationship from staying. On the other hand, the wife cannot let any relatives of hers or children she had from somebody else stay in the dwelling unless the husband permits it. The  case of whether the property of the dwelling belongs to the husband or not does not affect this decree.

B. If the dwelling is isolated and spacious and has high walls, which all may cause the wife to think of evilness because of solitude, the husband should provide a companion for her.

C. The obligation to provide the wife with a companion varies from wife to wife and place to place. For example, if the wife is a person who is afraid of spending the night alone in a room, the husband should provide a companion even if the dwelling is not spacious. Likewise, if the wife is young-aged and afraid of staying alone, then it is obligatory to provide her with a companion.

D. If the area of the dwelling is small and among good neighbours and if the wife is not afraid of staying alone, then it is not necessary to provide her with a companion.

Footnotes:

1.  The Prophet’s (pbuh) mentioning about inauspiciousness although he refused inauspiciousness in some hadiths has been a cause for argument among scholars. (see Muslim, Salam 110-114 (4:1745-46, 2223-2224).  Hattabi and some others concluded that it was forbidden to attribute inauspiciousness to these three things (Maalim 4, 236). According to them, the reason why they are considered to be inauspicious might be discontent of the owners. In this case, divorcing and selling should be the solution. According to some others, the inauspiciousness of a woman is her being infertile or her bad language; and the inauspiciousness of a means of transportation (an animal) is being bad-tempered and not enabling the rider on it to make jihad, etc.

2. The spaciousness of a dwelling, according to the sociologists of today, depends not only on the number of the people who dwell in but also on the economical condition of the dwellers. For example, a normal spaciousness of a dwelling for a single person in France is 14m² whereas it is 36m² in the USA. Likewise, the spaciousness for two people is determined as 67m², for three people 90m² and for four people 103m² in the USA. ( Famille et Habitation, 1:108) For the number of rooms, the following is stated, “a room for parents, separate rooms for each person who also lives in the house – according to the fiscal condition of the family. The number and spaciousness of other parts (living room, toilet etc.) depends on the number of people who dwell in that house.” ( Famille et Habitation, 1:109).

3. On the issue of narrowness of a dwelling, two measures is given: 1. Spaciousness: 8-10m² per person is enough whereas 12-14 m² is dangerous and may cause pathological accidents.2. Density: 2 and a half people per room is enough whereas 2 people can be dangerous. ( Famille et Habitation, 1:121) We considered it suitable to provide standard lodgement chart which was determined according to the number of people in the family in France, in another source in accordance with the importance of this issue. ( J.E. Havel, Habitat et Logement, Puf, Paris, 1974, p 34).

4.  Explaining the hadiths which express violence and easiness on this issue, Ayni states: “He forbade all the illustrations even if it was an embroidery in the beginning because the people had just converted from idolatry. However, when this prohibition became a habit, illustrations (not hung in higher spots) which were made sure people would not be affected by were considered acceptable” (Ayni, 22:74)

5. We are reporting this explanation by Ibn Hajar from Qurtubi’s explanation of the hadith “People’s becoming kinder and obtaining pavilions in the city will result in a change in the religion”, since we find it interesting: The purpose of the hadith is to tell that peasants invaded public affairs. They became rulers of the country by force. Their property thus became abundant and their excitement of belief turned to competence in constructing high buildings and boasting of them. This period of time we are living in witnesses this situation.” The late Prof. Hamdi Ragib Atademir stated that the expression “tatawulu’l Bunyan” mentioned for a reason in the hadith of Jibril referred to today’s democracy system and its negative side. Mubarakfuri interprets the same hadith as : “This hadith refers to peasants or similar people in need becoming rich with worldly property and boasting due to buildings they make as a result.”

(See Prof. Dr. İbrahim, Canan, Kütüb-ü Sitte Tercüme ve Şerhi)

2 Is there a hadith saying, “One hour of meditation (tafakkur) is better that one year of nafilah (supererogatory) prayers.”?

There is a hadith the translation of which is “One hour of meditation is sometimes better that one year of praying” (Suyuti, Jamiu’s-Saghir, 2/127; Ajluni, I/310). It is possible to understand the hadith in the following way:

- It is better than one year of nafilah prayers to occupy the mind with the greatness of Allah, turning to the reflections of His names and attributions on theuniverse, thinking over one’s sins violating about Allah’s law and law of Creator-Creature relations, which are established in accordance with Allah’s orders and prohibitions.

- It does not mean that this collective rule will always give the same result for everyone. What should be deduced from it is the fact that there is a one-hour meditation which earns one more thawabs than one year of nafilah prayers and that door is open for anyone. Individuals’ knowledge, taqwa, reasoning, inspirations and capacity of meditation play an important role in it.

- Suyuti considered that hadith as a weak one. However, scholars agree that one can follow weak hadiths, too, in terms of the virtues of deeds.

- It is not harmful to hope for extra thawabs from Allah. Meditation has got some conditions. Those conditions have to be met. Furthermore, there is such a moment in meditation that if one seizes that moment, it can be equal to prayers performed in one year, ten years or even more. Whoever seizes Laylatu’l Qadr and seizes that moment at Laylatu’l Qadr can expect so great thawabs from Allah.

Meditation has got an important place in a true believer’s life. However, it is necessary to know what meditation exactly means. First of all, meditation depends on initial knowledge. Meditations performed simply and ignorantly are mere dreams and in the course of time, they bore people; then people tend to consider them meaningless. For this reason, one firstly must now what to meditate over, that is to say; s/he must have certain knowledge beforehand.

It is a step forward for meditation to know the rotation of the moon and stars, their relation with human beings and the circulation and flux of atoms, which form human beings. However, it is not meditation to look at the movements of the Moon and the Sun and then overflow with poetic inspirations. There are lots of handicapped, lonesome and poor naturalist poets, who think in this way. They are not meditators, but merely dreamers who lost their spirits and emotions and lost their hearts to Mephistopheles. They can sometimes think and tell about the beauties of the universe, too. Worldly beauties become so legendary with their expressions that anyone hearing those words may feel as if listening about the beauties of Heaven. Sometimes they make up such a legend about flowing of the rivers, pattering of the rain drops, swinging of the trees and singing of the birds that one feels as if he is in the middle of Heaven. However, they are not meditation an they do not make any promises to human beings, either. They could not even move a single step forward and go beyond the trimmed curtain. That kind of meditation is not useful at all. It is a fact that that kind of meditation will earn one nothing no matter how deeply s/he may think.

As explained above, first of all, it is essential to have a concise knowledge in order to meditate. Humankind will make new analyses and syntheses with the help of that initial knowledge - with respect to the level of knowledge they have reached today – and will specialize in them and will come to more various conclusions. And they will use those conclusions as introduction to other conclusions which they will reach in the future, and they will make new conclusions. Eventually, they will deepen in meditation with the help of those new conclusions and upgrade their one-dimensional meditation to multi-dimensional meditation and they will reach twofold meditation. All of them depend on having knowledge. It is impossible for a person without knowledge to meditate. In this sense, reading lots of books is important. Then it is necessary to learn the way of meditation and lastly to study the nature of Islamic rules and proofs of creation so that one will be able to think reasonably and consistently.
If one meditates correctly for one hour, pillars of faith develop in that person. Later, that person loves Allah and a great divine love emerges in his heart. Then, he reaches the spiritual delight and feels as if he has opened wings to set out to the eternity. A person with such meditation sometimes reaches the horizon which a person, who has prayed for a thousand years but deprived himself of meditation, could reach. The distance covered by one who does not turn to Allah with adoration will not be equal to the distance covered through an hour of meditation even though he stays in the same place for a thousand years because he does not think deeply. However, it does not mean that the prayers he performed for a thousand years have gone into waste; because, neither a bowing, a prostrating nor other movements of prayer performed for the sake of Allah go into waste. The verse: “Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it! And anyone, who has done an atom's weight of evil, will see it. (al-Zalzalah, 99/7-8) expresses that everyone gains something according to their deeds. A person who performs prayers is considered to have accomplished his duty of servitude to Allah; yet he cannot gain the deepness offered by meditation. A meditation in this sense can be equal to one year of praying.

3 Should mosques be decorated or not?

In Islam, it has not been well received to give over-importance to a building, to build high-rise buildings, like as in dressing, on buildings, too to burst into showing off. And it is regarded as a contrary appearance to the faith of transience. On this subject, besides many Hadiths, there are some verses, too. For instance, with the 128th and 129th verses of the Surah of Ash-Shuaraa (Qur’an, 26), it is addressed to the past people who had denied the prophets, and their attitudes are censured:
"Do you build a landmark on every high place to amuse yourselves?”
"And do you get for yourselves fine buildings in the hope of living therein (for ever)?”.
Our Prophet, Hazrath Muhammad’s mascid (small mosque –Mascidi Nabaviya-) was plain. And also until the end of the Seljuq Empire, almost all of the mosques of the Islamic world were generally plain as well. The type of “Exalted Mosque” of Seljuqs is evidence to that. But, afterwards, when art became a dizzying propaganda in the West, Muslims came across with the prohibition of picture and sculpture. So, in order to respond with the same weapon against that idea which was being tried to get subordination at both aesthetic pleasure and art against Muslims, Muslims turned towards architecture, especially towards mosque architecture. Actually, by that way they responded with a best answer. At the same time, such a respond may be discussed as well and also may be said that because actual dynamics which were to set forth the superiority of Islam has been lost, there had been a need for architecture. But again, it may be said that, “to build high-rise and ornamented buildings” is not liked “directly” (leezateehe). However, because directly care may result to moral distortions, there may be an “indirectly approach” towards it (leeqayreehe). Accordingly, as a respond towards the cultures trying to have dominion upon Muslims, Muslims’ applying that way is not accepted as “indirectly unpleasant” (leeqayreehe kabeeh), but can be transformed as “indirectly pleasant” (leeqayreehe hasen) and accepted as good. 
In fact, when it is looked carefully, it will be seen that, it is not mosques’ interior view which is more magnificent part, but generally their external appearance, on which there may be discussions whether there is extravagance or not.
Besides, decorating mosques excessively may be contrary to the feeling of mortality and modesty, and another reason of it may be because it attracts the attention and affects the awe of the worshippers. So, mostly in that respect our Fiqh (Islamic law).  Books have been examined.
In the Qur’an, about that subject only the reconstruction and foundation of the mosques is mentioned.
“The mosques of Allah shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in Allah and the Last Day, establish regular prayers, and pay Zakat, and fear none (at all) except Allah. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance.” (Qur’an, Al-Tauba, 9/18)
“Never stand thou forth therein. There is a mosque whose foundation was laid from the first day on piety; it is more worthy of thy standing forth (for prayer) therein. In it are men who love to be purified; and Allah loves those who make themselves pure.” (Qur’an, Al-Tauba, 9/108)
There are some Hadiths which give more detailed information about decoration:
“It is not convenient for me to enter a home which is decorated excessively.” (Ebu Davud, Salath, 12).
When explaining that hadith Munavî said as follow: “It is People of the Books who decorates their place of worship. Jews and Christians, after distorting their books, they started to decorate their chapels. So Muslims’ respect on this matter should be middle-of-the-road.”
Hazrath Omar (may Allah give him mercy), did not change the mascid although having a government, economically so much strong. In Islam, the first person who decorated mosques is Valid b. Abdulmalik (Munavî, Fayzul-kaîr, V/426).
According to the narration of Ebu Davud, Ibn Abbas said that:
“But anyway you are going to decorate your mosques like Jews and Christians. That is to say, you are going to give up sincerity, adapt them and make the mosques the means of proud.” (Ebu Davud, Salath, 12).
Also Ebu Davud’s following hadith confirms this:
“Unless people become proud of themselves about mascids, the End of Time will not occur.” (agk.)    
And one more hadith which points what mentioned above about decorating mascids is the result of failing of practising the necessaries of religion, is as follow: “Whichever nation’s work got worse, they started to decorate their mascids.” (Ibn Mace, Masacid 2).
It is certain that, the interpreters of Islamic law look to that subject many-sided, both from the point of community, and the position.
Ibn Abidin said as follows: “There is no harm to adorn the mascid, excepting the wall of mihrab (niche of a mosque indicating the direction of Mecca). That is to say, it is better not to decorate.  Adorning the wall of the mihrab is (near to be) forbidden (tahriman makruh), it breaks the concentration of those who perform prayer. Also painting detailed and elaborated embroiders on the decorated parts are (near to be) forbidden, neither (Ibn Abidin.I/442 (Amira)).
Although it is not makruh (not forbidden by God but looked upon with horror and disgust by Muslim teachers) to calcimine or adorn with gold water the parts that is permissible to decorate, it cannot be done with the money dedicated to that mascid (in order to build a mascid). Only if some one wants to do it, they may do it at their own charges (Hindiye, I/09). The reason why religious officials does not object to that: Those who wasting their time and money in order to decorate (one should not mix “cleaning” and “making it beautiful to decorating, because they are different) the mascid are by that way thought to be warmer towards mascid. (Munavi explains the above, last mentioned hadith accordingly. See Feyzu 1-Qadir, V/449; About subject also see M. C. al-Kasimi, Islahu 1-Mesacid, (Cazair, 1989) p. 96 )
If we sum up:
1.    It is the symptom of slackness not to have an aim to educate camaat (community), but to pay attention for decorating the mosques.
2.    It is makruh to decorate, gild and hang different pictures to the parts that is visible by the performers of prayer.
3.    It is better to clean and keep beautiful other then decorating.
4.    The money taken in order to build a mosque cannot be spent on decoration. The decorations which have no harm only can be paid by those who pay from their own pocket. Or when the money taken, one who takes the money must inform the donor about the money will be spent on decoration.
5.    It is better to spend the gathered money on telling the children about truths instead of decoration.   

4 Is there a hadith meaning that a guest brings with himself ten bounties, eats one of them and leaves the rest nine to the host?

This is indeed a proverb. However, we think that it was said by having been inspired by some hadith reports which bear a very close meaning to it. 

Actually, a hadith says: 

“A guest comes with his bounties and becomes a means for the sins of the hosts to be forgiven before he leaves.” (Ajluni, 1/88, 2/36). 

,About this hadith reported by Daylami, Sahawi stated that its reliability is weak; nevertheless, stating that it is supported by some other reports (which are called “shawahid”), he indicated that it could be sound (sahih). (al-Maqasidu’l-hasana-Shamila-1/21). 

The Prophet said: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Day of Judgment should entertain, his guests!” (Bukhari, Adab, 85; Muslim, Faith, 74). He also stated that good things and abundance reaches very fast to a household who entertains their guests. (Ibn Majah, Ati’mah, 55). 

And he warned those who are reluctant to entertain their guests although they can afford by saying “There is no good in a person who does not want to entertain guests.” (Ibn Hanbal, IV, 155) 

In another hadith, the supplication of a passenger (visitor/guest) is regarded among the supplications that are sure to be accepted. (Abu Dawud, Witr, 29; Tirmidhi, Daawat, 47). 

A Muslim should try to have the following characteristic pointed out in the following Quranic verse in all circumstances: “…but give them preference over themselves, even though poverty was their (own lot)…” (al-Hashr, 59:9; Bukhari, Tafsir, (59), 6). 

We deduce from both the Prophet’s verbal declarations and practices that it is a very important moral principle for Muslims to entertain guests and to treat them well. The phrase “Guest of God (unexpected guest)”, which is widely-used, shows the importance that our decent people attach to guests, following the sunnah of the Honorable Messenger (pbuh).

5 According to a hadith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stopped one of his companions marrying a woman who could not have children. Why are barren women rejected? Isn't it a punishment for something which is not under their control?

Those hadiths should be evaluated as incentives. The hadith does not mean blaming infertility and infertile women. When the fact that the population was few in the first period of Islam is taken into consideration, it can be understood better why Islam encouraged marrying fertile women.

There are judgments like fard ayn, fard kifayah and wajib in the Quran; similarly there are judgments like mustahab and mandoob in the hadiths.

The judgment here is mustahab; it is preferred and liked because it causes parenthood and the increase in the population of ummah and produces the fruit of the family.

On the other hand, there are recommendations to marry People of the Book (Christians and Jews) and not to force them to become Muslims as it is expressed in the following verse: ‘Let there be no compulsion in religion.’

The following is stated in the hadiths: “A man marries a woman for four reasons (it is valid not only for men but also for women; however, since man is the first one to ask for marriage, he is addressed): for her beauty, nobility, wealth, and religion (ethics). Prefer the fourth one.”, and it is recommended that the equality should be preferred in terms of ethics and character.

However, if a woman has all of those things, she will certainly be preferred more because beauty in the character will bring about the others, too. 

It is stated that Christians give importance to the beauty of face, Jews to wealth and polytheists to nobility; Muslims are advised to pay attention to the beauty in character.

If the events that are desired do not take place, it is necessary to show patience and content to predestination.

One should love his/her spouse not in terms of his/her worldly aspect but in terms of the eternal togetherness in the hereafter.

It is something to reject an infertile woman and it is another not to accept her. Everybody will accept that if two women have the same characteristics but one of them is infertile, the fertile one will definitely be preferred. 

However, if it is understood that she is infertile after she has been accepted as a wife, the ways to treat her infertility should be sought, and she should never be rejected.

6 Is the hadith about not letting children go out at night and the necessity of covering the food and drinks sound?

Hazrat Jabir narrates: our Prophet (pbuh) said the following: “When night falls (or when it is evening), stop your children from going out, for the devils spread out at that time. But when an hour of the night has passed, release them and close the doors and mention Allah's Name, for Satan does not open a closed door. Tie the mouth of your water-skin and mention Allah's Name; cover your containers and utensils and mention Allah's Name. Cover them even by placing something across it, and extinguish your lamps.” (Bukhari, Ashriba, 22).

- The hadis is sound. In general, the precautions that need to be taken at night are mentioned in the hadith.

- In order to understand the issue better, it is necessary to think of the ages when it was dark at night especially outside, when there was no light outside and when there were harmful insects around. In an environment like that, it is always possible for children to be harmed. It is a valid precaution to cover the plates and pans and to close the doors. 

- It is possible that satans lead mice and other harmful creatures to harm people; it is also possible that those harmful creatures, parasites and viruses are named as satans figuratively because they harm people insidiously like satans. It is necessary to cover the plates and pots in order to be protected from harmful creatures whether they are visible like mice and flies or invisible.

As a matter of fact, it is important that children do not wander outside unnecessarily at night even today. Instead harmful creatures, they may be harmed by satans disguised as human beings, who are more dangerous than harmful creatures. We find out about incidents like that in the media every day.  

Ibn Daqiq al-Id says: "There are both religious and worldly benefits in the order of closing the doors. The people and their property will be protected from the evil of idle people, mischievous people and especially satans."

The sentence: "The devil cannot open a closed door" is a kind of precaution to prevent satans and beings like satans from coming to places where human beings live. The fact that its reason is explained by knowing the situation of the satan is to attract attention to a secret matter that only prophets can know and to warn people.

The advice to cover the pots and plates containing food and drink is a kind of precaution to lead us to attention and alertness all the time.
 
- To extinguish the kindling is advised in order to prevent fires caused by candles and firewood lit for illumination when people are asleep.

- Mentioning the name of Allah, that is, uttering basmala is a shield that believers should use for protection.

We think that it is necessary to understand the hadith like that.

7 Is there a hadith that prohibits sleeping before performing the night prayer and that prohibits talking after performing the night prayer?

There are some hadiths that mean: “The Prophet (pbuh) did not regard it appropriate to sleep before performing the night prayer and to talk after performing the night prayer.” (See Bukhari, Mawaqit 23; Muslim, Masajid 236 . See also Tirmidhi, Mawaqit 11; Nasai, Mawaqit 20; Ibn Majah, Salat 12;  Majmau’z-zawaid, 1/315).

The reason why it is not regarded appropriate to sleep before performing the night prayer is the risk of not being able to wake up on time for the prayer, nor performing the prayer in the recommended time and not performing the prayer in congregation. As it is stated in the hadiths, the virtue and importance of going to mosque for the morning and night prayers is more than the other prayers. Sleeping before the night prayer can cause bad effects like not going to mosque and even missing the night prayer. Imam Tahawi says it is permissible for someone to sleep before the night prayer if there is someone to wake him up.

The reason why it is not regarded appropriate to talk after performing the night prayer is the risk of not being able to wake up for the tahajjud prayer, which is very virtuous, and even the risk of not being able to wake up for the morning prayer due to sleeping late. Besides, those who stay up late, who do not sleep and rest properly at night cannot work efficiently during the day. However, what is mentioned in the hadith is not a prohibition; it is a warning against useless words, illegitimate entertainment and waste of time. Useful talks, religious talks, studying, entertaining people, talking to one’s wife and children, listening to the talks of righteous people, in short, being busy with the things that are regarded as nice and useful by our religion is not prohibited or condemned; on the contrary it is recommended. As a matter of fact, according to a narration, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) himself addressed his Companions after leading the night prayer. (See Bukhari, Ilm 41, Mawaqit 20, 40; Muslim, Fadailu's-sahaba 217)

Accordingly,

1. It is makrooh (abominable) to sleep before performing the night prayer if there is a risk of not being able to wake up or if there is nobody to wake one up.

2. It is makrooh to spend time with useless talks and illegitimate entertainment after performing the night prayer.   

3. It is permissible to have useful talks, to entertain people and to talk with one’s wife and children after performing the night prayer.

4. It is not appropriate to stay up late if it prevents waking up for the tahajjud or morning prayer and working effectively the next day.

5.
Muslims should arrange their times in accordance with the times of prayers, try to perform each prayer on time and do everything on time.

8 How should we understand the hadith, “Mankind is in sleep, they wake up when they die”?

Man sees good dreams during his/her sleep, visits various places and eats different foods. However, all of them are just like shadows when compared to the real places and real foods of the awakened world. Those that were seen in dreams do not satisfy or bring anything to us. After waking up, we have only what we have and what we grasp in our hands.

The world is like a shadow or even a shadow of the shadow when compared to the life of the hereafter. The realm of grave is like a shadow compared to the hereafter and world life to the realm of grave.

We will wake up from the sleep of the world life by death and see our true wealth there. There will be nothing other than our deeds. Our Haram and Halal deeds will be personified as either good or bad. They shall be our friends till the Judgment day.

The realm of shadow will end with resurrection and we will arrive in the realm of truth that we call as the hereafter; we will have the real existence and true happiness there.
Alaaddin Başar (Prof.Dr.)

9 There are hadiths stating that the dead bodies of the prophets will not decay. Can you clarify this issue for us?

Although there is no rule that the dead body of a person who dies as a believer does not decay, it is known that the dead bodies of prophets, some martyrs and walis (saints) do not decay.
There are hadiths stating that the dead bodies of the prophets will not decay regarding the issue.
According to what Awth b. Awth reported our Prophet (pbuh) said: “Allah made the dead bodies of prophets haram for the ground”(Abu Dawud, Salat, 207, Nasai, Jumua, 5).
Accordingly, it means that the dead bodies of the people except prophets – even if they are martyrs – can decay.  However, it does not necessarily mean that they will decay. Allah may protect the dead bodies of some of His slaves –walis or martyrs. There are many documents regarding the issue. 
For instance; According to what Bukhari reports, Hazrat Jabir said: When the time for the Battle of Uhud came, my father called me and said the following to me that night: “It seems to me that I will be one of the first to be killed among the companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). I am not leaving a being more valuable than you except the Messenger of Allah. I owe some money; pay them. Treat your sisters well/advise them good things.” In the morning, my father became the first person to be killed/the first martyr when the Battle of Uhud started. He was buried in the same grave with someone else. However, I did not want my father to be in the same grave with someone else; when I took him out six months later, he was the same as I first put him in there six months ago – except for a small mark in his ear.” (see Fathu’l-Bari, 3/214)
According to Ibn Hajar, the reason why the dead body of Abdullah, Jabir’s father, did not decay was a manifestation of his miraculous deed and his martytrdom. (ibid, 3/217)

10 Could you please explain this hadith ; “Do not curse on time, nor be angry with it, because Allah is the very self of time.

The Universe is travelling through the end which Allah has determined for it, going through changes and development in the course of time. This change and development makes everything that is born grow and develop, mature and die or fade. It makes every fresh thing stale, and makes anything, which is adequate today, inadequate tomorrow. After all, time keeps grinding everything like a mill. This mill does not rotate by itself; there is someone who makes it rotate. For this reason, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), seeing this devastating side of time, warned those who are angry with time, by saying: “Do not curse on time, nor be angry with it, because Allah is the very self of time.” (Musned, 5/299, 311; also see Bukhari, interpretation of chapter 45, 1; tawhid, 35; adab, 101; Muslim elfaz, 1-6; Abu Dawud, adab, 169) and he emphasized that it is not the time which makes everything come to an end. Moreover, Allah the Supreme also stated the same reality by pointing out to the ignorance of the people who consider time the god, whose ears and hearts are sealed and eyes are blinded, and who say “nothing but time can destroy us” (al-Jathiyah, 24). As a matter of fact, time is a servant of Allah, too, and its duty is to grind beings.

11 Will you explain the following hadith related with izar? (lower garment tied to the waist covering the lower half of the body). What is meant by it?

Ala Ibn Abdirrahman reports from his father: "I asked Abu Said (may Allah be pleased with him) about izar (lower garment tied to the waist covering the lower half of the body). He said:
"You have asked exactly the right person! The Messenger of Allah said this about it:
"The izar of a believer should hang down to the half length of his legs. It may hang down to somewhere between his knees and heels. However, the part that goes lower than the heel brings about Hellfire. On the Day of Judgment, Allah will not look mercifully at a person who walks conceitedly, his izar sweeping the ground."
Muwatta, Libas 12, (2, 914, 915); Abu Dawud, Libas 30, (4093); Ibnu Majah, Libas 7, (3573).
The ways of the following two groups are contrary to the way of the Messenger of Allah: those who render the clothes and food that Allah made halal as haram for themselves just for the sake of piety and worshipping and those who wear only luxurious clothes, eats only the most delicious food and do not eat hard food and do not wear hard clothes due to their conceit and pride. Therefore, some of the people of the predecessors did not tolerate the two extremes of the garments that will cause fame: the best one and the worst one.
The following hadith is a warning regarding the issue: "Allah will make a person who wears the garment of fame wear the garment of humiliation on the Day of Judgment and he will be thrown into fire in that garment." (Abu Dawud, Libas 5, (4029, 4030). It is because that person means to be proud and conceited. Allah will punish him with the opposite of what he wants and despise him. Similarly, He will punish the person who lengthens his garment down to the ground to boast himself by making him flutter till the Day of Judgment.
Therefore, the Messenger of Allah said, “Allah will not look at the person who decorates his garment due to his pride." Hz. Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) said: O Messenger of Allah! My izar is loose; it sweeps the ground if I am not careful." Our Prophet (pbuh) said,  "You are not doing it out of pride!" (Bukhari, Libas 5, 1, 2, Fadailul Ashab 5, Adab 55; Muslim, Libas 45, (2085); Abu Dawud, Libas 28)
That is, the clothes that are worn for fame and conceit are criticized. If they are worn in modesty, they are praised. It is necessary to evaluate the hadith mentioned in the question like that.

12 A comparision between the Qur'an and Hadith.

In fact, this thought is not wrong, but may be insufficient. Our Prophet (peace be upon him) used to have revelations besides the Qur’an. And he would have the authority of determining a fardh (obligation) or a haram (prohibition) (with the permission of Allah). In this respect, it is possible to see the words in the question as right but in a narrow sense.     

13 Will you explain the difference between a verse (ayah) and a hadith?

A verse means a sentence whose beginning and end are obvious in the Quran. Each verse of the Quran is a miracle. Each verse is evidence for the honesty of the prophet that conveys it and an exemplary lesson for those who think, contemplate and meditate; each verse is ‘something strange’ because it is a miracle and has a value.   

Hadiths are the words, deeds, approvals and the sunnah of the Prophet that consist of his moral and humanly qualities expressed in words or in writing. In this sense, hadith is synonymous with the sunnah. 

The word hadith was started to be used as a general name for the news reported from the Prophet in the course of time.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not only convey the revelation that he received from Allah to people but he also explained them and practiced them in his own life, being a concrete example for them. Therefore, he was also called the living Quran.  

Islamic scholars generally regard the hadiths related to religious issues as to have beeen revealed to the prophet by Allah and show the following verse as evidence for it: "Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him “(an-Najm, 53/3-4). In addition, they say the word hikmah (wisdom) mentioned in the following verse means sunnah: "Allah did confer a great favor on the Believers when He sent among them an Messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom, while, before that, they had been in manifest error." (Aal-i lmran, 3/164) As a matter of fact, some narrations reported from the Prophet and his Companions put forth this truth. The following is reported from the Messenger of Allah: "I was given the Book and the like of it (the sunnah)" (Abu Dawud, Sunan, II, 505). Hassan Ibn Atiyya made the following explanation regarding the issue: "Jibril (Gabriel) brought and taught the sunnah to the Messenger of Allah just as he brought and taught the Quran." (Ibn Abdilbarr, Jamiu'l Bayani'l-ilm, II, 191).

As it is understood from the verses and news above, the Quran and the hadith (or the sunnah in a broader sense) are the same in terms of being revelations sent to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) by Allah. However, the Quran differs from the hadith because it is impossible to produce something like the Quran in terms of its meaning and words, it is determined in writing in the preserved tablet (Lawh al-Mafuz), and neither Jibril nor the Prophet (pbuh) can make any changes in it. Hadith was not revealed as words; so it is not miraculous like the words of the Quran; it is permissible to report it only with its meaning as long as the meaning is not changed.   

As a fiqh source based on revelation, the state of the hadith in comparison to the Quran and in terms of the decrees it brings is as follows:

1. Some hadiths confirm and affirm the decrees that the Quran has brought; for instance, the hadiths that forbid disobedience to the parents, bearing false witness and committing suicide.

2. Some hadiths explain and complement the decrees that the Quran has brought. Performing prayers, making hajj and giving zakah are ordered in the Quran but it is not stated how they should be carried out. We learn how to fulfill them from hadiths.

3. Some hadiths impose decrees about the issues that the Quran does not mention at all. The hadiths that prohibit eating the flesh of domestic donkeys and birds of prey and the hadiths that determine several decrees about diyahs, etc are examples of hadiths showing that hadiths can be an independent legislative source.

What we have stated up to now shows the place of hadith (sunnah) in the religion of Islam. The fact that it is necessary to give importance to the hadith as a source that comes immediately after the Quran from the point of view of the religion of Islam and to act in accordance with the sunnah of the Prophet is ordered by definite expressions both by Allah and His messenger Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh). The following verses regarding the issue are present in the Quran: "Say: ‘If ye do love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins’"(Aal-i Imran, 3/31); "Say: ‘Obey Allah and His Messenger’; but if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith” (Aal-i Imran, 3/32; "And obey Allah and the Messenger; that ye may obtain mercy " (Aal-i Imran, 3/132); " So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you " (al-Hashr, 59/7). As it is seen, in the verses like the ones above, obedience to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is ordered together with obedience to Allah; it is even stated clearly that obedience to the Prophet (pbuh) means obedience to Allah. 

In a hadith, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, " Know it very well that I was given the Quran and the like of it (the sunnah). The time will come when a man replete on his couch will say: Keep to the Quran; what you find in it to be permissible treat as permissible, and what you find in it to be prohibited treat as prohibited. Doubtlessly, what the Messenger of Allah makes haram is like what Allah has made haram." (Abu Daawd Sunnah, 5; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 2; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, IV,131), warning Muslims against those who despise the sunnah and want to separate it from the religion and emphasizing that the religion cannot be thought of without the sunnah.

14 What is Hadith?

Please read the article given below. 

GLORIOUS HADITH
The words or sayings of our Prophet.

Hadith means word or saying. It means the word, action or behavior that our Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) approved through his blessed words, deeds and actions. In other words, hadith is the sunnah (the practices) of our Prophet. In addition, the branch of science that deals with hadiths is also called hadith.

Hadiths are the secondary source of Islam. Hadith is a science on its own but some of the concepts regarding hadith are given below:

Rawi: A person who reports the hadith to a person or people after him is called a rawi (narrator).

Sanad: The chain of narrators that is formed while the hadith is reported is called sanad. That is, the sanad of a hadith consists of the list of the narrators or reporters of that hadith or news coming from our Prophet (pbuh).  

Sanad with ‘an’ (from) wording: In the narration of the hadith, the list of the narrators reported as from……. , from……… and reaching the Prophet is called sanad with ‘an’ ‘an’ wording.

İsnad: When a hadith is reported from someone to another and lastly is attributed to our Prophet, it is called isnad. If hadiths are taken from strong and sound sources and attributed to our Prophet correctly, they are called sahih (sound) hadiths.

Mashhur hadith: A hadith which was an ahad (narrated by only one person) hadith during the first century of Hegira, and which became mashhur (well-known) because it was narrated by a community that is impossible to agree on a wrong news is called a mashhur hadith. 

Maqbul hadith: A mutawatir (reported by such a large number of people that they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together), sahih, hasan (good) and sometimes daif (weak) hadith which is necessary to act accordingly.

To have more information about Hadiths, please click on the links given below.

How Can We Be Sure That the Hadiths of the Prophet (PBUH) Reached Us Without Distortion?

Hadith (are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad)

 

15 Is there a hadith that means: A breeze blows in Paradise, trees sway and such a melody is heard that if someone heard it in the world, he would die of pleasure?

Some hadith narrations regarding the issue are as follows:

"There is a tree in Paradise; its main branches are made of gold; the other branches are made of chrysolite and pearl; a breeze blows and then the trees start to produce a sound; nobody has heard a sound more beautiful than it." (Abu Nuaym, Sifatu’l-Jannah, 433; at-Targhib wat-Tarhib, 4/ 523; it is stated that Maslama b. Ulayyin, in the chain of the transmitters of the hadith, is not trustable. (see, Mizan al-I'tidal, 4/109)

“There is a tree in Paradise; its fruits are chrysolites, rubies and pearls; Allah sends a breeze; and the tree starts to resonate, rustle and sway; such sounds are heard that they have never been heard before."  (Ibn Qayyum al-Jawziyya, "Hadi'l-Arwah ila Bilad al-Afrah, Chapter Forty)

“There is a tree in Paradise standing on a trunk; a cavalryman can ride for a hundred years in its shade. People chat in its shade. Some people feel enthusiastic and remember the entertainment in the world. Thereupon, Allah sends a wind from Paradise and sways the tree; the tree produces all kinds of entertainment that were present in the world in the form of sounds and actions." (at-Targhib wat-Tarhib, 4/520; the narration is weak. see, Mizan al-I'tidal, 2/193)

“In Paradise, there is a market that people of Paradise go to every week. A north wind that emits scents of Paradise toward their faces and clothes blows; thus, their beauty increases. When they return to their spouses in a more beautiful and good-looking state, their spouses will say,  

- Your beauty has been increased. They will say,

-You also have become more beautiful since we left you.” (Muslim, Jannah 13)

"The scent of Paradise is smelled from a distance of one hundred years." (Hakim, Mustadrak 2/126)

Said b. Sa’d al-Harithi says: "According to what is told to me, there are forests of golden straws in Paradise; their fruits are figs; when the people of Paradise want to hear a nice sound, Allah will send a wind to those forests and the wind will produce the sounds that they wish."  (see an-Nihaya, 2/509-510)

That the wind bringing scents of Paradise is mentioned as the north wind originates from the fact that Arabs long for the north winds that bring rain. As a matter of fact, that wind is also called “muthira”, which means bringing action.  

As it is seen, when the Prophet informed us about life in Paradise in various hadiths, he told us that it was a land of endless beauties; thus, he encouraged us to work in order to reach those matchless bounties of God Almighty.  

When the wind blows, the trees hit each other producing such nice melodies; no ear has heard such sweet sounds before. It is stated that the people of Paradise will chat under those trees and recall their memoirs in the world and when they desire some entertainment, they will be beautified thanks to the wind Allah sends and the winds will produce all kinds of entertainment they were familiar with in the world by swaying.  

It means Paradise is a land of beauties. The beauties of the people of Paradise, and the tastes, pleasures and qualities of the bounties given to them will constantly increase.  (Ibn Qayyum al-Jawziyya, "Hadi'l-Arwah ila Bilad al-Afrah, Chapter Forty; İbrahim Canan, Kutub-i Sitte Tercüme ve Şerhi, Akçağ Yayınları: 14/427-429)

16 Is there a Hadith Qudsi (saying of Allah narrated by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, that is not part of the Holy Qur´an) having the meaning “I am ashamed to punish the elderly” or “I am ashamed to leave the prayers offered by elderly unanswered”?

According to Ibn Najjar’s narration from Anas, the Prophet stated as follows: “Allah is ashamed to punish His female or male servants who have aged in the religion Islam” (Kanz al-‘Ummal, 15/672).

According to a narrated hadith, the Prophet stated as follows: “Allah is ashamed to leave unanswered the prayer offered by an elderly person who holds fast to the sunnah/Islam” (Kanz al-‘Ummal, 15/672).  

We can comprehend the meanings of those kinds of hadiths (saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad) as follows:

Allah protects His elderly servants who are respectful to Him more than His young servants because, they are weaker, closer to grave, needier to be inspired with hope and more appropriate to be cherished. This is a reflection of Allah’s compassion to His servants.

The expression of those hadiths’ meanings opens a door to hope for the elderly who are extremely regretful for the sins they have committed.

On the other hand, if an elderly person, who has been fully illuminated by his hair’s turning into grey and through that light who has got rid of his sins and whose spiritual degree has increased, opens his hands for prayer with a genuine heart, the good news that Allah will answer his prayer immediately and that He will even be ashamed to reject such a person’s prayer has been declared. By bringing about the news that Allah will not punish the elderly who are in His way, the Prophet (pbuh) has shown the greatest Divine consolation source for the elderly who are deeply in need of mercy.    

Therefore, a good elderly person is the one who chooses Allah’s way. He is a holy brave man with a young heart, who has chosen Allah’s Messenger and his friends and the magnificent gardens of the hereafter.  He is a fortunate person who has been freed from all ephemeral things that incite the desires of soul, who has been observing the reflections of the Divine Names in every being  and has been employing that physical world completely on account of the hereafter. He is a belief monument progressing without making mistakes, persevering to pass several points before him according to the degree of his belief, yearning with the fire of missing the place where his friends have gotten together, tearing all figurines of despair and hopelessness by the diamond sword of hope tied to Allah’s mercy, and accepting the death which he knows to be close to him by smiling and getting into grave with happiness.

17 Will you explain the following hadith related izar? (lower garment tied to the waist covering the lower half of the body). What is meant by it?

Ala Ibn Abdirrahman reports from his father: "I asked Abu Said (may Allah be pleased with him) about izar (lower garment tied to the waist covering the lower half of the body). He said:

"You have asked exactly the right person! The Messenger of Allah said this about it:

"The izar of a believer should hang down to the half length of his legs. It may hang down to somewhere between his knees and heels. However, the part that goes lower than the heel brings about Hellfire. On the Day of Judgment, Allah will not look mercifully at a person who walks conceitedly, his izar sweeping the ground."

Muwatta, Libas 12, (2, 914, 915); Abu Dawud, Libas 30, (4093); Ibnu Majah, Libas 7, (3573).

The ways of the following two groups are contrary to the way of the Messenger of Allah: those who render the clothes and food that Allah made halal as haram for themselves just for the sake of piety and worshipping and those who wear only luxurious clothes, eats only the most delicious food and do not eat hard food and do not wear hard clothes due to their conceit and pride. Therefore, some of the people of the predecessors did not tolerate the two extremes of the garments that will cause fame: the best one and the worst one.

The following hadith is a warning regarding the issue: "Allah will make a person who wears the garment of fame wear the garment of humiliation on the Day of Judgment and he will be thrown into fire in that garment." (Abu Dawud, Libas 5, (4029, 4030). It is because that person means to be proud and conceited. Allah will punish him with the opposite of what he wants and despise him. Similarly, He will punish the person who lengthens his garment down to the ground to boast himself by making him flutter till the Day of Judgment.
Therefore, the Messenger of Allah said, “Allah will not look at the person who decorates his garment due to his pride." Hz. Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) said: O Messenger of Allah! My izar is loose; it sweeps the ground if I am not careful." Our Prophet (pbuh) said,  "You are not doing it out of pride!" (Bukhari, Libas 5, 1, 2, Fadailul Ashab 5, Adab 55; Muslim, Libas 45, (2085); Abu Dawud, Libas 28)
That is, the clothes that are worn for fame and conceit are criticized. If they are worn in modesty, they are praised. It is necessary to evaluate the hadith mentioned in the question like that.

18 It is hard for me to understand the expression of “killing all the dogs” stated in hadiths. How is it possible that Our Prophet, who did not hurt even an ant, gave such a command?

As is understood from narrations of hadiths, the command to kill is not specified to the dogs that we know. It is about all predatory animals. There is such a hadith in the Bukhari and Muslim hadith sources: "Five kinds of animals are harmful and could be killed in the Haram (Sanctuary). They are: the mouse, the scorpion, the crow, the kite, and the predatory dog." In another narration, one can kill them even in the state of Ihram. ((Bukhari, Badu'l-khalq, 16; Muslim, Hajj, 9: 66-72))

In some narrations, the snake is also included. The key word in the hadith is “fasiq” (harmful). The literal meaning of fasiq is deviating, digressing. A fasiq person is the one who violates the limit established by Allah’s commands and prohibitions. The reason why those animals are named harmful /fasiq is that they stray from the way of the majority of animals by harming humans and other animals. (Compare Nawawi, Sharhu Muslim, the explanation of the related hadith)

Al-Kalb al-Aqur (in the original text of the hadith) means the predatory dog. As far as we know, in all narrations, this title is used with dogs. This shows that the command to kill is not about normal dogs and that the dog is not sentenced to this punishment just because it is a dog. Indeed, Imam Nawawi adds these views when he explains that hadith: “According to the majority of scholars, the expression “al-Kalb al-Aqur” (predatory dog) is valid for all predatory animals. This is because the word al-aqur which is mentioned as the dog’s attribute means predatory. Therefore, the expression ‘predatory dog’ refers to all such animals like lions, tigers, wolves which are generally predators. (See Nawawi, Sharhu Muslim, the explanation of the related hadith).

The Prophet’s (PBUH) malediction against Abu Lahab’s son, Utba, is widely known: “O My Lord! Afflict him with a dog among your dogs!” and one night a lion came and found Utba among the caravan and tore him to pieces. (see Ibn Battal, Sharhu'l-Bukhari-al-Maktabatu'sh-Shamila, VIII/80).

Imam Malik says: It is permitted for a person in Ihram (performing Hajj/Pilgrimage) to kill animals/pests that pester him/her. however, it is not permitted for him/her to kill those that do not pester him/her. (al-Maktabatu’sh-Shamila, , IV/252). According to Imam Malik, what is meant with “predatory dog” in the hadith is any kind of predatory animals that attack and tear humans into pieces such as the lion, the tiger, the hyena, and the wolf. (Ibn Qudama, ash-Sharhu'l-Kabir, al-Maktabatu'sh-Shamila, III/302).

Actually, according to Malikis, all animals that attack and harm humans such as the violent wolf are “predatory dogs” and it is permitted to kill them. However, it is by no means permitted to kill those which do not harm humans. (Ibn Qudama, ibid.- al-Maktabatu'sh-Shamila, IV/14). According to one of the renowned scholars, Ibnu Abdilbar, no dog can be killed unless it is harmful. This is because Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) forbade aiming weapons at living beings. Besides, there are hadiths about the virtue of giving water to dogs.

In a hadith, it is stated: “there is a reward for serving any animate (living being)”. Furthermore, though everywhere there are many vigilant scholars who do not overlook irreligious acts, there is no such tradition as killing dogs. No Muslim scholar views keeping dogs as a hindrance to one’s witness (it is not seen as important as to be a decisive criterion in legislation). Only, in the sect of Shafii, it is seen as religiously unlawful to keep dogs without any need to do so (such as guarding cattle and sheep, etc.)” (Canan, Kütübü Sitte,13/ 516)

The hadith in question is as follows: Hazrat Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates:

The Prophet said, "A man felt very thirsty while he was on the way He came across a well. He went down the well, quenched his thirst and came out. Meanwhile he saw a dog panting and licking mud because of excessive thirst. He said to himself, "This dog is suffering from thirst as I did." So, he went down the well again and filled his shoe with water and watered it. Allah thanked him for that deed and forgave him. The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! Is there a reward for us in serving the animals?" He replied: "Yes, there is a reward for serving any animate (living being)." (Bukhari, Shirb, 9, Wudu, 33; Muslim, Salam, 153; Abu Davud, Jihad, 47).

In another narration, The Prophet said: "A prostitute was forgiven by Allah because, passing by a panting dog near a well and seeing that the dog was about to die of thirst, she took off her shoe, and tying it with her head-cover she drew out some water for it. So, Allah forgave her because of that." (Muslim, Tawba, 155).

As is clearly understood from those hadiths, compassion towards all living beings, which are Allah’s creatures, is essential in Islam. In the renowned fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) book of the Hanafi sect, al-Mabsut, these views are included: “The meaning intended in the hadith with the expression ‘predatory dog’ is the violent predatory animals that cause harm such as the wolf and the lion. As Imam Shafii says, the message given in the hadith is this: It is not permitted to kill anything else other than the harmful, aggressive predatory animals.” (al-Mabsut- al-Maktabatu'sh-Shamila V/159).

Indeed, Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, a renowned scholar of the Shafii sect, states the following about killing the predatory dog: It is not permitted to let the predatory dog starve. On the contrary, if it is to be killed, it should be killed in the best possible fashion.” (see Tuhfatu'l-Muhtaj; al-Maktabatu'sh-Shamila, IV/252) Al-Bayjarmi’s statement is clearer in this issue: “Not only the beneficial dogs, the life of all dogs are respected and immune as long as they do not cause harm and do not turn violent and aggressive.” (Hashyatu'l-Bayjarmi Ala'l-Manhaj-al-Maktabatu'sh-Shamila, I/474) Accordingly, the animals that the Prophet permitted to be killed are violent, predatory, and aggressive animals.

An important point to note about the issue at hand:

As required by respect towards and belief in the religion of Islam, the Qur’an and the Sunnah must be regarded in the following three categories:

First, let us establish our perspective on the verses of the Qur’an: a. This verse is Allah’s speech. b. Whatever Allah intended with this verse, that will of His is rightful. c. Allah’s will can be this, or that. Having hesitations about the first two articles is not compatible with religion and faith. And the last article is a matter of explanation (tafsir) and comment or viewpoint, and it is just natural that views differ. At the same time, this is an expression of the value that Islam attaches to man’s freedom of knowledge and intellect. There is a difference regarding hadiths.

The statement that we made above in the article a about the Qur’an is somewhat different here. The evidence (that a statement is actually a hadith) for many hadiths is not as certain as the Qur’an. Therefore, we cannot say about each hadith that it is certainly Allah’s Messenger’s statement.

However, it is not right to show hesitation about the hadiths that the great scholars of hadith who are expert enough to recognize the Prophet’s word and who have developed great familiarity with his style, affirmed to be absolutely sound and true. However much it is despicable to attribute a statement to the Prophet that does not belong to him, just as much it is despicable to deny a hadith of his saying it does not or cannot belong to the Prophet, without trying to learn its intended meaning, and just because it does not suit to one’s mind. What if the statement that we do not like really belongs to the Prophet? As for the statement in the article b, it is valid for hadith/sunnah in the same way.

It is required by faith to say that whatever the Prophet intended with this statement, his will is rightful and true. The article c is valid for hadiths. Hadiths or the sunnah can be interpreted differently. Obviously, what we mean with different interpretation or explanation (tafsir) cannot be judged with ignorance or with the desire of the Satan and the soul, but must be judged with knowledge, wisdom, intellect, faith and good manners. Therefore, what people like us should do is not to infer decrees directly from the Qur’an and the hadiths, but to ask the authorities well-versed in the field.

19 How should we understand the concept ethics and the hadith stating “I was sent to complete the high ethics”?

We use the word “ethics” to mean temper, nature, personality, person’s spiritual attributes, attitudes and manners.

When we say “man” two concepts come into mind: Soul and the flesh. One defines the form, and the other defines the individuality. When we deal with the matter in terms of creation, the creation of the body is referred to as ‘khalq’ (creation) and the souls as ‘khuluq’ (ethics). The concepts ‘high ethics’ and ‘beauty of ethics’ express the beauty of man’s inner world By means of the creation both soul and the flesh of man is beautiful.

There is no lacking or redundant organ in man’s body. Similarly, there is no redundant attribute, quality or feeling in his soul. Just as there is a perfect harmony among the organs, so too is there a perfect harmony among the feelings of man.

Then, what do we mean when we say high ethics and low ethics? With this question, we face one of the most apparent features of the soul, “free will”. With the correct or wrong usage of the person’s will, one is able to beautify or destroy her/his inner world.

Everyone thinks alike about the importance of the outer beauty. There is not much difference about it among people. When we look in the mirror, if we have something like dirt, stain or wound on our face, we think that it spoils our beauty. However, we cannot show this sensitivity for beautifying our soul or for a common viewpoint on the beauty of the soul. Why? It is because we prefer different mirrors.

As for the hadith “I was sent to complete the high ethics”: As it is known, every Prophet set an example of high ethics for his ummah (community) and tried to educate them in accordance with a model of ethics that Allah will accept. The last Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh), was sent to complete the high ethics. That is to say, he was given the task of teaching the last and most advanced part of the lesson - which started with Prophet Adam (pbuh) - with the most perfect application.The greatest divine revelation had been sent to our Prophet.

We should pay attention to the word “to complete” in the hadith. As we know, something which is half or incomplete can be completed. Something that does not exist or is not mentioned cannot be completed. So, this means that some attributes of high ethics were already available but it was not complete.

With the influence of the divine religions, in many societies, things like lying, fornication, theft, gossip etc, had already been blamed and punished. All of them are harmonious with the divine will and some parts of the ethics of the Quran. However, it is not sufficient. We should take into consideration all of the commands and prohibitions, encouragement and the threats in the Quran and we should accept that high ethics can only be achieved through obeying all of the commands and avoiding committing all of the prohibitions.

Let us look at this verse:

“Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgiveth anything else, to whom He pleaseth;” (Surah of Nisa/Women, 48)

The most important part of high ethics is eeman (faith) and tawheed (the Divine Unity, oneness), believing in Allah and accepting His unity. The biggest crime is shirk (idol-worship, to associate anyone or anything with Allah). The one committing this crime will never be forgiven and will not be forgiven in the afterlife unless he repents and gives up committing it in this world. In other words, he cannot enter Paradise.The person committing that crime cannot be regarded as a good person before Allah and cannot enter Paradise no matter how well he gets on with people and no matter how careful he is in his relations with people.

Let us remember an important rule of Islam here: “Love for Allah. Hate for Allah.” So, we will love the ones that Allah loves, and say “good”, “nice”, and “having high ethics” only for them...

We will not regard those people who act immorally and show disrespect to Him as having high ethics for the sake of their some good attributes. We will appreciate their good attributes but we will know well that their ethics is incomplete and will not be complete unless they begin to follow the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) who was sent to complete the high ethics.

Mother of the believers Hazrat Aisha is asked: How was the ethics of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)?

She answers: “Did you not read the Quran? His ethics was the ethics of the Quran.”

With this exemplary reply, it is shown which mirror the Muslim must look in and pull himself together, rearrange his attributes and talents. This mirror is the Quran, and the ethics that Allah wants to see in human beings is the high ethics of the Quran. There are many verses teaching us that high ethics in the Quran.

The believer reading the verse "Allah loves the doers of good" tries to protect the people in need, feed those who are hungry and help those who are spiritually hungry with his knowledge and understanding.

The one reading the verses “And do not go about in the land exultingly, for you cannot cut through the earth nor reach the mountains in height.” and “surely He does not love the proud.” abandons pride and assumes modesty. The believer drawing a lesson from the verse “surely Allah loves those who trust.” abandons complaints, objections and ambition.

After taking the necessary actions, he does not say “of course, surely, definitely” any more; he says “Insha'Allah (If Allah wills), if it is in the destiny, let us hope for the best” instead. His heart is freed from indecisiveness and worries, fills up with obedience and submission. More examples can be given.

20 Is this a hadith? ; “A person is not blamed because of his love of his nation” If it is a hadith then could you please explain it?

Yes, it is hadith. The complete form and meaning of the hadith is as follows;

Wasila b. Al-Aqsa narrates: I asked Prophet Muhammad (BPUH), “Is one’s favoring his own nation considered racism?” He answered; “No, racism is one’s supporting the cruelty that his own nation does” (see. Ahmad b. Hanbal, 4/107; Majmau’z-Zawaid,6/244).

The meaning of this hadith is as follows: There is no haram for a person in loving his own relatives, nation, citizens and countrymen more than anyone as a result of such ties. Of course, these loved ones must be worthy of love. Otherwise preferring a bad friend instead of a good foreign person is considered madness according to the religious point of view.

We can extend the meaning of the expression in the hadith as cited; “one’s supporting the cruelty that his own nation does” with the concept of “cruelty” in general.

That is to say, it is a sin to support a relative who oppresses another person; likewise, it is also a sin not to see the torture of a relative to his own nafs (soul) and his revolt just because he is his/her relative. The safest way is to base everything on Allah’s sake and brotherhood of belief.

For more information please click on the link given below;

Can we call someone, who loves his race, a racist?

21 Is there a hadith which is translated as “Do not summon troubles?

We could not find this statement in the sources. However, there are certain narrations which remind that meaning:

When the Prophet, peace and blessings upon him, heard someone say, “O my Lord! I ask for patience from you.” He said, “You asked for trouble from Allah. Ask for wellbeing from Him!” (Tirmidhi, Daawat, 91 )

The Prophet (PBUH) said, “It is not appropriate for a Believer to denigrate his/her self to despicableness.” When people asked what “one’s denigrating one’s self to despicableness” meant, he said: “One’s setting oneself as target for troubles which one cannot undertake is to denigrate his/her self to despicableness.” (Tirmidhi, fitan, 67; Ibn Maja, fitan, 31) 

Abu Hurayra narrates: “Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) would take refuge in Allah against encountering difficult troubles, falling into ordeals, evil accidents and against falling into situations which make enemies happy.” (Bukhari, Daawat, 28)

There are hadiths which advise people to take refuge in Allah against the same situations. (Bukhari, Qadar, 13)

22 What is the importance of financial advancement at the end of time? Will you please explain the following hadith; “At the end of time, people will need money and property so that they will keep their religion and world firm.”

The following riwayahs concerning the subject are important:

Hz. Anas (RA) narrates: The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:

Whoever among you has enough power to protect his religion and honor (chastity and honesty) with his property, let him do so.” (1)

At the end of time, man would certainly need gold and silver coins so that he could keep both his religion and his world life alive.” (From Tabarani, R. Ahadith, no: 815)

According to this, at the end of time, material needs will increase. People will consider luxury goods as essential, and they will buy most of the things by thinking that they really need them, which is caused by the evil of mass psychology. As a result of this, they will consider materiality as essential in order to protect their religion and world lives.

Besides, there is a need for financial advancement in order to perform religious services. The aforementioned situation which can be observed nowadays has come true as a miracle of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

On the other hand, it can be said that the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) shows the importance of financial advancement to Muslims and guides them. There are many lessons to be taken for Muslims from these riwayahs.

God Almighty (SWT), who put everything into our service, wants us to service His religion. A Muslim is a person who aims to have everything service for his belief. We belong to a religion that orders us to be “strong” and a community (ummah) of the prophet (PBUH) that says “A strong believer is more pleasant and beneficial to God than a weak believer.” (2) The dignity of the religion, the honor of Muslims can only be protected by being strong in every area. This has more importance nowadays. In another glorious hadith He (PBUH) said:

At the end of time, man will need money and property so that they keep their religion and world lives alive. “(3)

Concerning the subject, Badiuzzaman says the following:

Every Believer is responsible for elevating the name of God. In order to achieve it, there is a need for financial advancement. Since foreign people oppress us by science and the weapon of industry under their spiritual despotism, we, in return, will fight against ignorance, poverty and disagreements, which are the most terrible enemy of elevating the name of God, with the weapon of science and art.” (4)

The fact that the services that are being performed and that need to be performed necessitate finance shows how much importance we, as Muslims, need to give financial advancement and economic Works.

Financial means should not drive us or enter our hearts; we should use them to save our  world and  the hereafter

Footnotes:

1. Hakim, Mustadrak,2/50; Munawi, Faydul- Qadir 6/54,(8405); Hashimi, Mukhtarul- Ahadithin- Nabawiyya, 139 (1140)
2. Muslim, Qadar, 34;Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 10.
3. Munawi, ibid l/425(812)
4-Bediüzzaman, Divan-i Harbi-Örfi, 49.

23 How should we understand the hadith stating that Allah comes down to the sky of the earth every night?

The relevant hadith is as follows:

"Our Lord, the Blessed, the Superior, comes every night down to the sky of the earth when the last third of the night remains, saying: "Is there anyone to invoke Me, so that I may respond to invocation? Is there anyone to ask Me, so that I may grant him his request? Is there anyone seeking My forgiveness, so that I may forgive him?" (Bukhari, Tawhid 35, Tahajjud, 14, Daawat 13; Muslim, Salatu'l-Musafirin, 24, 168 (758); Tirmidhi, Salat, 329, Da'awat 80 (3493); Abu Dawud, Salat 311 (1315)

This hadith is known as the "hadith of nuzul". It is important and famous because it is narrated a lot and is distinguished in Kutub as-Sitta and the other sahih, sunan, musnad and mujam books, and it is free from ambiguity. It was reported by more than twenty Companions.

The verb "ynzl " in the hadith is written as "yanzilu= comes down" in Bukhari versions. Accordingly, spiritual coming down might be meant through closeness; then, it means Allah approaches His slaves with His grace and generosity.

The phrase "the sky of the earth" indicates Al­lah's approaching us. The world dunya is derived from dunuww, which means nearer.

Abu Bakr Ibn Furak writes that some scholars wrote this verb as "yunzilu = sends down". In that case, this verb needs an object. That is, it means "Yunzilullahu malakan- Allah sends down an angel".

Qurtubi uses the following narration of Nasai to prove the soundness of this narration and says there is no problem about it: "Then, He orders a crier to call "Is there anyone who prays and asks for something?" (Fathu'l-Bari, III, 272)

There are very nice interpretations and explanations in Ayni's book called Umdatu'l-Qari. One of them can be summarized as follows:

Nuzul is used in the sense of moving, informing, strength, luck, turning toward and the originating of a decree.  All of these meanings are known by lexicographers. Since nuzul has some common meanings, it is the best thing to interpret it with a meaning that is permissible to attribute to Allah. It can be said that Allah gives luck and turns to those who perform tahajjud prayers with mercy, by giving them what they wish and forgiving them.

It is not an interpretation but using one of the common meanings of the word; the interpretations of some salaf scholars like Imam Malik are similar interpretations. (III, 618-623)

Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali writes the following views in his book, Fathu’l-Bari, while explaining the phrase "Allah is with them, wheresoever they be" in verse 7 of the chapter of al-Mujadala:

“Being with them mentioned in this verse has the same meaning shown by the hadith narrations about Allah's coming down to the sky of the earth. That is, Allah’s closeness is not the same as the closeness of people/creatures to one another. His closeness/coming down is closeness shown to the prayers, wishes and repentance of His slaves as their Lord.

As a matter of fact, Hammad b. Zayd states the following while answering a question about the issue: “Allah approaches His slaves as he wishes.” Ibn Rajab explains this statement of Hammad as follows: “That is, Allah's coming down does not mean going from one place to another like His creatures.”

In the same place, it is stated that scholars like Abu Abdillah (Ahmad b. Hanbal) stated the following regarding the issue:

“It is necessary to keep silent here. “Invent not similitudes for Allah.” (an-Nahl, 74) As it is stated in the verse above, it is necessary to accept the expressions mentioned in hadiths as they are - without any restrictions. Allah comes down to the sky of the earth as He wishes, with His knowledge, power and majesty. He has surrounded everything with His knowledge. Nobody who describes Him can describe His majesty as it is necessary. No escape can move away from Him.”

Ibn Rajab, summarizes these words as follows:

“That is, Allah's coming down to the sky of the earth is not like the coming down of creatures. On the contrary, His coming down takes place in a way that is appropriate for His power, majesty and knowledge, which surrounds everything. In fact, the knowledge of creatures is limited; their knowledge cannot surround everything. They can know about Allah as much as Allah informs them about Himself or the Prophet informs them about Him.  Therefore, the righteous salaf agreed that it was necessary to accept these kinds of hadiths and verses as they were and refer the issues that the mind could not perceive to those who know about them.” (Ibn Rajab, 3/117-118)

- We need to refer the issues that we do not understand to Allah. This view is a fact that is expressed by many salaf scholars like, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad b.  Hanbal.

As a matter of fact, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani states the following about the hadith of nuzul: “The creed of salaf and khalaf scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah is as follows: Allah is free and away from moving, traveling and entering something, There is nothing similar to Him.” (Ibn Hajar, Fathu’l-Bari, 7/124)

Acting upon those statements, we can definitely say that according to Ahl as-Sunnah, Allah does not come down to the sky of the earth in person; He comes down with His knowledge and power.

According to the rotation of the earth, the issues explained in the hadith become manifest in the place where the time mentioned in the hadith comes. Sunlight, which was created by Allah, reaches various places in the world according to the rotation of the world. Similarly, Allah's grace and mercy come down to the place where it is time for dawn anywhere in the world.

24 "Allah does not look at your outward appearance; He looks at your hearts and your deeds." What does the hadith above mean? Will you explain it?

The Prophet (pbuh) stated the following:

"Allah does not look at your outward appearance and your goods. He looks only at your hearts and your deeds." (Muslim, Birr, 33; Ibn Majah, Zuhd, 9; Ahmad b. Hanbal, 2/285, 539)

Man has outer beauty and inner beauty. Outer beauty disappears after a while. If a person is engaged in this outer beauty and thinks that he will be valuable due to it, he is bound to lose it and become valueless. However, if the inner beauty is taken into consideration and the beauty of ethics, knowledge, skill and attitude is given importance, the beauty that increases as one gets old is aimed. The dignity of such a person increases as he gets old and becomes more beautiful.   

The following statement of Hz. Ali expresses this fact:

"The outer beauty obtained by clothes and adornment is not permanent beauty. The real beauty is the beauty of ethics and manners; a person with such beauty is loved by the people around and by the Creator."

To sum up, we can say that man should not be engaged in outer beauty very much; he should give importance to inner beauty; and he should want the maturity that will last throughout life.  

However, it does not mean that outer beauty should not be given any importance.

Allah sees, hears and knows everything. The word "does not look" used in the hadith means "does not give importance"; it is not important in the eye of Allah. That is, if a girl is chosen miss universe, if she has a very beautiful face and perfect body, she does not have much importance. If she has an ill heart, has no belief or if she has bad intentions, the shape of her face, the beauty of her body, her power, posture and symmetry have no importance. Allah does not look at, that is, does not give importance to, outward appearance. He looks at a person's heart and his deeds. That is, He gives importance to his heart and intention.

Allah looks at this aspect of man. That is, He looks at his intentions in his heart and mind, his ideas and thoughts: What is the mentality of this man? How does he use his mind? What is his intention? What does he want to do?

A person sometimes does something bad while trying to do something good. He says, "O! I did not want to do so but it happened like that."  In such a case, he will not be held responsible inshaallah since his intention is not bad.

Allah rewards man for things done with good intentions. Something done with a bad intention may seem good in appearance but since the intention is bad, Allah does not give any rewards for it because He knows the real intention.

Look at this example:

A man approaches an old person in order to steal his money.

He says, "Can I help you to cross the street? You are an old man. You may fall, etc." He helps the old man cross the street.

The old man says, "Thank you very much. That is very kind of you."

When the old man crosses the street, he checks his wallet; it is gone. Why did the pickpocket help him? He helped him to steal his money. His intention was to steal his wallet.

That is, Allah does not like a deed that may seem good but if its doer has a bad intention. As a matter of fact, when the Prophet (pbuh) migrated to Madinah, he called the Muslims to come to Madinah. For, a new society was going to be formed there. Madinah was going to be the stronghold of the Muslims. Allah ordered all of the Muslims to gather around the Prophet (pbuh); some verses were sent down. It was necessary for the other Muslims to migrate to Madinah just like the Prophet (pbuh), to gather around him and to work under his command.  

That is, you need to take care of yourself and question yourself all the time:

"What is my intention now? What is my mentality?

What is my aim in life?

What do I do and why?

Am I doing something good? Is the deed I am doing good or bad?

Where am I going? I am at this age; what will happen to me?

How am I spending my life?

What will my life be like from now on?

How many more days do I have to live?

What will I say when I die and stand before Allah? What will I say if Allah says, "You did not do what I ordered"?  

How will I spend the rest of my life?"

Man needs to ask himself those questions and take care of himself; he needs to correct what he is doing, follow the right path and walk in the right path. 

It is possible to assess the hadith in the question in several ways like the ones above.

25 How should we understand the following hadith? "You need to listen to and obey your appointed ruler even if he is an Ethiopian (black) slave."

In the narration above and the narrations below, the necessity of obedience to ulul amr (those in authority) is expressed.

"If an Ethiopian slave with a cut off nose and ear were appointed as your ruler, you would have to listen to and obey his orders as long as he rules in accordance with the Book of Allah."(Ibn Majah, Jihad, 39; Bukhari, Ahkam, 4)

The following is stated in another hadith narration Bukhari reports from Anas (radiyallahu anh):

"You need to listen to and obey your appointed ruler even if he is an Ethiopian (black) slave whose head looks like a raisin."

The following is stated in a narration reported by Muslim: Abu Dharr said, 

"My friend (Hz. Prophet) said to me:"I advise you to obey the ruler even if he is a slave whose arms were cut off."

Those who explain the hadiths say what is meant by the words and phrases like "raisin" and "arms cut off" is lower rank in nobility and ugliness in appearance; that is, we are asked to obey the ruler without taking descent and physiognomy into consideration. 

Another narration is as follows:

"Even if an Abyssinian slave is appointed to rule you, listen to him and obey him. Keep obeying him unless you are threatened to abandon Islam or to be executed. In that case, surrender your head. If you abandon your religion, your world and hereafter will be destroyed anyway."

In the following hadith, rebellion against the imam is mentioned as one of the signs of  Doomsday:

"I swear by Allah that Doomsday will not strike unless you kill your imam, draw your swords against one another and the evil ones among you become your administrators."

In some narrations, obedience to the ruler is regarded as equal to obedience to Allah.

"He who obeys me is regarded to have obeyed Allah. He who disobeys me is regarded to have disobeyed Allah. He who obeys my ruler is regarded to have obeyed me. He who disobeys my ruler is regarded to have disobeyed me."(see Bukhari, Ahkam 1; Muslim, Imara 33; Nasai, Bay’at 26; İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-i Sitte Tercüme ve Şerhi, Akçağ Yayınları, V/64-65)

Accordingly, the administrators who are Muslims and who rule truly with justice are "ulu`l-amr"; it is necessary to fulfill their orders that do not necessitate disobedience to Allah. 

Ahl as-Sunnah scholars,unanimously agree that heads of state need to be chosen among just people who are good at administrative, political and military affairs and who are powerful and shrewd. According to the view of all religious scholars, it is wajib to obey the head of state who is chosen and appointed like that. 

However, Ahl as-Sunnah scholars regard it necessary to obey heads of state even if they come to power by force and whether or not they deserve it.

For, rebellion against state authority causes big mischief and evil. Everybody knows that it is very difficult to close the door of break down, tumult and anarchy opened by rebellion. This tumult can sometimes eliminate nations and states. 

The Prophet's advice of patience to his ummah toward the wrong and unjust deeds of the administrators does not ask them to surrender to oppression; on the contrary, it aims to make his ummah avoid bigger oppression and loss that will harm the unity of the state and nation.

Mujtahids, mujaddids and other Islamic scholars evaluated disobedience and rebellion separately.  They did not obey anybody regarding cases contrary to orders of Allah. However, they never attempted to rebel or encouraged others to rebel. On the contrary, they did their best to prevent people from rebellion; they served as examples to all Muslims through their attitudes.

26 Will you give information about the following hadith? The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "People with black banners will come from the East among the children of Abbas."

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"People with black banners will come from the East among the children of Abbas." The job of the first comers of them and those who will come later will be killing people; never help them. Allah will not help them.

On the Day of Judgment, Allah will put to Hell those who walk under their banner or carry their banner. They are really the most evil creatures of Allah.

They will claim that they are from me. Be careful! I am away from them and they are away from me.

Their signs are as follows: They lengthen their hair and wear black clothes. Do not sit in order to support them; do not do business with them in the market; do not show the way to them; do not give water to them; for, the people of the sky are disturbed by the takbir that they shout.

The narrators reported from Abu Umama in the "Saghir" of Tabarani.

Hadith No: 92 J. Ahadith Vol. 3 no: 8302; R. Ahadith Vol. 1 No-1832.

- The hadith was narrated by Tabarani. (see al-Mujamu’s-Saghir, 8/101)

- There are some scholars who interpret the hadith narrations like this and similar ones about the incidents that took place during the period of Abbasids. These hadiths may be related to people in different ages. It may be related to this age, too. Those who act like the people described in the hadith in this age will be under the threat of this hadith.

- It is not necessary to have a hadith that shows what ISIS does. It is obvious that what they do is contrary to Islam. According to the Quran and the Sunnah, and the real understanding of Ahl as-Sunnah, it is not possible to associate an organization which terrorizes people and whose creed is wrong with Islam. Otherwise, how can we explain the murder of so many people by this cruel group, the demolition of the graves of the prophets and saints by them?

- The translation of a sentence in the hadith as “the job of the first comers of them and those who will come later will be killing people” is not correct. The word “masbur” in the hadith does not mean killing; it means destroyed. That is, they will be destroyed.

- Besides, Hafiz Haythami attracts attention to the fact that the narration is weak by pointing out that Anbasa b. Abi Saghira, who exists in the chain of this narration reported by Tabarani, is somebody who is accused of being a liar. (see Majmau’z-Zawaid, h. no: 9251)

27 Are there any hadiths related to apologizing?

There are hadiths about apologizing. The following is stated in a hadith:

“If a Muslim brother of you comes to you to apologize, accept his apology even if he is not sincere. If you do not, you cannot come near me at the pool of Kawthar." (see Hakim, 4/170)

"A person who does not accept the apology of his Muslim brother cannot drink from the pool of Kawthar." (Munawi, Faydul-Qadir, 3/1181)

"It is a sin not to accept the apology of one's Muslim brother." (Abu Dawud, al-Marasil, 1/351-h. no:521; Ibn Majah, Adab,23)

"A person who does not accept the apology of a person carries that person's sins." (Ibn Majah, Adab, 23)

It is makruh to refuse the apology of a Muslim. It is among Allah's attributes to accept apologies and to forgive sins. Allah punishes a person who does not accept apologies.

The following is stated in a hadith:

"Allah accepts the repentance of a person who apologizes.  (Allah accepts the repentance of a person before he breathes his last.)" (see Abu Ya’la, Musnad, 9/462)

28 The following is stated in verse 193 of the chapter of al-Baqara: "Fight with them until religion should be only for Allah." Does religion not belong to Allah anyway? What is meant in the verse?

"And fight with them until there is no persecution, and religion should be only for Allah, but if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors." (al-Baqara, 2/193)

Fight the polytheists until there is no polytheism and worship is performed only for Allah not for idols and tyrants. If they desist and accept your religion, stop fighting them. For, hostility is valid only against the oppressors who associate partners with Allah.

What is meant by "fitnah" (persecution) in the verse is "associating partners with Allah", and denying. As a matter of fact, Qatada, Mujahid, Suddi, Ibn Zayd and Abdullah b. Abbas explained this word like that.  

What is meant by the word "din" (religion) in the verse is obeying Allah's orders and prohibitions. According to these explanations, the meaning of the first part of the verse is as follows: "O believers! Fight with the unbelievers until the mischief of associating partners with Allah and denying end in the world, and until they worship only Allah and say, La ilaha illalah."

There is also a hadith of the Prophet (pbuh) regarding the issue:

"I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah."(Bukhari, Iman, I7; Muslim, Iman, 36, Hadith No: 22)

The following is stated at the end of the verse: "If they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors." What is meant by this statement is as follows: "If the unbelievers that fight you give up fighting, accept your religion, give up worshipping idols and surrender you by accepting what Allah orders you, give up fighting them. For,hostility is valid only against the oppressors, who associate partners with Allah."

What is meant by hostility against oppressors means to stop and oppose their oppression. It does not mean to wrong the oppressors after punishing them. What is meant by the word "zalimin" (oppressors) are those who resist saying, "La ilaha illalah " according to Rabi' b. Anas and Ikrima. According to Mujahid, they are those who fight Muslims. (see Tabari, the interpretation of verse 193 of al-Baqara)

29 Will you explain the issue of imitating (trying to resemble) other nations/non-Muslims and the hadith "Anyone who imitates a nation becomes one of them"?

There are various types of imitation in religion individually and socially:

1. Natural imitation (resemblance):It is the kind of imitation in the methods used in science and technology, in natural issues in which imitation is inevitable like walking, eating and using some vehicles.

2. Imitation that is makruh (abominable):It is the lightest form of imitation that necessitates responsibility.For instance, decorating houses with tapestries that include pictures of living beings, cushions, paintings, wearing clothes that have pictures of living beings are regarded as makruh by fiqh scholars.

3. Imitation that is haram (forbidden): It is related to the deeds that are contrary to the orders and prohibitions of Islam committed by the members of the wrong religions like Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, materialism, etc, like drinking, treating, producing and selling alcoholic drinks.

Hz. Prophet prohibited Muslims from celebrating the holy days of non-non-Muslims like them. For, it is necessary for the protection of social cohesion to prevent the congregation from scattering and degeneration. 

Being exposed to foreign and harmful effects that are contrary to the values of the community can cause the values of a person's own community to weaken, fade and be forgotten. An individual and community that do not protect themselves from the harmful effects coming from outside will eventually collapse. Therefore, the Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Anyone who imitates a nation becomes one of them." (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, Beirut 1985, II/50)

So, one of the main principles of the religion of Islam, which is necessary to be practiced as a whole for believers, is to avoid resembling and imitating the members of wrong religions and ideologies in all phases of individual, family and social life.   

If a Muslim resembles those who are contrary to his belief,he will undergo weakness in his personality, will be alienated from himself and his values, and he will be a lackey of the enemy; he will also be tortured in the hereafter. Therefore, it is necessary for a Muslim to learn Islam, to avoid bid'ahs, to keep away from haram (forbidden) things and those who worship wrong things.

30 Could you explain the hadith about who is bankrupt in the hereafter? What is meant by this hadith?: “Verily, the real bankrupt of my ummah (nation) are those who come on the Day of Resurrection with prayers..."

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: “The Prophet said that:

"Whoever wronged his brother with regard to his honor or any other matter, should seek his forgiveness today, before there are no longer any dinars, or dirhams; and if he has any righteous deeds, they will be taken from him, in accordance with the wrong he did; and if he has no hasanaat, some of the sayyi`aat of his counterpart will be taken and added to his burden.” [Bukhari: Mazalim,10, Riqaq 48; Tirmidhi, Qiyamah 2, (2421)

The hadith encourages Muslims not to be unfair to their Muslim fellows. And it encourages them to seek forgiveness if they have treated them unfairly. The unfairness may be against the spiritual being expressed by the word 'honor'. What is meant by the phrase "any other matter" are the following: giving harm to any kind of his property, injuring him, and even slapping him. In fact, the phrase "any kind of honor and property" is used in Tirmidhi's narration.

This meaning is expressed in a different manner in Muslim’s narration:

Verily, the bankrupt of my nation are those who come on the Day of Resurrection with prayers, fasting, and charity, but also with insults, slander, consuming wealth, shedding blood, and beating others. The oppressed will each be given from his good deeds. If his good deeds run out before justice is fulfilled, then their sins will be cast upon him and he will be thrown into the Hellfire.

This hadith does not contradict the following verse of the Quran No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another.”(al-Anaam, 6/164) For, this person has been punished because of what he himself did. This is because his good deeds are deducted, in accordance with the justice of Allah towards His slaves, in proportion of his own misdeeds.

Humaydi wrote the following in Kitabu'l-Muwazana: “People are divided into three categories.”

· Those whose good deeds surpass their misdeeds.

· Those whose misdeeds surpass their good deeds.

· Those whose good deeds are equal to their misdeeds.

The first group will achieve salvation, as stated by the Quran explicitly.

Owing to their misdeeds surpassing their good deeds, the second group will suffer anguish in proportion to the amount of their misdeeds from the time when Israfil blows the Trumpet to the time when the last person leaves Hell.

And the last group is those in Purgatory (somewhere between Heaven and Hell). They will go to Heaven through Allah's mercy.

Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates: “The Prophet (pbuh) said,

"On the Resurrection Day, the rights will be paid to those to whom they are due so much so that a hornless sheep will be retaliated for by punishing the horned sheep which broke its horns." [Muslim, Birr 6, (2582); Tirmidhi, Qiyamah 2, (2422)]

In order to explain this hadith, Nawawi says: “This hadith is a statement regarding the fact that animals will be also resurrected, and they will be returned just like the people that are obliged to worship (because they are mature enough and healthy mentally), children, insane people and the people who did not receive any notifications about religion. There is evidence regarding the issue in the Quran and in the sunnah of the Prophet. Allah stated the following in the Quran:

When the wild beasts are herded together (in human habitations); (At-Takwir, 81/5)

If there is no logical or religious drawback to understanding a word in a verse or hadith in its apparent meaning, it is necessary to understand it as it seems. Islamic scholars say, “On the Day of Judgment, punishment, and rewards are not a requirement for resurrection and gathering. The fact that a hornless sheep will be retaliated for punishing the horned sheep is not retaliation because of being responsible but because of justice.

31 Will you give information about the Hadiths related to the Black Cumin? Is the Black Cumin remedy for all kinds of Illnesses?

2. (3986)- Abu Hurayra (radiyallahu anh) narrates: "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"There is healing in black cumin for all diseases except death." [Bukhari, Tibb 7; Muslim, Salam 89, (2215); Tirmidhi, Tibb 5, (2042), 22, (2071)]

EXPLANATION:

It is stated in the hadith above that the black grain that is called black cumin will heal all diseases except death. The hadith reached us in various versions. Ibn Hajar states that he found an explanation about how to use the black cumin for the common cold accompanied by extreme sneezing in a version of the marfu narration of the hadith:

"The black cumin is cleaned and crushed into fine powder; then, it is mixed with olive oil; three drops are placed in each nostril." In another narration, it is explained how to use it without the name of the disease being mentioned:

"It was asked: "What is black grain?" He answered: "It is Shuniz (black cumin)" He was asked: "How shall I use it?" He said, "Take 21 grains of black cumin; tie them in a piece of cloth. Then, put it in water and keep there for one night. Let one drop into your right nostril and two drops into your left nostril in the morning.  Let two drops into your right nostril and one drop into your left nostril the next morning.  Let one drop into your right nostril and two drops into your left nostril in the third morning." Ibn Hajar continues his explanation as follows:

"What is concluded from the narration above is this: What is meant by black cumin's healing all diseases does not mean that it should be used on its own for all diseases. On the contrary, it may be used on its own at times; it may be used by being mixed with something else; it may be crushed finely and used; it may be used without being crushed. It may be eaten; its oil may be drunk; it may be used as drops, etc."

Some scholars found the phrase "all diseases" mentioned in the hadith as something general and wanted to make it particular by the phrase "that can be treated with it..." They said, "It is good for cold diseases, not for hot diseases."

Scholars explaining the hadiths made some explanations whose details we will not mention here and regarded it appropriate to limit its general decree covering all diseases by saying "some diseases". Even Abu Bakr Ibnu'l-Arabi agrees with this opinion and says,

"According to doctors, honey is superior to black cumin in terms of curing all diseases; however, there are such diseases that if those who suffer from them eat honey, they get worse. What is meant by the verse about honey stating, "wherein is healing for men" (an-Nahl, 16/69) is most diseases; therefore, it is better to interpret the phrase "all diseases" as "most diseases" about black cumin, too."

Ibn Abi Jamra, who is among those who opposes limiting the general decree of the hadith, states the following:

"Some scholars wrote about this hadith and limited its general decree; they dared to explain the hadith through the words of doctors and people's experience. It is clear that they are mistaken. For, if we approve the words of doctors, we will base our views on the people whose knowledge is based on experience that is based on zann al-ghalib (strong probability). It is definite that it is better to approve the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who does not talk of his own desire, than their words."

After mentioning those different views, Ibn Hajar settles the issue as follows:

"We showed that the black cumin was meant to be taken in various mixtures and various ways, not on its own, stating that its meaning was general in essence. There is no drawback to approaching the meaning of the hadith like that; doing so will not mean moving away from the apparent meaning of the hadith."

In fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) does not promise that any medicine can cure any disease for sure; as it was mentioned before, he limits it by saying "with the permission of Allah". If the dosage, mixture and way of taking the black cumin, which is in question now, as Ibn Hajar mentions, can be determined, there should be no drawback to saying "for all diseases" though these kinds of phrases are used for confirmation. Since the hadith is general, it is more appropriate to accept that the black cumin has a healing, whether small or big, effect for all diseases within the framework of the conditions mentioned by hadith scholars. For, whatever the Prophet (pbuh) says is true and right; it is free and away from exaggeration and deception.

(Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-ü Sitte Tercüme ve Şerhi)

32 Will you explain the hadith, "May his nose soil with dust in whose presence mention is made of me and he does not supplicate (utter salawat) for me!"? What is the importance of uttering salawat?

" May his nose soil with dust in whose presence mention is made of me and he does not supplicate (utter salawat) for me!" (Tirmidhi, Da'awat 110) 

This hadith was uttered for those who do not utter salawat deliberately for the Prophet.

As it is known, it is a non-ignorable duty and debt of fidelity of every Muslim to say salawat whenever the name of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned.

It is informed that for every Muslim who understands the wisdom of the existence thanks to him, it is fard to say salawat once in the life, wajib for the following mentions and sunnah for repetitions; it is said that skipping salawat causes deprivation from intercession (shafaah).

A person who feels gratitude for someone who does him a favor and a person who shows respect to a person for a long time just for the sake of a cup of coffee will definitely feel gratitude for the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who was a means for saving his eternal life, and will say salawat with great respect when he hears his name and will attain his intercession with his loyalty.

Our Lord orders us to say salawat for the Prophet in the 56th verse of the Chapter al-Ahzab:

–Allah and His angels, send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! send ye blessings on him and salute him, with all respect.!

As a necessity of the command of that verse it has been stated that it is fard to say salawat once in the life, wajib for the first hearing of following mentions and sunnah for repetitions in the same place. What is understood is that after each salawat and salam, both our Lord and the angels become pleased; in addition, the angels pray for those who say salawat.

We see in hadith books that the angels pray for the person who says salawat, which causes the rank of our Prophet (pbuh) to rise in Paradise, as “May Allah make your rank rise, too” and other angels say ‘amin’ for that prayer. They react as “May Allah not make your rank rise” for those who do not say salawat and the other angels agree with that reaction by saying ‘amin’.

Thus, those who say salawat when they hear the name of our Prophet (pbuh) receive good prayers from the angels and those who do not say salawat receive the curse of the angels. Furthermore, our Prophet (pbuh) is offended by the unfaithful people of his umma who do not say salawat for him although they hear his name and expresses his reproach as “May his nose be covered with dust.” 

There are numerous kinds of salawat. The most famous of them are the ones that we recite after tahiyyat during prayers: “Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin wa ala ali Muhammad” and “Sallallahu alayhi wasallam”. Their meanings can be summarized as follows:

–May the mercy of our Lord, the asking forgiveness of the angels and our salam (greetings) be upon Hazrat Muhammad and his family.

Since salawat like that are prayers special to our Prophet, our Lord will not reject a prayer special to him.

If we start our special prayers with salawat that is not rejected and finish with salawat, we expect that our prayer between two accepted prayers will be accepted too.

When the name of the Prophet is seen while reading and writing it is the best to say:

–“Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin wa ala ali Muhammad” or “Sallallahu alayhi wasallam”, the initials (pbuh) written in the texts are used to remind salawat.  However, when the salawat signs like that increase in a text, the readers sometimes have difficulty and the signs that are added for respect sometimes may cause disrespect, contrary to what is intended. Instead of causing disrespect, it is better to decrease those signs and leave it to the understanding of the reader.

It cannot be said that salawat said for the Prophet will cause the forgiveness of sins because something like that is not in question. It causes a rise in the rank. Therefore, nobody can estimate and determine the rank of the Prophet because each second salawat like rivers flow from his umma every second and it is understood that the rise in rank will never stop and that it will go on till the doomsday.

A historical example of respect:

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna always addressed his servant Muhammad, whom he liked a lot, as Muhammad, but once he addressed him using his father’s name. The servant felt bad about it and asked the Sultan why he had addressed him using his father’s name but not using his nice name. The Sultan answered:

–I always had wudu and called that lofty name when I had wudu. Now I do not have wudu! I felt ashamed to pronounce that name without wudu!

Those who show laziness in saying salawat when his holy name is pronounced should read and draw lessons from that event.

33 How should we understand the following hadith?: "When the ears of one of you ring, let him send salawat to me. May Allah mention a person's name with goodness who mentions my name with goodness!"

There is no sound narration like the one above in basic hadith resources. According to some scholars, this narration is false. (see Ibnu’l-Jawzi, al-Mawduat, III/76)

Experts state that environmental factors like industrial noise, fire alarms, traffic noise and loud music are among the most common causes of ringing in the ears. Ringing in the ears mostly develops due to the harms occurring at the ends of hearing nerves. It is necessary to reduce irritation and tension to a minimum and to control stress in order to get rid of the disturbances caused by this.

In such an environment, remembering Allah and the Prophet (pbuh) will relieve him and save him from tensions like irritation and stress. From this point of view, it will be nice to utter salawat on any occasion. However, we should say it again that we could not find a sound narration like the one in the question.

In our religion, we are allowed to interpret any object, state, situation and position favorably but we are not allowed to interpret them unfavorably. The religion of Islam accepts the effect of the evil eye. However, it is not appropriate to turn everything into a phobia thinking that the evil eye has affected a person or something. 

The information that the Prophet gave importance to ringing in the ears is not true.

The attitude of Islam regarding the issue aims to save man from the delusions that makes life unbearable for him and to allow him to think about good things. Indeed, a person who interprets incidents favorably takes pleasure from life; the one who interprets incidents unfavorably makes life unbearable for himself.  

* * *

Ringing of the ears has some medical causes. They are explained below. We could not find a connection in terms of religion. However, a belief that is widespread among people can shed light on the issue:  

When a person has a ringing in his ears, statements like the following are made: “Somebody is mentioning my name." "We made somebody's ear ring."

A patient's perceiving a sound without a real external factor is called "ringing of the ear" (tinnitus). This sound may be in different tones and qualities. Some patients describe it as resonance, humming, howling or the sound of a machine that is operating. All of them are called "tinnitus".

There are many factors that can cause tinnitus. There may simple causes among them like "cerumen" or grave causes like benign or malign tumors.

Tinnitus generally occurs in older people but it can occur in people of all ages. The most common causes are as follows: 

- Inner ear getting old
- Vasoconstriction in the blood vessels going to the ear
- Hypertension
- Being in noisy environments
- Otitis media
- Otitis externa
- High amounts of cholesterol and other lipids in blood
- Psychological factors (depression, tension)
- Some drugs that are used (aspirin, some antibiotics...)

There are some other causes apart from the ones above that will form a long list. It should not be forgotten that tinnitus is not an illness but a symptom while trying to make a diagnosis. However, the real cause of tinnitus cannot be determined in general; therefore, the target in treatment should be decreasing tinnitus. The most common medical examinations used while trying to diagnose tinnitus are as follows:

- Audiometric examinations (middle ear and inner ear measurements)
- Measuring blood pressure
- Blood analyses (blood glucose, cholesterol, liver, goiter examinations)
- Radiological examinations (Normal graphs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance).

If a disease that can cause tinnitus is found as a result of the examinations, that disease is tried to be treated. However, even the successful treatment of the existing disease might not eliminate tinnitus. The most widely used method to decrease tinnitus, whether its cause is certain or not, is medication. Drugs that increase the blood flow to the inner ear can be used for it.

If tinnitus is so sever as to affect the daily life of the patient, devices called tinnitus masker resembling hearing aids can be useful. A practical method for the patients who have difficulty in dozing off may be listening to walkman for 15-20 minutes before going to bed. It may eliminate tinnitus temporarily.

34 Will you explain the hadith about committing sins by mistake and forgetfulness? What is our responsibility here?

"Allah has forgiven, for me, my ummah's mistakes and forgetfulness, and what they are forced to do." (Ibn Majah, Talaq, 16)

"... Our Lord! condemn us not if we forget or fall into error..." (al-Baqara, 2/286)

That is, we are determined to fulfill in the best way the duties you have assigned us to the extent of our capacity and to progress by doing more good deeds if we can with a feeling of obedience and enthusiasm; however, if we forget one of the duties that you rendered fard because we are human or if, by mistake, we do something that you rendered haram while trying to do something good, which will be in the form of abandoning something good or doing something evil, we can be called to account for it. Do not punish or torture us, the ummah of Muhammad, due to forgetfulness and making mistakes, the causes leading us to forgetfulness and making mistakes, and abandoning something good or doing something evil because of them. 

Forgetfulness and mistakes are divided into two: In one of them, the owner can be excused; in the other, the owner cannot be excused. For instance, if somebody sees some dirt on him, postpones cleaning it and forgets it, and then performs a prayer, he is not excused. He is regarded to have made a mistake since he has not cleaned it as soon as he has seen it; if he has not seen it, he is regarded as excused.    

Similarly, if a person aims at a game animal and shoots a human, he is not regarded as excused if he has not considered that there may have been some people there, that he may have hit them if there are people there and if he has not taken necessary measures.

Likewise, if a person does not try to memorize religious orders and duties and if he does not revise them so as not to forget them but still forgets them, he is regarded as excused due to forgetting something like this. The methods of documenting for it have been shown and it is stated that they should be written.

Thus, man cannot avoid some forgetfulness and mistakes but he can avoid others. Therefore, the phrase, "except those he can do..." does not mean that he will not be called to account for all mistakes and forgetfulness.

The verse does not eliminate the possibility of being called to account fully. It should be taken into consideration that the deeds that man can avoid are included. That is, the issue is hard. The bad deeds that are done by mistake or forgetting are indeed harmful, illegitimate and depend on man. 

It cannot be said that the poison that is swallowed by forgetting or by mistake is not harmful. It is like that. Bad deeds and sins are harmful like poison. In short, not to forget at all and not to make any mistakes are out of the control of man but they do not change the outcome of what they caused in the eye of Allah; they are all included in the decree. Therefore, man has to avoid them as much as possible.

There are some decrees of obligations for man like in the example of killing a person by mistake. Forgetting and making a mistake do not prevent the compensation from being paid about the harm given to somebody. Therefore, the phrase "Do not hold us responsible!" not the phrase "Do not hold us obliged!" is used in the verse. Thus, not being freed of the obligation but not being held responsible are asked in the supplication due to mistakes, forgetfulness and their prerequisites, causes and even outcomes. Such a teaching includes good deeds and justice too. As a matter of fact, the following hadith is related to this issue:

"Responsibility emerging from mistakes and forgetfulness was removed from my ummah." (Ibn Majah, Talaq 16; Kashfu'l-Khafa, I/522)

Yes, making a mistake and forgetting are bad things but, with your grace, do not hold us responsible!

"Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which Thou didst lay on those before us."

Do not make us like the nations that disobey and rebel. That is, do not put us under the burdens that will make us unable to move, that will squeeze us, under obligations that are unbearable, hard orders, strict rules, laws and practices; do not inflict on us hardships and do not turn us to monkeys and pigs by changing our appearance. Our Lord! Do not inflict hardships, difficulties and pressures on us in our rules and social life.

(see Elmalılı M. Hamdi YAZIR, the interpretation of the relevant verse)

35 Will you explain whether the statement "Seek knowledge (ilm) even if it is in China" is a hadith or not? There are some people who say this statement is fabricated. What do you say?

Some scholars like Ibn Hibban and Ibn Jawzi say this narration is fabricated but scholars like Bayhaqi, Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ibn Abdil-Barr and Daylami reported it as a hadith. However, they attracted attention to the fact that it was weak. (see Ajluni, Kashful-Khafa, I/138)

As a matter of fact, Bayhaqi included this hadith in his book and stated that it was weak. (Bayhaqi, Shuabul- Iman, II/254)

Jalaluddin Suyuti, the great Islamic scholar, included it as two different narrations in his book:

“Seek knowledge (ilm) even if it is in China because it is fard to learn knowledge for every Muslim. Angels lay their wings on the ground for the students of knowledge because they like what they do.” (Jamius-Saghir, 1/310)

However, that a hadith is weak does not prevent acting in accordance with it in terms of encouraging and avoiding. It is permissible to act in accordance with these narrations since they encourage knowledge. Besides, there are some scholars who say this narration reached us through various ways and that some of them can be "sahih (sound)" and "hasan". (see Munawi, Faydul-Qadir, 1/542-543)

It is possible to deduce the following decrees and results from this hadith:

1.Knowledge is universal. Useful knowledge is not the property of a certain nation and it can be found anywhere. In other words, true knowledge has no nationality. Man needs to seek true knowledge even if it is in China and obtain it.

2. Allah gives useful knowledge to the person who wants it.Anyone who wants, tries very hard, works for its sake and prays with the tongue of talent be helped by Allah to reach useful knowledge and can obtain useful knowledge with the help of Allah whether he is a Muslim or not. Whoever uses the tongue of talent and asks knowledge from Allah, Allah will give it to him. As a matter of fact, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi states that the sultanate of mankind that is dominant on earth, the technology and the civilization that has been reached has not been obtained by pride and struggle like Qarun (Croesus), that this civilization  is the product of the knowledge about matter given under the control of humanity due to its weakness, that he was helped by Allah to reach this knowledge, that the doors of learning the right and useful knowledge were opened, and that the right knowledge was inspired to man by Allah, who created the mind and consciousness. (Nursi, Sözler, p. 296)

3. Allah has equipped humanity with the ability and equipment to learn the true knowledge. It is a sign of being the caliph on earth. Whether he is a Muslim or not is a different issue. Doubtlessly, a Muslim should pursue true knowledge more.  However, today the true knowledge about matter is in the hands of non-Muslims. We should accept it. For, they want it and they seek it. They pray with the tongue of talent. And Allah gives it to them.

When it comes to Muslims who have numerous orders in their hands to obtain the true knowledge, they are behind non-Muslims regarding the issue. They suffer the consequences by being underdeveloped countries and serving the developed countries. Today, there is no other reason for the sufferings of the Islamic world.

It was not like that in the past. In the past, Muslims were the masters of civilization, true knowledge and development. However, after a while, they stopped seeking knowledge. They generously gave the knowledge that was sought and obtained by their predecessors to the West, which was seeking knowledge. There was no mistake that the West received knowledge from the Muslims. However, it was a terrible mistake that the Muslims remained away from knowledge and did not follow their predecessors. The Islamic world has not been able to overcome this stagnation yet. Today, the prayer caps our hajjis bring from Makkah are made in China and dhikr counters are made in Japan.

4. It is fard for every Muslim to learn the true knowledge related to the field he is interested in and he is talented about. It is sunnah to present what they learn as service to humanity.

5. Angels pray for learners of knowledge and they protect them against dangers by Allah's permission and order.

36 Are there any hadiths about reading the chapter of al-Ikhlas one thousand times on the day of arafah (one day before eid al-adha)?

There are hadiths regarding the virtue of reading the chapter of al-Ikhlas (1); there are also hadiths about reading it 1000 times:

"If a person who reads the chapter starting with ‘Qulhuwallahu ahad’, he will buy his soul from Allah." (2)

"If a person who reads the chapter starting with ‘Qulhuwallahu ahad’ on the day of arafah, Allah will give him what he wants." (3)

Therefore, to read the chapter of al-Ikhlas on the day of arafah became a custom coming from salaf as-salihin (righteous people of the first periods of Islam). Badiuzzaman Said Nursi pointed to this custom by saying,

“Reading the chapter of al-Ikhlas repeatedly on the day of arafah based on a nice custom of Islam one hundred times..”(4)

He stated that this number is one thousand using the following words:

“We used to read the chapter of al-Ikhlas one thousand times in my hometown on the day of arafah.”(5)

There are many hadiths about repeating some dhikrs by pronouncing some numbers. For instance,

Hz. Aisha narrates:

When the Prophet (pbuh) got up for tahajjud prayer at night, he would start by uttering takbir (Allahu akbar) ten times, tahmid (alhamdulillah) ten times, tasbih (subhanallah) ten times, tahlil (la ilaha illallah) ten times and istighfar (astaghfirullah) ten times. After that, he would read the following supplication ten times: “O Allah! Forgive me! Make me steadfast on the true path and give me sustenance. Then, he would read the following supplication: “O Allah! I take refuge in you from having trouble on Day of Reckoning.” (6)

“If a person sends salawat to me once, Allah will give him ten rewards.” In another narration, Abdullah b. Amr b. As said, “If a person sends salawat to the Messenger of Allah once, Allah and His angels say salawat for him seventy times. (Allah has mercy on him; angels ask forgiveness and pray for him.)” (7)

Besides, it is asked in various sahih hadiths to read the chapter of al-Fatiha seven times - for healing - , to utter tasbihat thirty-three times, etc.  

Footnotes:

1) see Tirmidhi, Fadailu’l-Qur’an, 11; Musnad, 3:437, 5:141; Darimi, Fadailu’l-Qur’an, 24; Suyuti, al-Fathu’l-Kabir, 3/227; Bayhaqi, Shuabu’l-Iman, 2/506-508.
2) Suyuti, al-Fathu’l-Kabir, 3/227; Munawi, Faydu’l-Qadir, 6/203 hadith no: 8953.
3) see Munawi, Munawi, Faydu’l-Qadir, explanation of the hadith 6/203
4) Mektubat, Yirmi Beşinci Mektup Dokuzuncu Mesele.
5) Şualar (13. Şua-s.299)
6) This hadith reported by Abu Dawud, Ahmad b. Hanbal and Tabarani is regarded as sahih. see Majmau’z-Zawaid, 2/263.
7) These narrations of Ahmad b. Hanbal are sahih. see Majmau’z-Zawaid, 10/160.

37 Will you explain the hadith "Difference of opinion (disagreement) in my ummah is a mercy"?

Those who call some hadiths “mawdu (fabricated)” are usually the people who do not know and understand the meaning of the hadith and why the hadith was said. Thus, it should not be forgotten that the words of those who express their ideas without knowing the nature of the issue are of no value. 

The hadiths reported from the Prophet (pbuh) reached us after a thorough investigation and search. The effort of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, who went to Egypt from Madinah in order to learn only one hadith, is enough to prove it. In the following centuries, in a period of about four-five centuries, hadith scholars worked very hard about the soundness of hadiths day and night. They did not accept everything they heard as hadiths; they investigated everything, from who narrated it to what was the chain of narrators. They even graded hadiths due to the differences in the chain of narrators and prepared hadith books accordingly.   

There are some hadiths that are the same in meaning but that were narrated differently. There are also some hadiths that were classified as “marfu (traceable), munqati (broken), mursal (hurried), daif (weak)” based on the terms of the science of hadith in the order of soundness . Hadith scholars tried to understand these kinds of hadiths, which were not understood at first, within the framework of the science of hadith and with the help of some verses and other hadiths and explained them accordingly.

The issues mentioned above are in question for the hadith “Difference of opinion (disagreement) in my ummah is a mercy.” People have objected to this hadith throughout the history of Islam. Hadith scholars gave them the necessary answer and showed them that their objection was meaningless.

In order to set an example to hadiths like that, we want to report the words and explanations of hadith scholars in detail so that those who say “fabricated” about any hadith that they do no not understand will be more cautious regarding the issue.

Imam Ajluni wrote a book called "Kashfu’l-Khafa". This book studies and investigates whether the words that are said to be hadiths and that are disputable are really hadiths. It is an original study in the field of hadith. The following explanation of the hadith scholars is given about the hadith in question: Imam Bayhaqi reports the following hadith from Ibn Abbas in Madkhal:

“My Companions are like the stars in the sky. You will find the truth no matter from whom among them you receive hadiths. Difference of opinion of my Companions is a mercy for you.” (al-Ajluni, Kashfu’l-Khafa, I/64; al-Munawi, Faydu’l-Qadir, I/210-212)

Bayhaqi also includes the following hadith in the same book:

“Difference of opinion (disagreement) of Muhammad's Companions is a mercy for Allah's slaves.”

Hadith scholars like Tabarani, Daylami, Abu Naim, az-Zarkashi and Ibn Hajar mention the existence of a hadith in the same meaning. Khattabi, the great hadith scholar says,  

“Two people opposed this hadith. One of them is mad and the other is irreligious. They are al-Musili and Jahiz. They say, ‘If difference of opinion were a mercy, unanimity (agreement) would be torture.”

Stating that what they say is nonsense, Khattabi describes difference of opinion as follows:  

“There are three kinds of disagreement. The first and the second ones are disagreements about Allah's personality and attributes; one of them is unbelief and the other is bid'ah. The third one is disagreement on secondary(minor) issues of fiqh which have aspects. The disagreement in this one is a mercy for the ummah.”

Umar bin Abdulaziz states the following:

I do not like the statement “The Companions did not disagree.’ If they had not disagreed, there would not have been permission regarding any issue.”

In the explanation of Sahih al-Muslim, Imam Nawawi deals with the issue of disagreement on an occasion and makes the following explanation.

“Something being a mercy does not necessitate its opposite being torture. Something like this in this hadith is baseless. Only ignorant people or those who pretend not to know say so. Allah Almighty states the following:

‘It is out of His Mercy that He has made for you Night and Day― that ye may rest therein….’

The night is described as ‘mercy’; it cannot be concluded that the day has to be torture.” (see Sharhu Muslim, 11/91-92; Ajluni, ibid)

Some scholars mention the hadith “My ummah will not unite on misguidance” and say, “It should not be understood from the hadith that the disagreement of the ummah is not mercy.”

Scholars state the following about what is meant by disagreement in the hadith:

“What is meant by disagreement here is not the disagreement on major issues of the religion but on minor issues. For, disagreement on major principles of the religion is misguidance. (Qadi Iyad, Subki). What is meant by disagreement (difference) on this issue is the disagreement of the ummah on arts, positions, ranks and degrees, which is a mercy for the ummah. For, the existence of different arts is useful for the ummah.  (Imam Haramayn)

The point that hadith scholars agree on here is the disagreement on minor (secondary) issues. It is called ijtihad. Madhhabs occurred due to the disagreement of mujtahids (having different ijtihads) on the secondary issues of the religion, not on the principles. The existence of different madhhabs is also a mercy for Muslims. For, every Muslim followed a madhhab based on his own conditions, acting and worshipping accordingly.

When mujtahids disagree on an issue, those who are right get two rewards and those who are wrong get one reward.Their mistake while trying to find what is true does not gain them a sin but a reward. See Fayd al-Qadir Volume 1 pages 210-212 for more detailed information regarding the issue.

When the hadith “Difference of opinion (disagreement) in my ummah is a mercy” is understood  as“disagreement on serving the truth, having different opinions and making different interpretations”, the issue becomes more general. For, Muslims believe in the same principles and truths but every individual has an independent personality and mentality. Therefore, it is normal to approach and interpret hadiths from different viewpoints.

Since Muslims settle their issues through consultation, everybody needs to tell their ideas sincerely and express their views based on their knowledge and specialization. With this aspect, disagreement becomes the source of material and spiritual development. While explaining this hadith in his book called "Mektubat (Letters)" , Badiuzzaman said Nursi deals with the issue within the framework of three questions and three answers, and writes about examples. We will summarize his explanation:

The question and answer are as follows:

- The following is stated in a hadith: "Difference among my ummah is mercy.” Difference requires partisanship. How can it be mercy?

The difference intended in the hadith is a positive difference. Those who try to convey the Islamic realities to the people who need them will exchange ideas to a certain extent. However, everybody should repair and spread their own way and style of service. They should not seek to tear down and destroy the views and service of others but rather to improve and reform them, which is the positive aspect. As for the negative difference, they try to destroy one another by nurturing hatred, envy and hostile feelings. The hadith rejects it because those who are at each other's throats cannot act positively.

The second question: The sickness of partisanship also delivers the oppressed common people from the oppressor elite. For, if the elite of a town or village join, they will destroy the oppressed common people. If there is partisanship, the oppressed may seek refuge with one of the parties and thus save themselves.

This issue is explained as follows:

If partisanship is in the name of truth, it can become a refuge for those seeking their rights. However, the partisanship now is biased and self-centered; it can only be a refuge for the unjust, not the just. It has become a point of support for them. For, if a devil comes to a man engaged in biased partisanship, encourages him in his ideas and takes his side, that man will call down Allah's blessings on the Devil. However, if the opposing side is joined by a man of angelic nature, he will go so far as to invoke curses upon him. Therefore, there is no mercy in this kind of disagreement and a positive outcome cannot be obtained.

The third issue is as follows:

In the confrontation of views taking place in the name of justice, there is unity with respect to aim and basic purpose but difference occurs regarding means; and people think differently. This confrontation of views makes manifest every aspect of the truth and serves justice and truth. However, what emerges from a confrontation of views that is partisan and biased and takes place for the sake of a tyrannical, evil-commanding soul and based on egotism is not the flash of truth but the fire of dissension. For, the views of the people who take part in this kind of confrontation of views can never find a point of convergence. Since they do not differ for the sake of the truth, they discuss excessively and forever. They give rise to rips and wounds that can never be treated because they do not unite on the aim.  

After these explanations, which we summarized, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi warns all believers as follows:

“O people of faith! If you do not wish to enter a humiliating condition of slavery, come to your senses and enter and [take refuge in the citadel of: 'Indeed the believers are brothers', to defend yourselves] against those oppressors who would exploit your differences! Otherwise you will be able neither to protect your lives nor to defend your rights. It is evident that if two champions are wrestling with each other, even a child can beat them. If two mountains are balanced in the scales, even a small stone can disturb their equilibrium and cause one to rise and the other to fall."

"So O people of belief! Your strength is reduced to nothing as a result of your passions and biased partisanships, and you can be defeated by the slightest forces. If you have any interest in your social solidarity, then make of the exalted principle of "The believers are together like a well-founded building, one part of which supports the other" your guiding principle in life! Then you will be delivered from humiliation in this world and wretchedness in the Hereafter.” (Mektubat (Letters) p. 247-249)

To say that this hadith is “fabricated, fake” after all these explanations is nothing but ignorance. Besides, no hadith scholar said this hadith was “mawdu (fabricated)”.  Regarding how to view the hadiths that are doubted, it will be very useful to read the "Twelve Principles" in the "Third Branch of the Twenty-Fourth Word" in the book called Sözler (Words) written by Badiuzzaman Said Nursi.

38 How should the expression "is not (one) of us" mentioned in some hadiths be understood? For instance, "He who cheats us is not one of us." "He who sleeps on a full stomach while his neighbor is hungry is not one of us."

The reason why the expression "is not one of us" is used for those who commit the wrong things mentioned in the hadiths is to explain that the necessary acts for real belief and Islam are not done. That is, this wrong deed is not the way that Islam approves. It does not mean that those who commit these deeds "exit the religion of Islam".

Even if a person exits the religion of Islam, the door of repentance is open for him.

39 How should the following hadith be understood: "The parts of land dearest to Allah are its mosques, and the parts most hateful to Allah are markets."

Abu Hurayra narrates: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"The parts of land dearest to Allah are its mosques, and the parts most hateful to Allah are markets." (Muslim, Masajid 288)

We learn from the Quran that Allah created humans and jinn so that they will worship Him only. (adh-Dhariyat,  51/56)

Mosques are places where servitude like worshipping, dhikr and taqwa take place in the perfect sense. Therefore, they are the dearest places in the eye of Allah.

Accordingly, the places where Allah is mentioned and worshipped are the places that are the most appropriate for the purpose of creation and that Allah is pleased with. The main places having these properties are mosques and small mosques, which are places of worshipping.

Unlike mosques, shopping centers and markets are places where heedlessness is dominant, Allah is forgotten and people are engaged in the world the most. Therefore, they are places that are the farthest away from the consent of Allah. Drawing attention to this property of markets', the hadith encourages people to be alert and honest.

In fact, the trade carried out in accordance with the rules of the religion of Islam is legitimate. Doubtlessly, people can turn markets into mosques in their inner world through their ideas, meditation, words and religious talks. Indeed, the Prophet (pbuh) included honest merchants among the people of the highest ranks:

“The truthful, trustworthy merchant is with the Prophets, the truthful, and the martyrs.” (Tirmidhi, Buyu 4; Ibn Majah, Tijarat 1)

40 How should we understand the hadith, “My intercession is for those who commit major sin in my community?”

Allah, who sends prophets as guides and leaders to humankind, by rendering them pure and sinless, gives a message: “Strive hard not to commit sins!"

The hadith should be evaluated under the light of the above-cited truth. It is logically impossible to infer from this hadith that “intercession will be possible for the people who commit major sins but those who commit minor sins will be deprived of this”.

When necessary attention is given to the hadith, these two important messages would be taken from the remark of the Prophet:

First, this hadith is a praiseworthy answer to the Mutazila sect which claim “committers of major sins are in the middle of somewhere between faith and disbelief”.

Second, after intercession permit is given (on the day of resurrection) first prophets, then angels, and then pious men will intercede before Allah on behalf of believers. This will occur according to the spiritual rank of all people... and major sins will be able to be forgiven by the intercession of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) who is the most honorable person in the presence of Allah.

41 What are the hadiths related to Paradise and Hell? When the people of Paradise enter Paradise, Allah will say...”

There are a lot of hadiths about Paradise and Hell; some of them are as follows:

Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Allah Almighty said, "I have prepared some boons for my righteous slaves in Paradise that no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and no heart has remembered." (at-Taj, el-Jamiu li'l-Usul fi Ahadithi'r-Rasul, V, 402)

In another hadith, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states that Paradise was made of silver and gold bricks, its mortar was musk, its stones were pearls and rubies, that those who entered there would live in abundance and welfare without any problems or sadness, that they would stay there forever, that they would not die, that their clothes would not get old and that their youth would not disappear. (at-Taj, ibid)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following in another hadith:

"Certainly you will see your Lord as you see this moon and you will have no trouble in seeing Him." (Bukhari, Mawaqit 16, 26)

According to the narration of Suhayb,  

"To those who do right is a goodly (reward)― yea, more (than in measure)!" (Yunus, 10/26)

after reading the verse above, the Prophet (pbuh) said,

"When the people of Paradise enter Paradise, Allah will say, "Is there anything else that you want Me to give you?" The people of Paradise will say, "Did You not make us happy? Did You not put us in Paradise? Did You not save us from Hell? (That is enough.)" The Messenger of Allah continued as follows: "Allah Almighty will remove the veil; the people of Paradise will not be given anything lovelier than looking at their Lord." (Muslim's version, at-Taj, V, 423)

Abu Hurayra narrates: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Allah stated: "I have prepared some boons that no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and no man has imagined for my righteous slaves."

Abu Hurayra continues:

"If you wish, read the following verse: "Now no person knows what delights of the eye are kept hidden (in reserve) for them as a reward for their (good) Deeds." (Bukhari, Bad'ul-Khalq 8, Tafsir as-Sajdah 1, Tawhid 35; Muslim, Jannah 2, Tirmidhi, Tafsir)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"There are two gardens, the utensils and contents of which are made of silver; and two other gardens, the utensils and contents of which are made of gold. And nothing will prevent the people staying in the Garden of Eden from seeing their Lord except the curtain of Majesty over His Face." (Bukhari, Tafsir, ar-Rahman 1, 2, Bad'ul-Khalq 8, Tawhid 24; Muslim, Iman 180; Tirmidhi, Jannah 3)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"There is such a tree in Paradise that a person riding an animal cannot cover it even if he rides one hundred years in its shade. Read the following verse if you wish: "In shade long-extended, By water flowing constantly."(al-Waqia 30-31)" (Tirmidhi, Tafsir, al-Waqia, Jannah 1)

Abu Hurayra narrates: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"There is no tree whose trunk is not gold in Paradise." (Tirmidhi, Jannah 1)

Abu Hurayra narrates: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"In Paradise, a place as small as a bow is better than everything the sun rises on or sets (the world)."

Tirmidhi adds the following from Hz. Anas:

"A place as small as your bow or whip in Paradise is better than the world and everything in it. If a woman of Paradise showed herself to the people of the world, she would illuminate the world and everything in it and would fill the area between the sky and the earth with nice scent; her headscarf is better than the world and everything in it." (Bukhari, Bad'ul-Khalq 8, Tafsir, al-Waqi'a 1; Muslim, Jannah 6; Tirmidhi, Jannah 1)

Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas narrates: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"If as little as what can be placed on a fingernail of what is in Paradise were to become apparent, it would have beautified all the far corners of the heavens and the earth. And if a man among the people of Paradise were to appear and his bracelets were to become apparent, the light of them would have blotted out the light of the sun, as the sun blots out the light of the stars." (Tirmidhi, Jannah 7)

Burayda (ra) narrates: Somebody asked the Messenger of Allah (pbuh): "Are there horses in Paradise?" The Prophet (pbuh) said,

"If Allah admits you into Paradise and if you wish to be carried on a horse of red ruby, it will fly with you wherever you want."

Thereupon, another man asked him, "Are there camels in Paradise?" However, this time, the Prophet (pbuh) gave a different answer:

"'If Allah admits you into Paradise, you will have in it whatever is desired by your soul and pleasing to your eye." (Tirmidhi, Jannah 11)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"There is a place where the black-eyed houris gather in Paradise. They sing with a voice that no creature have heard of and say, 'We are eternal; we never die. We have been granted boons; we do not know poverty. We are pleased with our Lord; we do not feel sad. How happy are our husbands!' " (Tirmidhi, Jannah 24)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"In Paradise there is a street to which the people of Paradise come every Friday. The north wind will blow and scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and add to their beauty and loveliness. Then they will go back to their family after having an added luster to their beauty and loveliness. Their wives will say to them: 'By Allah, you have been increased in beauty and loveliness after leaving us.' The men will say: 'By Allah, you have also increased in beauty and loveliness after us.'" (Muslim, Jannah 13)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Indeed in Paradise there is a market in which there is no buying or selling except for images of men and women. Whenever a man desires an image, he enters it." (Tirmidhi, Jannah 15)

Let us give some examples of hadiths related to Hell now:

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "This Fire of yours, which you kindle, is one part from seventy parts of the fire of Hell." The people there said, "By Allah! This fire is enough to punish in the hereafter." The Prophet said, "Hellfire is sixty-nine parts more than this fire. The heat of each part is similar to this." (Bukhari, Bad'ul-Khalq 10; Muslim, Jannah 29; Muwatta, Jahannam 1; Tirmidhi, Jahannam 7)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Hellfire was kindled for one thousand years until it reddened. Then it was kindled for one thousand years until it whitened. Then it was kindled for one thousand years until it became blackened; now, it is black and dark." (The text is from Tirmidhi.) (Tirmidhi, Jahannam 8; Muwatta, Jahannam 2)

Abu Saidi'l-Khudri narrates: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"The rampart surrounding Hell had four separate walls. The thickness of each wall is as long as the distance covered in forty years on foot." (Tirmidhi, Jahannam 4)

Hasan Basri narrates: While Utba Ibn Ghazwan (ra) was on the pulpit in Basra, he said, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"A giant rock was thrown from the brink of Hell and it continued to fall into it for seventy years; it has not reached the bottom of it yet."

(Utba Ibn Ghazwan continued): "Hz. Umar (ra) said,

'Increase in your remembrance of the Fire, for its heat is extreme, its bottom is distant, and its whips are of iron.'" buyurdu." (Tirmidhi, Jahannam 2)

Abu Saidi'l-Khudri narrates: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Wayl is a valley in Hell. An unbeliever sinks for forty years but he cannot reach the bottom." (Tirmidhi, Tafsir, al-Anbiya)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"If only a drop of Zaqqum were to drip into the world, it would spoil the peoples' livelihood. Then, how about the person for whom it is his food and drink? (Tirmidhi, Jahannam 4)

Abu Hurayra narrates: the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Hell complained to its Lord. It said, 'Some parts of me consume my other parts.' Thereupon, Allah allowed it to take two breaths: one during the winter, and one during the summer. As for the breath in the summer, it is the most severe heat; as for the breath in the winter, it is zamharir (the most severe cold)."  (Bukhari, Bad'ul-Khalq 10; Muslim, Masajid 185; Tirmidhi, Jahannam 9)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Some of the fire will come out of the fire in the shape of a long neck on the Day of Judgment. It will have two eyes which can see, two ears which can hear, and a tongue which can speak. It will say, 'I have been appointed to punish three: Everyone who called upon a deity besides Allah, every obstinate oppressor, and image makers." (Tirmidhi, Jahannam 1)

Ibn Mas'ud narrates: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Hell will be brought forth on the Day of Judgment having seventy thousand bridles. There will be seventy thousand angels with every handle dragging it." (Muslim, Jannah 29 ; Tirmidhi, Jahannam 1)

Ibn Abbas (ra) asked me, "Do you know how wide Jahannam is?" I said, "No!" He said, "Yes. By Allah, you cannot know it." Then, he said, "Hz. Aisha (ra) said to me, 'I asked the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) about the following verse: "…On the Day of Judgment, the whole of the earth will be but His handful, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand..." (az-Zumar,39/67) "O Messenger of Allah! Where will people be then?' He said, "On the bridge of Hell." (Tirmidhi, Tafsir, az-Zumar)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Paradise is surrounded with the things that the soul dislikes. Hell is surrounded by the things that the soul desires." (Sahihayn, reported from Abu Hurayra)

(Source: Kütüb-i Sitte Şerhi, Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan)

42 Will you write the names of the reliable hadith resources/books?

The Degrees of Hadiths Books:

Hadith books are divided into the following degrees based on the reliability of the hadiths they include:

First Degree: Mutawatir, mashhur, sahih and hasan hadiths. "Sahih" books of Bukhari and Müslim and "Muwatta" of Imam Malik. We can act based on the hadiths in those books.

Second Degree: The books that cannot attain the same level as the books in the first level but whose writers included the hadiths by applying some conditions meticulously. They have also been adopted as hadith resources and used for centuries. Jami' of Tirmidhi, Sunan of Abu Dawud, Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbal and Sunan (Mujtaba) of Nasai are among this group.

Third Degree: The books in this degree includes weak hadiths along with sahih hadiths; there are also some hadiths whose narrators are unknown. They are "Musannaf" of Abdurrazzaq, hadith books of Bayhaqi, Tabarani and Tahawi... Only experts of hadiths can make use of the hadiths in those books.

43 How should we understand the hadith "The only difference that distinguishes between a Muslim and an unbeliever is prayer (salah)"?

"Between Islam and polytheism and unbelief is the abandonment of salah (prayer).“ (Muslim, Iman 134; Abu Dawud, Sunnah 15)

“The agreement between munafiqs (hypocrites) and us is prayers.” (Tirmidhi, Iman 9; Nasai, Salah 8)

The threats in the hadiths above are for the people “who deny that prayer is fard or who regards it halal not to perform prayers”. Shirk (polytheism) and nifaq (hypocrisy) is not in question for a person who accepts that prayer is Allah’s order but acts lazily toward prayer. Such Muslims do not become unbelievers or hypocrites.

However, it should not be forgotten that a person who does not perform prayers for a long time will be exposed to some dangers in the course of time.

44 How should the expressions like "Ramadan and Rajab are the months of Allah" and "Ramadan is the month of my ummah" mentioned in hadiths be understood?

That some months like Ramadan, Rajab and Muharrem are attributed to Allah - based on the place of the expression - emphasizes their special honor and virtue. In fact, all months belong to Allah. For instance, when a father says about one of his sons, “This is my child; he is his father's son”  in order to appreciate his son, it does not mean “his other children do not belong to him.”

Due to some wisdoms like the ones above, some months are attributed to Allah. For instance, the Prophet (pbuh) stated the following in a hadith:

“Show respect to the month of Ramadan for it is the month of Allah.” (Majmau’z-Zawaid, III/143)

Some other hadith narrations are as follows:

“The most virtuous month after the month of Ramadan is the month of Allah - which you call Muharram.” (ibid, III/190)

“Ramadan is the month of Allah; Shaban is my month. Shaban cleans and Ramadan atones for sins.” (Kanzu’l-Ummal, XIII/466).

“Rajab is the month of Allah; Shaban is my month; Ramadan is the month of my ummah.” (Kanzu’l-Ummal, XII/310).

We do not see a clear statement about the issue in resources but we can state the following:

Rajab is the month of Allah. For, in the era of Jahiliyyah, people did not fight in the month of Rajab - because it was one of the four haram months -, showing respect to the orders of Allah and they tried to avoid committing bad deeds.

Shaban is the month of the Prophet (pbuh). For, it is written in the program of the divine determination in the month of Shaban, which includes the Night of Barat, that Hz. Muhammad was going to be a prophet. Therefore, the month of Shaban, which is the harbinger of the prophethood, is regarded as the month of the Prophet.

Since Ramadan is a month of pardoning and forgiveness, it is a general period of forgiveness for the salvation of the ummah. Therefore, there is no doubt that it is the month of the ummah.

45 How should we understand the hadith "If a person says 'inshaallah' (if Allah wills) when he speaks, it shows the perfection of his belief"?

Yes.

“If a person says 'inshaallah' (if Allah wills) when he speaks, it shows the perfection of his belief.”
(Suyuti, Jamiu’s-Saghir, II/ 50)

There is a hadith regarding the issue.

This statement shows the belief that Allah is aware of everything and that nothing can take place if He does not wish. A person with such belief has reached the level of perfection in belief. 

It is a phrase meaning "(it will happen) if Allah wishes"; it is uttered in order to refer everything to the wish of Allah.

It is necessary to say "inshaallah" in order to be included among those who obey Allah in His presence. The following is stated in a hadith:

"There is no obedience better than saying inshaallah for people."

It is necessary for a person to say inshaallah when he says, "I will do… "or "I will go to…………… tomorrow."

If "inshaallah" is uttered while arranging something and if it is not fulfilled, those people are not regarded to have told lies. (Miftah-ul Jannah)

The word "inshaallah" is also uttered in definite things. Although Allah stated that Muslims would enter Masjid al-Haram, He sent the following verse to teach Muslims to say inshaallah: "Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills". (al-Fath, 48/27)

It is stated in the Quran that Hz. Ismail said,  

"... "O my father! Do as thou art commanded: thou will find me if Allah so wills one practicing Patience and Constancy." (as-Saaffat, 102)

Once, the Prophet (pbuh) visited a cemetery and said, "Inshaallah we will meet you" addressing the dead people as a necessity of divine education though it is certain that everybody will die. (Muslim)

Although the Prophet (pbuh) knew that his prayer would be accepted based on a verse, he said,

"The prayer of each prophet is accepted. All prophets prayed for their ummas in this world. I pray Allah to give me the permission to intercede in the hereafter.  Inshaallah my prayer will be accepted. I will intercede for all people except polytheists." [Muslim]

Hz. Sulayman's Test:

The following is stated in the Quran:

"And We did try Solomon: We placed on his throne a body (without life): but he did turn (to Us in true devotion)." (Sad, 38/34)

Fakhruddin Razi said:

Once, Hz. Sulayman told his wives that he would visit them one by one at night and that he would have a son from each of them who would fight in the way of Allah. However, he forgot to say inshaallah. He had a crippled child. They put him on the throne of his father. The following is stated in a hadith: "I swear by Allah that if Sulayman had said inshaallah, it would have happened as he wished." (Bukhari)

When the Prophet (pbuh) was asked about spirit, Ashab al-Kahf and Dhul-Qarnayn, he said, "I will tell you about them tomorrow," but he forgot to say, inshaallah. Therefore, he did not receive any revelation for a few days. Then, the following verse was sent down:

"Nor say of anything, 'I shall be sure to do so and so tomorrow' ― Without adding, 'So please Allah!'" (al-Kahf, 18/ 23, 24)

Prophets do not commit sins; their deeds like the ones above are called "zalla".

46 Will you give information about mutashabih hadiths? (He will open His leg and show His thigh; artists; in a cloud...)

1. In some verses and hadiths, expressions like "Allah's hand, Allah's rope, Allah's thigh" are used. These verses and hadiths are mutashabih (ambiguous/allegorical). The Prophet (pbuh) used some mutashabih words in some hadiths so that people would understand the issues better. As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh) states the following in a hadith:   

"Abu Said narrates. I listened to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).

"The Day that the shin shall be laid bare, to prostrate..."(al-Qalam, 68/42)

He stated the following about the verse above:

"Our Lord will open His leg and every believing man and woman will prostrate. Those who prostrated in the world hypocritically and to show off will fail to prostrate. They will also try to prostrate but their backs will be a solid organ that will not bend." [Bukhari, Tafsir, Nun wal Qalam 2, Tafsir, Nisa 8, Tawhid 24; Muslim, Iman 302. (183)]

In verse 42 of the chapter of al-Qalam, the phrase "Kashfus – saq" is used. It lexically means opening of the shin. As it is seen, what is meant by the verse is not the literal meaning; there is a message in it. The hadith uses the word "saqahu (his shin)" with a pronoun. Ibn Hajar says it is used as "saqa (shin)" without pronoun in another version of the hadith, and he says it is more appropriate since it is compatible with the verse. Otherwise, as we have quoted the literal translation above, attributing a shin to Allah Almighty will be in question, which will be difficult to interpret since Allah Almighty is likened to a human being.

Then, what is meant by "opening the shin"? Scholars understood it as "all truths being obvious and reckoning and punishment taking place with severity and horror". As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states in the hadith that at the time when Allah Almighty shows all truths and carries out reckoning with horror, He will distinguish between those who worshipped sincerely in the world and those who acted hypocritically and will save the believers from horror while adding horror to unbelievers’ horror by making their backs unable to bend, rubbing their nose in it. The translation of the verse that describes the incident is as follows:

"The Day that the shin shall be laid bare, to prostrate, but they shall not be able-Their eyes will be cast down, ignominy will cover them; seeing that they had been summoned aforetime to bow in adoration, while they were whole (and had refused)."(al-Qalam, 68/42-43)

2. The tortures and penalties in Hell are different for different people. The ones that will be tortured the most in terms of faith will be polytheists. However, those who will be tortured the most severely in terms of deeds will be those who make sculptors and pictures of living beings. 

3. Nawawi states the following regarding this hadith: "This is among hadiths of attributes. There are two vies about these hadiths:

     a. Without thinking of its meaning to believe that –there is nobody similar to Allah and that He is free from the attributes that belong to His creatures. 

     b. To believe the hadith by interpreting it in accordance with the principles of belief, not as it literally means. A person who says so is regarded to have said the following about the hadith:

"What is meant by it is testing. Do these people have the creed of oneness and do they express belief in a single Allah as the Creator, supervisor and an active being? Is this deity the deity that a person who prays applies to when he turns toward the sky? Is this turning like the turning of a person toward the qiblah when he performs a prayer? In fact, this turning is not because He is in the sky only; similarly, turning toward the Kaaba does not mean He is in that direction only. The reason why people act like that is that the sky is the qiblah of those who say prayers just like the Kaaba being the qiblah of those who perform prayers."

Qadi Iyad states the following:

"All Muslims, whether they are fiqh, hadith or kalam scholars, thinkers, muqallids (imitators of a madhhab), agree to say the following:

As it is stated in the verse, "Do ye feel secure that He Who is in heaven…?" (al-Mulk, 67/16), all of the nass stating that Allah is in the sky are not used in the literal sense; all of them understood them by interpreting them. For instance,when fiqh, hadith and kalam scholars mentioned the existence of Allah in terms of the direction of upwards without expressing any limitation or state, they interpreted the phrase “in heaven/in the sky” as “on heaven/on the sky”

"Those who rejected limitation and decreed that being in a direction is contrary to mind, they interpreted direction differently."

Sindi writes the following interpretation:

Scholars stated the following about the meaning of ‘Where is Allah?’: "Which direction do those who turn toward Allah turn? The phrase ‘in the sky’ means as follows: ‘(Those who turn toward Allah) turn toward the direction of the sky.’ What is meant by this question is these people accepting Allah's existence, not proving the existence of direction about Allah."

47 How does fornication bring about poverty?

The narrations stating that fornication will bring about poverty and misery are regarded as weak.

For example, there is some information that the hadith "Fornication brings about poverty and misery" is "weak". (See Majmauz-Zawaid, 5/196)

- The hadith narration “..there are six consequences of fornication, three of which will be seen in the world and three of them in the hereafter …” is regarded as weak/wrong/fabricated due to some weak narrators in the chain of narrators. (see Ibn Adi, 20/23; Abu Nuaym, 4/111; Ibnul-Jawzi, al-Mawduat, 3/107; Suyuti, al-Laaliul-Masnua, 2/162)

Ibn al-Jawzi narrated this hadith from three different ways and said, "none of them is sound". (al-Mawduat)

- However, according to some scholars, poverty is divided into two as poverty in terms of wealth and poverty in terms of heart. Some people may suffer from both while others may suffer from one of them.

- If they are sound narrations, the following interpretation is also possible:

As we pointed out in previous answers, some expressions in verses and hadiths are absolute, not "general".

Therefore, the decree that is given is not valid for everybody but for some people. However, the relevant statements are made in a way that will remind a “general” decree as a necessity of “the style of guiding”.

As Badiuzzaman Said Nursi puts it, “For example, the following is narrated: “Whoever performs two rak’ats of prayers at such and such a time has performed the equivalent of the Hajj.” It is thus the truth that at certain times two rak’ats of prayers may be the equivalent of a Hajj. Due to its universality, this meaning may apply to all prayers of two rak’ats. That means what narrations of this sort refer to is not in fact continuous and universal, because since there are conditions of acceptance, it disallows it being continuous and universal. It is either in fact temporary and absolute or possible and universal. That is to say, the universality in this sort of Hadith is in regard to possibility.” (Sözler (Words), 347)

48 Will you explain the hadith informing about the conquest of Istanbul?

According to what was reported from Bishr al-Ghanawi, he heard the Prophet (pbuh) say,

"Istanbul will definitely be conquered. What a good commander is the one who conquers it and what a good army is his army!"1

References: The hadith that definitely informs us about the conquest of Istanbul without giving rise to any hesitation about eight and a half centuries before its conquest exists in the period of Kutub as-Sitta and even in the resources compiled before. Ahmed b. Hanbal’s (d. 241/855) Musnad, Bukhari’s (d. 256/870) at-Tarikhul-Kabir wa-Tarikhus-Saghir, Ibn Abi Haythama’s (d. 279/892) Kitabut-Tarikh and Bazzar’s (d. 292/905) Musnad are the resources of the hadith in the period of compilation.

In the later periods, Tabarani's al-Mu'jamul-Kabir, Ibn Qani’s (d. 351/962) Mu'jamus-Sahaba, Hakim’s (d. 405/1014) Mustadrak are important resources for that hadith. From Khatib Baghdadi’s (d. 911/1505) at-Talkhis (I, 283) to Suyuti’s (d. 911/ 1505) al-Jamius-Saghir, the latest period works also include the hadith.

On the other hand, the hadith is also mentioned in the biographies of the Companions like al-Istiab, Usdul-Ghaba and al-Isaba in the item of Bishr al-Ghanawi. It should not be thought that the hadith is not sound because it does not exists in the six hadith books (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasai, Ibn Majah).

For, in terms of methodology, as the great scholar Qasim b. Qutlubugha states appropriately, "The soundness of a hadith is determined by checking the states of the people who narrated it, not by looking at in which book it exists."3

The chain of narrators of the hadith is almost the same in all resources. The result obtained from the narrators in the chain separately is that the chain is uninterrupted.

Therefore, Hakim says, "the chain is sound"; Dhahabi, the famous scholar on narrators agrees with the view of Hakim and says that the hadith is "sound". Besides, there are several more hadiths mentioning that Istanbul will be conquered and some of them are included in Kutub as-Sitta.4

The following fact should never be forgotten: That a hadith does not exist in Kutub as-Sitta does not mean that it is not sound (sahih). There are many sound hadiths in the resources other than Kutub as-Sitta too. That hadith is one of them.

None of the scholars who wrote books about "the statements fabricated as hadiths"  claimed that the hadith we mention was "fabricated" but Mahmud Abu Rayya, who regards himself as more knowledgeable than Abu Hanifa and Shafii, 5, and who is closer to orientalists and Shiites put forward the following claim: "It is probable that this hadith was fabricated for Yazid b. Muawiya because he was the commander of the army in the war of Qustantiniyya."6 Thus, he shows what a baseless, unserious and partial approach he has. For, the glad tiding in the hadith is not for the army that besieged Qustantiniyya but the commander and army that conquered it. This approach shows how arbitrary Abu Rayya can be in his other views.

Nasiruddin al-Albani, who acts in a very relaxed way while evaluating hadiths says that Ibn Hibban's positive view about Abdullah b. Bishr al-Ghanawi does not satisfy him and hence he says, "In my opinion, this hadith is not sound." Thus, he indicates that it is “weak”.7

It is clear that a personal view that is based on such a reason has no aspect to be taken into consideration.

References:

1. Ahmad bin Hanbal, IV, 335; Bukhari, at-Tarikhul-Kabir, I (part two), 81; at-Tarikhus-Saghir, I, 341; Tabarani, al-Mu'jamul-Kabir, II, 24; Hakim, Mustadrak IV, 422; Haythami, Majmauz-Zawaid, VI, 219; see Hadislerle Gerçekler, Vol. 2; p. 251-254)
2. See Ali Yardım, "Fetih Hadisi Üzerinde Bir Araştırma", Diyanet dergisi XIII, 2. p, 116-123, Ankara, nd.
3. Qasimi, Kawaid, p. 82.
4. See Bukhari, Jihad, 93, 157; Abu Dawud, Jihad, 22; Fitan, 6; Malahim, 3-4; Tirmidhi, Fitan, 5; Ibn Majah, Jihad, 11; Fitan, 35; Darimi, Muqaddima, 43.
5. See P. Murtaza ar-Razawi, Ma'a Rijalil-Fikr fil-Kahira. p. 292.
6. See Muhammedî Sünnetin Aydınlatılması, p.145.
7. See Silsilatul-Ahadithid-Daifa, II, 268-269.

(Prof. Dr. İsmail Lütfi ÇAKAN)

49 Who was the Companion who asked Qisas (retaliation) from the Prophet?

Answer 1:

Yes, such an incident took place but he wanted to kiss the seal of prophethood on the back of the Prophet not his abdomen. 

There is a widespread view that Hz. Ukkasha kissed the seal of prophethood of the Messenger of Allah.

According to a narration, the Prophet asked people to forgive him if he had violated the rights of anybody and wanted them to come to him and to demand anything he owed them just before his death. Thereupon, a Companion called Ukkasha said,  “The Messenger of Allah hit his naked back with the whip, maybe intentionally or maybe by mistake while hitting his camel, and that he wanted retaliation for it now.”

When the Prophet opened his back, Ukkasha looked at the seal of prophethood and kissed it. He said his aim was to kiss it. (see Majmauz-Zawaid, h. no: 14253)

However, Hafiz Haythami states that this narration, which Tabarani included in al-Kebir (h. no.2676) was weak. (see Majmauz-Zawaid)

The true version of the incident is that the person who kissed the seal of prophethood of the Messenger of Allah was Hz. Usayd b. KHudayr.

Hz. Usayd b. Hudayr narrates the incident as follows:

"Usayd b. Hudayr was addressing a group of people. He was a joker. At one point, he made them laugh. The Prophet (pbuh) poked him with a stick slightly. Thereupon, Usayd said to the Prophet,

O Messenger of Allah! Let me take retaliation (due to poking me with the stick). (Hz. Prophet said):

Take retaliation. (Usayd):

You were wearing a shirt but I was not wearing a shirt (when youpoked me with the stick).

Hz. Prophet rolled his shirt up in order to allow him to take retaliation.

Thereupon, heembraced the Prophet and began to kiss his back. He said,

O Messenger of Allah! This is what I wanted. (Abu Dawud, Adab, 149)

Thus, Hz. Usayd, who was famous for being a joker, kissed theseal of prophethood of the Prophet by benefitting from the joke of the Prophet.

Accordingly, it is permissible to kiss the back of a person. As a matter of fact, Ayni, who is a Hanafi scholar, said, "Thus, it was known that kissing a person’s hand, foot, head and back was permissible." (Ayni, Binaya, IX, 326)

Answer 2:

The seal of prophethood is a mole between the two shoulder blades of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) that is regarded as one of the signs of his prophethood.

The seal of prophethood is regarded as both evidence for the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah and a sign of his being the last prophet in the books of siyar, shamail, khasais and dalail an-nubuwwah. As a matter of fact, seal is generally stamped at the end of written documents and indicates that the last word was said. That the Messenger of Allah is called khatam an-nabiyyin (the seal of the prophets) (al-Ahzab 33/40) is explained both as him being the last prophet that ended prophethood and as divine evidence approving (sealing) the prophethood of all prophets. (Elmalılı, Hak Dini, VI, 3906)

It is stated in hadith and siyar resources that there was a mole (piece of flesh) in the form of a red gland as big as a dove’s or partridge’s egg that is swollen enough to be felt by the hand between the two shoulder blades of Hz. Muhammad nearer to the left shoulder blade and that it is called the seal of prophethood. (Musnad, V, 107; Bukhari, Wudu, 40; Muslim, Fadail, 110; Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 11)

Answer 3:

Hereby, we will narrate the lives of both Companions in brief:

a) Abu Yahya Usayd b. Hudayr b. Simak al-Ashhali (d. 20/641)

He was among the first Muslims of Madinah.

He is a member of the clan of Sons of Abdulashhal of the Aws tribe.

His father, Hudayr al-Kataib, who was one of the notables of his tribe could read and write. He was the commander of the Aws tribe in Buath War, which took place six years before the Migration between the tribes of Aws and Khazraj; and he was killed in this war. His mother was Umm Usayd bint Sakan.

It is mentioned that the Prophet addressed Usayd as Abu Isa (Ibn Abdulbah, I, 54), and there are four different narrations about his nickname.

Usayd b. Hudayr  accepted Islam through Mus'ab Umayr, who was sent to Madinah  after the First Pledge of Aqaba, and he became a means for Sa'd b. Muadh, who was  the son of his paternal uncle and the leader of Aws tribe on the same day.

He was one of the three people who represented the tribe of Aws among the twelve representatives chosen by the Messenger of Allah in the Second Pledge of Aqaba He was declared brothers with Zayd b. Haritha after the Migration.

He did not attend the Battle of Badr because he did not know that the aim of the expedition was fighting. After the battle, he told the Prophet about it and asked his excuse to be accepted; he joined all of the other battles and wars. He was one of the few Companions who did not leave the Prophet in the Battle of Uhud. One of the seven wounds he received that day was the blow given to him by Abu Burda b. Niyar accidentally. He re-armed again after the battle before finding an opportunity to cure his wounds in order to join the Expedition of Hamra al-Asad.

He was the standard-bearer of the tribe of Aws in the battles of Uhud and Tabuk; he was the commander of the group of 200 people appointed to protect the trench against the attacks of Khalid b. Walid.

Usayd, was known by the nickname “Kamil” (perfect/mature), because he had been famous for his maturity since the Era of Jahiliyya, he was literate and he was a good archer and swimmer. Usayd was one of the scribes of the Messenger of Allah and one of the people that the Prophet consulted from time to time; he also worked as a teacher.  

He was one of the people who dissuaded the Messenger of Allah from making a deal with Uyayna b. Hisn during the Battle of Khandaq. Ibrahim b. Jabir, who was one of the slaves from Taif who joined the Muslims as a result of the call of the Messenger of Allah, was put under the supervision of Usayd so that Usayd would teach him the Quran and the decrees of the religion. Usayd was also the imam (who lead the prayers) of his own tribe.

When the Prophet died, most of Ansar supported Sa'd b. Ubada, the leader of the tribe of Khazraj but Usayd joined the group that supported Hz. Abu Bakr and played an important role in the election of Hz. Abu Bakr as the caliph. It is stated that Abu Bakr consulted him related to important issues.

He took part in the famous meeting that Hz. Umar had with his commanders and the notables of the Companions in Jabiya; he also took part in the conquest of Jerusalem.

Usayd, who was regarded as the most virtuous people among the Sons of Abdulashhal along with  Sa'd b. Muadh and Abbad b. Bishr, died on Shaban, 20 (July-August 641). Hz. Umar led his janazah prayer and carried his dead body the Cemetery of Baqi.

When Hz. Umar heard that the land of Usayd, who owed 4000 dirhams when he died, was sold to pay his debt, Umar called the creditors and talked to them so as not to leave Usayd’s children in financial difficulty. He made a deal with them and left the income of the land to the creditors for four years with the system of “qabala”. It is stated in some sources that this issue of debt payment was based on a will by Usayd to Hz. Umar. (Ibn Abdulbar, I, 55)

It is narrated that Usayd affected even angels by reciting the Quran with a beautiful voice; once, while he was reading the Quran, his horse, which was tied, shied and reared up; when he stopped reading, the horse calmed down. The same thing happened three times. He was worried that his son, who was near the horse would be hurt, and went over to the horse. He saw objects like lanterns in a shadow resembling a cloud rose toward the sky by shining.

When he told the Prophet (pbuh) about it in the morning, he told Usayd that the beings that he saw were the angels who came to listen to his reading the Quran and that they would continue to listen to him until the morning and that people would also see them. (Bukhari, Fadailul-Quran 15, Manaqib, 25)

People like Anas b. Malik, Ka‘b b. Malik, Abu Said al-Hudri, Hz. Aisha, Abu Layla al-Ansari, Abdurrahman b. Abu Layla, Ibn Shafi‘ at-Tabib narrated hadiths from Usayd. Ther are about fifty hadiths that he narrated in Kutub at-Tis’a including the repeated ones.

b) Abu Mihsan Ukkasha b. Mihsan b. Hursan al-Asadi (d. 11/632)

Since he was about forty-four years old when the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) died, he must have been born in 588.

He is the brother of the Companions Abu Sinan and Umm Qays bint Mihsan and the paternal uncle of Sinan b. Abu Sinan.

Ukkasha, who lived in Makkah with some relatives, was one of the first Muslims. When he was thirty-four, he migrated to Madinah with all of his relatives. He took part in almost all expeditions. He also took place in the Expedition of Batn an-Nahla under the command of Abdullah b. Jahsh.

He fought heroically in the Battle of Badr. When his sword was broken during the battle, it was narrated that the Messenger of Allah had gave him was transformed into a sharp sword and that Ukkasha used this weapon called "awn" both in the Battle Badr and in the wars that he took part later. (Ibn Hisham, I, 637)

In the 6th year of the Migration (627), Ukkasha was appointed as the commander of the military unit of forty people sent as against Sons of Asad for retaliation; it is also reported that the commander was Thabit b. Aqram. No fighting took place in this expedition, which is also known as Ghamra because the enemy escaped but some booty was obtained.

In the 9th year of the Migration (630), Ukkasha was appointed as the commander of the Expedition of Jinab sent against the clans of Sons of Bali and Sons of Uzra of the Qudaa tribe. The Prophet also sent him to the region of Sakasik and Sakun as zakah officer and conveyor of the message of Islam.

Ukkasha who was a famous cavalryman, was at the forefront with this property in battles. Because of his heroic fighting in many wars, the Messenger of Allah praised him with the words "We have the best cavalryman of Arabs." When the Prophet was asked who he was, he said, "Ukkasha b. Mihsan".

When Dirar b. Azwar From the tribe of Asad which Ukkasha belonged to, said, "O Messenger of Allah! Ukkasha belongs to our tribe”, the Prophet (pbuh) said, "No, he is not of you; he is a contracted (hilf) man of us." (Ibn Hisham, I, 638)

The Messenger of Allah said that 70,000 people of his ummah that turned to Allah with full submission would enter Paradise without being reckoned.  

Ukkasha said, "O Messenger of Allah! Would you pray to Allah so that He will include me among them?" The Prophet said," You are already among them. "

Thereupon, another person who was there wanted the same thing but the Prophet said, "Ukkasha acted faster than you." (Bukhari, Tibb 17, 41, Riqaq, 50, Muslim, Iman, 367, 369, 371, 374)

This statement of the Messenger of Allah became a saying expressing the person that acted faster than the other of the two people who wanted to do the same thing.

Ukkasha was martyred in the battle against those who renounced the religion of Islam after the death of the Prophet.

Ukkasha, who was a member of the army Hz. Abu Bakr sent against Tulayha b. Khuwaylid under the command of Khalid b. Walid, went with Thabit bin Aqram as a vanguard to watch Tulayha and his men. On the way, they met Tulayha and his brother who had come to watch the Muslims. Ukkasha started to fight Tulayha and he was about to kill him when Tulayha’s brother came and rescued him. Then, they martyred Ukkasha.

In Turkey, there is a grave associated with Ukkasha in the town of Nurdağı in Gaziantep. The name Okkesh, which is the Turkish adaptation of the name Ukkasha, is given as a name to boys due to the love toward him and is widely used especially in Gaziantep, Kahramanmaraş and Adıyaman regions. Abu Hurayra and Abdullah b. Abbas narrated hadiths from Ukkasha but they were not included in Kutub as-Sitta.

50 "A person who slanders another person remains in Hell until he is forgiven by that person." Is there a hadith like that?

The translation of the hadith mentioned in the question is as follows:

"If anyone makes an untruthful accusation against a Muslim, he will be made by Allah to dwell in the corrupt fluid flowing from the inhabitants of Hell till he retracts his statement.” (Abu Dawud, Aqdiya, 14; Ibn Majah, Ashriba,4)

Another hadith regarding the issue is as follows:

“If anyone attacks a Muslim saying something by which he wishes to disgrace him, he will be restrained by Allah on the bridge over Hell till he is acquitted of what he said.” (Abu Dawud, Adab, 36)

The Arabic text of the hadith is not suitable to be translated as in the question. The explanations of the hadith explain it like that too.

"If a person slanders a believer Allah will keep him in Hell until the person who has been slandered forgives him."

According to the apparent expression of the hadith, slandering a person is related to violation of that person’s rights; therefore, a person who commits such a sin cannot be saved from Hell until he is punished. Those statements generally correspond to the statements of the hadiths related to violation of people’s rights.

According to some scholars like Qadi Iyad, the meaning of the hadith is as follows: A person who slanders will definitely be punished unless he repents and is forgiven by the person he has slandered. (see Awnul-Mabud, the explanation of the relevant hadith)

However, it should not be forgotten that these kinds of statements in hadiths are expressed with the style of guidance and warning. That is, this punishment is based on the principle of justice. That it is stated in an absolute way without mentioning any way out is a style of expression that aims to cause people to be very careful about violation of others’ rights.

There are also sound hadiths stating that Allah can take a person to Paradise without putting him in Hell by persuading the person who is wronged if He wishes. (see at-Targhib wat-Tarhib, 3/309; Kanzul-Ummal, h. no: 8863)

Note: The narrations by al-Musanna b. as-Sabah, who is included in the chain of narrators of the hadith reported by Hafiz Haythami, Tabarani and Abu Yala according to the majority of the scholars are not relied. (see Majmauz-Zawaid, 5/70)

However, that person is not included in thechain of narrators of the hadith reported by Ibn Majah and Abu Dawud. Therefore, this hadith can be regarded as sound.

51 Did the prophet (PBUH) advise drinking camel’s urine?

We will deal with the issue in terms of a few aspects:

The soundness of the hadith:

Like the other kutub as-sittah resources, Bukhari and Muslim mention this story in a few places. (see Bukhari, Wudu, 66; Tibb, 5- 6; Diyat, 22; Muslim, Qasama, 9-11; Ahmad b. Hanbal III/107,163; Abu Dawud, Hudud,3; Tirmidhi, Taharah, 55, Nasai, Tahrimu’d-Dam, 8-9)

Hadith resources draw attention to the fact that the narrators reporting this story from Anas use various expressions (see Nasai, ibid). This fact makes the soundness of the expression doubtful since some words in the reports are extra or missing though the sources of the narration are sound. Especially the expressions like “only the milk of camel is advised to drink, not the urine,.. these murderers were left to die in the sun, they were not hanged...”  violate the soundness of at least some of the narrations. The resources of the different narrations will be given below.

The summary of the story is as follows:

"Hz. Anas narrates: A group of eight people from the tribe of Ukl or Urayna came to Madinah, paid allegiance to the Prophet (pbuh) and became Muslims. After a while, the climate of Madinah did not suit them and they became ill. Upon their complaint, the Prophet (pbuh) advised them to go outside Madinah with shepherds and to drink camel's milk and urine. They drank camel's milk and urine for a while and got well. After that,they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels. When the Prophet (pbuh) was informed about the incident, he sent some people in their pursuit. They caught those people and brought them to the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) punished them severely. He had their hands and feet cut off; and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron. Then, they were left under the sun to die..."

The analysis of the hadith:

a. Drinking camels’ milk and urine:

The phrase “he advised drinking camel’s urine”  in the question is an intentional or unintentional perversion. For, in all narrations (except the ones stating that only milk is advised), “milk and urine” are mentioned together but milk is not mentioned in the question, which is regarded as an attempt to bring drinking urine into the forefront. This is the result of lack of information or malicious intention.

b. The hesitancy in the expression related to drinking urine:

It is understood from these narrations that Arabs used to use camel's milk maybe also camel's urine as medicine for some illnesses. (see Bukhari, Tibb, 57) As a matter of fact, the same advice was given in an incident reported by Hz. Abu Dharr:

“The climate of Madinah made me ill. Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said to me, ‘Go and drink some camel's milk and goat-sheep's milk (Hammad, one of the narrators of the hadiths said, 'and I think he also said urine').” (see Abu Dawud, Taharah, 125)

Abu Dawud says the phrase "drinking camel's urine" in the hadith is not true and that it exists only in the narration reported from Anas by the hadith scholars of Basra. (see ibid.)

In a narration of Nasai (reported by Humayd from Anas) drinking only milk is advised. (see Ibn Hanbal; III/107; Nasai, Tahrimu’d-Dam, 8)

However, there are some scientific studies about the existence of some properties in camel's milk and urine that can heal certain illnesses. Doctors say it is understood through experience that they are useful for some dermatological and internal diseases. (see Majallatud-Dawa, April, 1425/2004; issue:1938)

According to Ibn Sina, who accepts that animal urines contain some useful elements, the animal whose urine is the most useful is the camel that grazes in Arabian deserts with wonderful air. (see Ibn Qayyim, Zadu’l-Maad, IV/47-48)

c. Preventing giving them water:

In the places that we mentioned as resources, the following statement does not exist: “When we wanted to give them water, the Prophet prevented us.” However, the following statement “They wanted water but they were not given water” exists in some narrations (Bukhari, Wudu, 66); the identity of the person preventing them is not mentioned. As Imam Nawawi states, there is no statement or evidence to accuse the Prophet (pbuh) of preventing people from giving water to those killers. It is a slander and an example of perversion to say, “When we wanted to give them water, the Prophet prevented us.”

The type of punishment given to them:

The punishment given to them is not light but it is just because those murderers deserved it due to the following reasons:

a. They exited Islam after being Muslims and killed one or a few shepherds.

b. They branded the eyes of the shepherds with heated pieces of iron; therefore, the same thing was done to them as retaliation.

c. They were punished by their hands and feet being cut off because they grabbed the camels whose milk and urine they used and were cured by, because they waylaid, they revolted against the state, they caused mischief and they declared war against Allah and His Messenger by doing so. (see Ibn Hajar, Fathul-Bari, X/141-143; XII/230-243).

According to some narrations, the murderers were hanged; they were not left under the sun to die. (see Nasai, ibid).

d. The Quran states the following:

“The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter.” (al-Maida, 5/33).

The divine voice that we need to listen carefully regarding the issues like that states the following:

“We have indeed sent down signs that make things manifest: and Allah guides whom He wills to a way that is straight.

They say, "We believe in Allah and in the apostle, and we obey": but even after that, some of them turn away: they are not (really) Believers.

When they are summoned to Allah and His apostle, in order that He may judge between them, behold some of them decline (to come).

But if the right is on their side, they come to him with all submission.

Is it that there is a disease in their hearts? or do they doubt, or are they in fear, that Allah and His Messenger will deal unjustly with them? Nay, it is they themselves who do wrong.

The answer of the Believers, when summoned to Allah and His Messenger, in order that He may judge between them, is no other than this: they say, "We hear and we obey": it is such as these that will attain felicity.” (an-Nur, 24/46-51).

52 There was a hadith about constructing high buildings close to the end of time. Will you explain this hadith?

Constructing high buildings is mentioned among the signs of Doomsday in hadiths. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a hadith.

"One of the signs of Doomsday is the rivalry of bare-footed and poor shepherds in constructing high buildings and boasting about it.” (Bukhari, Fitan: 25; Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad, II/313)

The people of low social class, that is, nomads and poor people will be leaders and administrators, increase their wealth and compete one another to construct high buildings in order to boast. Some scholars say this sentence indicates that Islam will spread. Kirmani states the following:

“To some up, one of the signs of Doomsday is Muslims dominating over other countries and nations.”1

Qurtubi states the following:

“What is meant by it is the nomads living in the desert invading the state and owning it by force, causing a big change. Thus, their wealth will increase and they will try to construct high buildings and start to boast of them. We witnessed them in this period.”2

Indicating high buildings is one of the important signs that describes the advanced technology of the period we live in informed by the Prophet (pbuh).
When we look at the history of architecture and engineering, we see that high buildings started to be built at the end of the 19th century. The advancement in technology, proliferation of steel, use of electric elevators speeded up the construction of skyscrapers.

Skyscrapers became an important part of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries; they became a symbol of prestige today. The news about people competing to construct high buildings given in the hadith came true when countries started to compete to construct higher skyscrapers.    

Footnotes:

1. see Ahmed Davudoğlu, Sahih-i Müslim Tercüme ve Şerhi, Sönmez Publications: 1/117-119; Haydar Hatipoğlu, Sünen-i İbn-i Mace Tercüme ve Şerhi, Kahraman Publications: 1/106-107. 

2. see Fathul-Bari: 1/131; Nazım Muhammed Sultan, Kırk Hadis Şerhi, Guraba Publications: 59-60

53 Is the saying “The one who remains silent against injustice is a speechless Satan” a hadith? If so, can you give the reference?

This saying has become popular among people as a hadith. However, we could not find any information showing that this saying belongs to our Prophet (pbuh).

Qushayri states in his book Risale (p 62) that he heard this from Ustadh Abu Ali ad-Dakkak: “The one who does not tell the truth/remains silent against injustice is Satan.”, after quoting the saying “Just as speaking when it is needed is a good trait, so too is knowing to be quiet in time is a trait of virtuous  people.”

Ibn Qayyim included these statements in his book al-Jawabul-Wafi (p 136):

“The one who advises people by saying superstitious/untrue things is a speaking Demon. The one who avoids telling the truth is a speechless Satan.”

The statement The one who remain silent against injustice…” is more popular, though.

In a nutshell, this saying which we could not find a sound or weak source despite all our research seems to be just a maxim.

54 Is there a hadith stating that there is poison in one wing of a fly and antidote in the other? How is it interpreted?

Abu Hurayra (radiyallahu anh) narrates: "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"When a fly alights in anyone’s vessel, he should plunge it all in, for in one of its wings there is a disease, and in the other is a cure. It prevents the wing of it is which there is a cure." (Abû Dawud, At'ima 49; Bukhari, Tibb 58, Bad'ul-Khalq 14; Ibn Majah, Tibb 31; Nasai, Fara' 11)

EXPLANATION:

1. This narration is one of the miraculous hadiths that can persuade even non-Muslim biologists that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) speaks based on revelation. For, at a time when the science of microbiology did not exist and in a place where no natural sciences existed (Arabia), the Prophet (pbuh) expressed an important thing fully; today’s science expresses it in the same way using different terminology.

There are substances that are harmful and useful to human health in flies; those substances exist in a balanced way: the harmful one in one wing and the useful one in the other.

2. The hadith was reported through various narrators. The following is stated in the narration included in Ibn Majah reported by Abu Said al-Khudri:

"On one of the wings of a fly, there is a poison and on the other is the cure. If it falls into the food, then dip it into it, for it puts the poison first and holds back the cure."

As it is understood from the narration above, the order to dip the whole fly is to ensure that the cure in the other wing passes into the food. For, the hadith states that when the fly falls, it dips its poisonous wing into the food and since the other wing is out of the food, the cure (antidote) remains in it. When the whole fly is dipped, the antidote remaining in the other wing also passes into the food, removing the harm given by the other wing.

According to a narration of Bazzar, a fly fell into the plate of Anas. He dipped the fly into the food three times with his finger and said, "Bismillah!" Then, he said, "The Messenger of Allah ordered us to do so."

3. Which one is the poisonous wing of the fly? Ibn Hajar says that he has not seen any narrations mentioning it but that some scholars state the following by reasoning: "A fly protects itself with its left wing hence it is the poisonous wing; thus, the cure is in its right wing." In the hadith, Abu Said states that the poisonous wing does things (protection, etc.) first and that the curative wing later.

4. Acting upon this hadith, it was decreed that flies and small animals that have no flowing blood would not dirty a small amount of water: "For, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) would not have ordered something that would dirty the water when it died to be dipped into water. However, some scholars opposed this view and said, "When a fly is dipped into water, it does not mean that it will die. As a matter of fact, when it is dipped slightly, it will not die; when a living fly falls into water, it does not dirty that water." Baghawi deduced a decree like that from the hadith. Abut-Tayyib at-Tabari states the following regarding the issue: "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not mean dirtiness and cleanliness with this hadith; on the contrary, he wanted to explain how to eliminate the harm caused by a fly." Ibn Hajar said, "This statement is right but it does not prevent another decree from being deduced from this hadith." Thus, he states that the dipping of the fly can be applied in different ways.

* To dip it in a way that will not kill the fly.

* To dip the fly without caring whether it will die or not. However, in that case, it can be said that the fly will die if the food is hot and will not die if it is cold. Since there is a condition in the hadith, the decree is accepted to be general. However, this decree is debatable because an absolute hadith is approved like that; if an evidence is found in a certain way later, it is interpreted by it. 

5. Khattabi states the following: "Some unfortunate people talked against hadiths and asked questions like "How can poison and antidote come together in two wings of a fly? How can the fly know it and use the curative wing first? What causes the fly to act like that?" However, they are the questions of ignorant people. For, many animals combine opposite attributes in them. Allah caused them to compromise and decreed that they would come together; He extracted animal powers from them. As a matter of fact, Allah revealed to the bee to make beehives and produce honey in them. He inspired the ant to accumulate food for the time it will need and to split the wheat into two to prevent it from germination. The Being who revealed and inspired to them is strong enough to reveal to the fly to use one of its wings first and the other later."

Ibnul-Jawzi states the following: "There is nothing strange in what this person says. For, the bee collects honey with its head and produces poison at the bottom. The flesh of the snake whose poison kills is added to the medicine used in the treatment of the poison. The fly is crushed with ismid (a kind of kohl) in order to brighten the eyes." Some specialized doctors state the following: “The fly has a power to poison; that itching and swelling start after it bites shows it; this power is like its weapon; when the fly encounters something that harms it, it uses its weapon; the Prophet states that Allah orders us to resist this power of poison with the antidote He placed in the other wing and hence those two substances interact, removing the harm with the permission of Allah.” (İbrahim Canan, Kutub-i Sitte Tercüme ve Şerhi, Akçağ Yayınları: 11/135-137.)

The following article will clarify the issue:

The following hadith about health and the advice given along with it can be found old-fashioned or odd by some people. It can be thought that this information is not or cannot be supported by modern medicine.

"If a fly falls into a plate containing food, you can eat that food after dipping the fly fully into it."

This advice might seem strange, though not dangerous.

However, there is definitely a logical explanation of this hadith for a believer who knows that all of the words and deeds of the Prophet (pbuh) are based on a divine foundation and hence there cannot be any mistakes in them. However, it might need centuries to pass to be understood:

It is known by the science of medicine that the fly carries some pathogens (microbes causing diseases) in its body. This fact was stated by the Prophet 15 centuries ago, when there was no experimental medical knowledge. The Prophet also states the following: "There is no disease without a cure except death and old age."

Therefore, antibiotics including penicillin were discovered in the last century and they have been used against harmful organisms like bacteria. Then, what is the medical logic behind this mysterious advice?

It has been understood by scientific experiments that flies have antibiotics in their bodies. A group of Australian researchers has made a lot of efforts related to this issue. A group of researchers in the Department of Biological Sciences of Macquarie University made a research acting upon the theory that flies are resistant to all kinds of dirt including rotten meat, fruit and manure in order to display this antibacterial property in the different phases of development of flies.

Introducing the new discovery of the group in the Melbourne Microbiology Conference, Ms. Joanne Clarke said, "Our research is a small part of a global research effort for new antibiotics, but we are looking where we believe no-one has looked before." The project she mentions is also a part of her PhD thesis.

Ms. Clarke says the antibacterial properties that occur in the stomach are also present on the body of the fly and that we can observe those activities in both places. She adds, "The reason we concentrated on the body of the fly is because it has a structure that is easier to extract." (http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2002/10/01/689400.htm)

Furthermore, the results of an experiment carried out in the Department of Medical Microbiology in Suudi Arabia Qassim University showed the scientific logic of it. The experiment and its results are as follows:

EXPERIMENT A

Cultured water sample was taken from a flask containing sterilized water and where a fly fell (without submersion). Growth of pathogenic (disease causing) bacterial colonies of the E. coli type was identified after taking samples from the water in the flask for culture.

PLATE 1- Cultured water sample was taken from the same flask following the complete dipping of the fly. An entire disappearance of the bacterial growth was seen in Petri-dish 2. The new bacteria growing in plate 1 were identified as Actinomyces, the ones from which useful antibiotics can be extracted. This explains the complete inhibition of growth in plate 2

EXPERIMENT B

It is the same as Experiment A but a different fly was used this time. 

PLATE 2- Cultured water sample was taken from a flask containing sterilized water and where a fly fell (without submersion). Growth of pathogenic (disease causing) bacterial colonies of the Corynebacterium Diphtheroid type was identified after taking samples from the water in the flask for culture.

PLATE 1- Cultured water sample was taken from the same flask following the complete dipping of the fly. An entire disappearance of the bacterial growth was seen in Petri-dish 2. The new bacteria growing in plate 1 were identified as Actinomyces, the ones from which useful antibiotics (more than 70%) can be extracted. This explains the complete inhibition of growth in plate 2

EXPERIMENT C

It is the same as the previous experiments but a different fly was used.

PLATE 2- Cultured water sample was taken from a flask containing sterilized water and where a fly fell (without submersion). Growth of pathogenic (disease causing) bacterial colonies of the Staphylococcus sp. type was identified after taking samples from the water in the flask for culture.

PLATE 1- Cultured water sample was taken from the same flask following the complete dipping of the fly. An entire disappearance of the bacterial growth was seen in Petri-dish 2. The new bacteria growing in plate 1 were identified as Actinomyces, the ones from which useful antibiotics can be extracted. This explains the complete inhibition of growth in plate 2

The same results were obtained in Salmonellas (Salmonella) + proteus sp type disease causing bacteria. (http://www.islamdunktv.com/2011/01/hadith-of-fly-refuting-those-who-laugh.html)

The latest research in microbiology medically explains the advice given by the Prophet (pbuh) 15 centuries ago and virtually approves him.

55 Is there a hadith like "The scholars of my ummah are like the prophets of Sons of Israel"? If there is, how should we understand this hadith?

"The scholars of my ummah are like the prophets of Sons of Israel."

This hadith is mentioned as khabar mashhur in resources. Some scholars say this narration is weak or does not exist but we see that many scholars regard it as a hadith belonging to the Prophet (pbuh). (see Razi, Tafsir, VIII/302; Naysaburi, Tafsir: I/264; Kashful-Khafa: II/64)

It means mujaddid scholars who came in every century undertook duties like saving people from mischief and chaos, reviving the religion based on the needs of that century and settling issues; therefore, they were likened to the duties of the prophets of Children of Israel who were not sent a new book and shari’ah. For, when an apostle was sent with a new shari’ah, prophets were sent after him at certain intervals to warn people. These prophets did not bring a new religion; they reminded the misunderstandings and the forgotten decrees in the existing true religion and corrected them.   

Since no prophet will come after the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), great scholars who undertake this duty were sent in every century.This is what is meant in the hadith. In fact, no saint can reach a prophet in terms of rank. The similarity in terms of duty is mentioned here.

The loss of religion starts with abandoning the Sunnah. A rope breaks out as fibers snap; the religion disappears as sunnahs are abandoned one by one. (Darimi, Muqaddima 16)

After the death of the Prophet (pbuh), various aberrations occurred in the Islamic world. The most important element that made the people who caused the emergence of heretic creeds by moving away from the essence of Islamic ethics follow this bad way was leaving the way of the Prophet (pbuh). Throughout history, the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah struggled in terms of thought against those who deviated from the way of the Quran and the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). What Muslims need to do is to adhere to "Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah", that is, the Sunnah and the group that follows the Sunnah and to follow the way of Ahl as-Sunnah scholars. Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Whatever I have commanded you do it, and whatever I have forbidden you, refrain from it." (Muslim, p. 412; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 1)

As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a verse of the Quran:

"... So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you..." (al-Hashr, 59/7)

The Prophet (pbuh) ordered us to follow his Sunnah and his Companions:

"Those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must then follow my Sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation (bid’ah), and every innovation is an error (heresy)." (Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 5)

For, the Companions followed the Quran and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who practiced the Quran in daily life. The following statement reported from the Companions proves it:

"Allah send Muhammad (pbuh) to us when we did not know anything, and all we should do is to do that which we saw Muhammad (pbuh)." (Nasai, Taqsir 1)

Therefore, the believers need to understand these two resources (the Quran and the Sunnah) very well and practice them fully in order to attain the real bliss in the hereafter. One of the most important ways of doing it is to accept the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah as guides and to follow their way. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following in a hadith:

"A person who revives a forgotten sunnah at the time of the mischief of my ummah is given the thawab of a hundred martyrs." (Badhawi, Masabih, 1/40, no: 130; Munawi, Faydul-Qadir, 6/261, no: 9171-9172)

In this age, when various seditions and mischief surround the world, the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah are the people that will be means of gaining this thawab for us as the people who tell and explain the sunnahs of the Prophet (pbuh) and who practice them in the most appropriate way.

If we want to be among those who attain Allah’s consent, mercy and Paradise and not among those will be ashamed and embarrassed on the Day of Judgment, we need to follow the Quran, which is the last book of Allah and His Messenger Hz. Muhammad (pbuh). The key to this way is not to leaveAhl as-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah.

56 Does the belief of a person leave if he commits fornication? The following is stated in a hadith: "A person is not a believer while he is committing fornication."

Hz. Abu Hurayra narrates: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"When a person commits fornication, belief departs from him and there is something like a canvas roof over his head; and when he quits that action, belief returns to him." [Abu Dawud, Sunnah 16, (4690); Tirmidhi, Iman 11, (2627).]

Tirmidhi has the following extra information:

"Abu Jafer al-Baqir Muhammed Ibn Ali said, He said, ‘like this’" and he interlocked his fingers; then, he separated his fingers and said, ‘When he repents, it returns.’ Then, he interlocked his fingers again."

In Hakim, an explanation from Abu Hurayra is included. The explanation is as follows:

"If a person commits fornication or drinks alcohol, Allah removes belief from him, just like a person taking off his sweater from his head."

The extra information in Tirmidhi brought about the following interpretation:

"Abu Ja'far separated belief from Islam and gave belief a special identity. Thus, a person remains in Islam even if he exits from belief. Ibn Hajar states that this interpretation is compatible with the statement of the majority of fiqh scholars: "What is meant by the belief in the hadith is perfect belief, not belief itself."

(Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-i Sitte)

57 What does “to burn mushriks (polytheists) mean”?

- Since this hadith is included in Muslim’s Sahih (Muslim, Jannah 63/2865), we cannot “correct” this hadith.

- It can be useful to explain the following points regarding the hadith:

a) "The property which I have conferred upon them is lawful for them.” This statement aims to make the following correction: The polytheists rendered some camels (like saiba, bahira, wasila) haram for them. This part of the hadiths states that it is wrong and nobody but Allah has the right to render something halal or haram.

b) “I have created My servants as one having a natural inclination to the worship of Allah but it is Satan who turns them away from the right religion…” This part of the hadith indicates that human beings were created in an ability that is appropriate for acting in accordance with the orders and prohibitions of Islam, which is a religion of human nature, and that Satan made them go astray by deviating them from the true path.

This expression has the same meaning as the following hadith: “Every child is born with a true faith of Islam (i.e. to worship none but Allah Alone) but his parents convert him to Judaism, Christianity or Magianism.”

However, it is especially emphasized here that the polytheists did not have the right to make decrees on “halal-haram”, which they thought they did, and that this thought was contrary to their nature and conscience.   

c) “Satan commands them to ascribe partnership with Me, although he has no justification for that.”

A better translation of this part of the hadith is as follows: “Although I did not sent any evidence about his deity, he ordered them to ascribe partnership with Me.”

The phrase translated as “sending authority (sultan)” means sending evidence not power. If we leave aside the difference between “giving” and “sending”, when the badness of polytheism is attributed to the weakness of idols, idolization of strong figures like Pharaoh will be regarded permissible, which is completely wrong.

- That expression in the verse is a kind of explanation for the following verse:

“Soon shall We cast terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers, for that they joined companions with Allah, for which He had sent no authority: their abode will be the Fire: And evil is the home of the wrong-doers!” (Aal-i Imran, 3/151)

In a few translations, the word “sultan” is translated as power but it is not appropriate. It is translated as “evidence, document, proof” in most of the translations.

- For instance, in tafsir resources, the following verse is explained as follows: “Yet they worship, besides Allah, things for which no authority has been sent down to them, and of which they have (really) no knowledge: for those that do wrong there is no helper.” (al-Hajj, 22/71):

That is, the polytheists worship such things that there is no evidence showing that they are real deities; there is no celestial evidence in terms of revelation and otherworldly affairs, no basis in terms of necessary knowledge, and no evidence that will convince minds. Nobody can defend that this baseless, groundless and non-proven thought is right. (see Zamakhshari, Razi,  Baydawi, Qurtubi, Maraghi,  the interpretation of the relevant verse) 

d) “Allah looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the non-Arabs, but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book.” The meaning of this statement is as follows:

There were no people – except some people from the People of the Book - following the true religion left in the period between Hz. Isa and Hz. Muhammad. A period of interregnum started. There was a need for a new prophet and a new religion. Therefore, “I have sent thee (the Holy Prophet) in order to put you to test and put (those to test) through you.”

e) “And I sent the Book to you which cannot be washed away by water.” That is, no book and no prophet will be sent after you.

Therefore, your religion will continue until the Day of Judgment. The Quran, which is the source of your religion, is under the protection of Allah; no power can eliminate it.

f) “You may recite it while in the state of wakefulness or sleep." That is, the Quran will not leave your heart (memory) while you are awake or asleep; you will never forget it.

It is also indicated with this statement that the Quran is not a book that is written only in lines but also kept in hearts/memories (in the hearts of people, especially hafizes). (cf Nawawi, Sharhu Muslim,17/197-98; Mirqatul-Mafatih, 8/ 3366-67; Suyuti, Sharhu Muslim, 6/202)

g) The phrase “burn them” about Qurayshis means “destroy the unbelievers among them; eliminate them”. As a matter of fact, in some narrations, instead of “Allah commanded me to burn (kill) the Quraysh”, the phrase “He ordered me to fight them” is used. (see Mirqatul-Mafatih)

h) It is understood from the statement “You turn them out as they turned you out” that this hadith was uttered in Madinah. It is indicated by this statement that there will be material jihad, that the believers must not fear and that Allah will help them; they are encouraged about war.

Some characteristics of the people who go to Paradise or Hell are also mentioned. They are already known.

58 Are there hadiths about loving Ahl al-Bayt?

Yazid Ibn Arqam narrates: Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said,

"Indeed, I am leaving among you, that which if you hold fast to them, you shall not be misguided after me. One of them is greater than the other: The Book of Allah is a rope extended from the sky to the earth, and my family - the people of my house - and they shall not split until they meet at the Hawd al-Kawthar; so look at how you deal with them after me." [Tirmidhi, Manaqib 77, (3790).]

Tibi states that the Prophet (pbuh) presents the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt as twins that cannot be separated from each other, asks his ummah to treat both of them well and means"prefer their rights to your rights" in the hadith..

Tibi also attracts attention to the following point: With this advice, the Prophet (pbuh) asks his ummah to fulfill the duty of gratitude, which is an order of Allah Almighty. For, the following verse lays it as a condition for believers to love Ahl al-Bayt of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) in order to be able to fulfill the duty of gratitude for the boons and grants of Allah to believers:

"Say (o Prophet!): ‘No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin.’" (ash-Shura, 42/23)

One of the meanings of the word al-qurba, which is translated as near of kin, is the relatives of the Prophet (pbuh), that is, Ahl al-bayt. It is stated by scholars that the hadith above interprets this verse and was sent down for this purpose.

"The scholars say, in that case, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asks his ummah not to show ingratitude to the boons. If a person who acts in accordance with that will and pays his debt of gratitude for the boons mentioned above by treating the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt well, these twins, which will never separate from each other on the Day of Judgment until they come to Hawd al-Kawthar, will witness for that person in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Then, the Messenger of Allah will reward him along with the most appropriate reward given by Allah Almighty.

If a person does not act in accordance with that will of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), does not pay his debt of gratitude for the boons belief and Islam and does not show respect to the rights of the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt, he will be treated in the opposite way and as an ungrateful person."

In Muslim, the following version of the hadith is reported:

"O people, I am a human being. I am about to receive a messenger (the angel of death) from my Lord and I, in response to Allah's call, (would bid good-bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it."

After uttering the statement above, and encouraging people to read the Quran, the Messenger of Allah added the following:

"I remind you of Allah related to the members of my family. I remind you of Allah related to the members of my family. I remind you of Allah related to the members of my family..." (Muslim, Fadailus-Sahaba, 36; Hakim, Mustadrak, 3/118)

59 Do hadiths encourage Jihad?

Hz. Prophet (pbuh) encouraged jihad in many hadiths. We will mention some of them as examples:

1. "The best person among people is the one that makes jihad with his life and property."(1).

2. Somebody asked, "Is there a deed equal to jihad?" the Messenger of Allah answered as follows:

"I do not know a deedequal to jihad."(2).

3. Somebody finds a freshwater spring in a distant place. He thinks, "I want to retreat and spend my life here." He tells the Messenger of Allah about this idea. The Messenger of Allah says,

"No. Do not do so. One deed of one of you in the way of Allah is better than the prayer he performs in his house for seventy years. Would you not like Allah to forgive you and put you to Paradise? Fight in the way of Allah."(3)

4. "The journey of my ummah is jihad in the way of Allah." (4)

This hadith attracts attention to the difference between a touristic journey and a journey made in order to spread the religion of Allah. There is definitely a great difference between visiting towns and ruins without having a lofty purpose and setting off with the intention of spreading the religion of Allah.

5. "If a person dies without making jihad or thinking, 'I wish there was a jihad and I took part in it', he will die with a sign of hypocrisy"(5)

This hadith activates the power of a Muslim. A believer who retreats into a corner is in danger. A person has to join an expedition in the way of Allah or at least want to do so.

6. "I swear by Allah in whose hand my soul is that I would love to be martyred in Allah's Cause and then get resurrected and then get martyred, and then get resurrected again." (6)

7. "To keep guard in the border in Allah's Cause for one day is better than the world and whatever is on its surface." (7)

8. "There are two eyes which hellfire will not touch: the eyes that cry fearing Allah and the eyes that keep guard at night in the way of Allah."(8)

9. "The legs that are dusted in the way of Allah are haram for hellfire." (9)

Those who travel in order to convey the message of the religion of Allah are included in the content of this hadith.

10. "Paradise is under the shadows of swords." (10)

References:

1. Bukhari, Jihad, 2.
2. ibid Jihad, 1.
3. Tirmidhi, Fadailul-Jihad, 17.
4. Abu Dawud, Jihad, 6.
5. Abu Dawud, Jihad, 17.
6. Bukhari, Jihad, 7; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Jihad, 1.
7. Bukhari, Jihad, 73; Tirmidhi, Fadailul-Jihad, 26.
8. Tirmidhi, Fadailul-Jihad, 12.
9. Tirmidhi, Fadailul-Jihad, 7.
10. Bukhari, Jihad, 22.
11. Nursi, Hutbe-i Şamiye, p., 88.

Author:

Şadi Eren (Prof.Dr.)

60 Is the statement "Work for this world as if you will never die, and work for the hereafter as if you will die tomorrow" a hadith? If it is a hadith, how should it be understood?

The meaning of the hadith is as follows:

“Work like a person who thinks he will never die and be cautious as if you will die tomorrow.” (Jamius-Saghir, II/12, Hadith No:1201)

This narration encourages working for the hereafter, not for the world. That is, people tend to work for the world; therefore, this statement encourages people to work for the hereafter as much as they work for the world.

This hadith indicates that it is necessary to deal with both worldly and otherworldly affairs seriously. A person who will die tomorrow abandons all of his worldly affairs and tends to his otherworldly affairs sincerely and seriously. A person who will never die thinks that what he will do must be sound and durable so that he will make use of them for a long time in the future. From this point of view, the hadith attracts attention to the necessity of doing both worldly and otherworldly things carefully.

It is enough to remind the people who work very hard for the world and who forget the hereafter by saying it is necessary to work “for the world as if one will never die” the second part of the hadith that it is necessary to workfor the hereafter as if one will die tomorrow.

There are similar narrations too:

“Work for the world like a person who thinks he will never die and fear sins like a person who thinks he will die tomorrow." (Munawi, Faydul-Qadir, II/12; Kanzul-Ummal, III/40, h.n. 5379)

“The best one among you is the one that does not abandon the world for the hereafter and does not abandon the hereafter for the world.” (Kanzul-Ummal, III/238, h.n. 6336)

These hadiths and similar ones are hadiths showing that Islam establishes a balance between the world and the hereafter. Islam does not accept abandoning the world completely like the monks of Christians; nor does it accept pursuing the world with ambition as if adoring the world like Jewish people. Islam advises people to work for both the world and the hereafter. 

We can remember the following verses, which confirms it:

“There are men who say: ‘Our Lord! Give us (Thy bounties) in this world!’ but they will have no portion in the Hereafter. And there are men who say: ‘Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and defend us from the torment of the Fire!’(al-Baqara, 2/200-201)

It is stated in the Quran that those who advised Qarun (Croesus) said,

“"But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget thy portion in this world: but do thou good, as Allah has been good to thee...” (al-Qasas, 28/77)

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi states the following by pointing out the same truth:  

“Whereas for the balance between this world and the next to be preserved, and to remain perpetually between hope and fear, living and dying have to be possible every moment.” (see Sözler: Words, Yirmi Dördüncü Söz: Twenty-Fourth Word)

The Quran and hadiths always emphasize that the world is ephemeral and that we have to prepare for the hereafter, which is our real abode. If we combine those two types of advice and guidance, it is necessary to state the following:

"Man was created for the hereafter; therefore, he has to spend all his life in the world to gain the hereafter. However, while doing so, he must not ignore the worldly affairs and he must not do them shoddily; on the contrary, he has to use them as a means of gaining the hereafter by doing them properly with good intentions."

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi states that the intense feelings in man were given to gain the hereafter and the weak feelings to arrange the worldly affairs:

"Matters to do with this world are like pieces of glass that will be broken, while the lasting matters of the hereafter are as precious as flawless diamonds.

"The intense curiosity, fervent love, terrible greed, stubborn desires, and other intense innate human emotions were given to gain the matters of the hereafter. To direct them fervently towards the transitory things of this world is to give the price of eternal diamonds for doomed fragments of glass.”

"If man uses the faculties given to him on account of the soul and this world, and behaves heedlessly as though he were going to remain here for ever, they will be the cause of bad morals and will be misspent and futile.

"But if he expends the lesser of them on the matters of this world and the more intense of them on spiritual duties and tasks pertaining to the hereafter, they become the source of laudable morals and the means to happiness in this world and the next in conformity with wisdom and reality." (see Mektubat: Letters, Dokuzuncu Mektub: Ninth Letter)

for more information please click on the link given below;

Different evaluations are made for the love of world. Some people think of nothing but the worldly pleasures while others oppose all kinds of worldly pleasures and say it is necessary to work only for the hereafter.

61 "Whoever can guarantee (the chastity of) what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs, I guarantee Paradise for him." Will you explain this hadith? Between two legs probably means private parts; what does between tow jaw-bones mean?

The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“Whoever can guarantee (the chastity of) what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs, I guarantee Paradise for him.” ([Bukhari, Riqaq 23)

What is meant by between two legs is "private parts" and what is meant bytwo jaw-bones is “the tongue”.  

The person who says it is the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He knows better than everybody what he guarantees for man and what he does not. If he says he will guarantee Paradise, he definitely will. It means the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) guarantees Paradise for a person who promises that he will controland guarantee the chastity of what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs and who keeps this promise. He does not say it based on his own desire. He promises it based on something that Allah Almighty informs him regarding the issue.

Besides, he never said anything based on his own desire on behalf of Allah Almighty. He is free and away from doing anything wrong like that. Then, whatever he says is true and whatever he promises will definitely take place when it is due.

Talking is a boon

In fact, man’s mouth is an organ that has the ability to speak, which is too great to appreciate. However, such a blessed organ becomes a harmful instrument that leads man to destruction if it is misused. Man glories and sanctifies Allah Almighty with his mouth. Man enjoins what is good and forbids what is evil with his mouth. Man reads the book of the universe and the Quran, which is its pre-eternal translation, its clear verses and tells them to others with his mouth. He sometimes causes another man to believe with his expressions and statements. Thus, he does something better than anything that the sun shines on. He ascends to the highest of the high and attains the peak of loyalty with it.  

However, the same mouth can lead man to destruction.The mouth is a means of uttering words of swearing and unbelief. Those who curse Allah and his Prophet commit this sin with their mouths. Lies, backbiting and slander are committed by the mouth; thus, man falls into Musaylima’s pit of lies. 

Thus, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) utters only one word; he attracts attention to one organ. This one word includes the issues that we have indicated a bit and hundreds of more unmentioned truths. He says, “Use your mouth (tongue) legitimately and I will guarantee Paradise for you.” It does not mean, “Keep your mouth shut and retire into a corner.”  It means use it legitimately.

Manners of Speaking

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) does not utter the name of the "private organ"; instead, he uses the phrase "between two legs". This is a manifestation of his good manners. Besides, even when he expresses the things that are quite natural for us, he speaks so cautiously and in deep manners that some things that seem unpleasant to some of us suddenly become lovable. He was a person that was programmed to do nice things with his ethics, characteristics, character and nature.

When it is necessary to mention an organ that is used shyly among people, the Messenger of Allah uses a nice phrase and says, “between two legs”. We see the best manners in speaking in him.

Between Two Legs

The continuation of human species is through it; the destruction of human species is also through it with fornication and prostitution. When it is misused, the family lines will be mixed and what is necessary to be maintained in all legal systems will be destroyed because of it.

Who is the father of whom? Who will leave inheritance to him? Who will demand his rights from whom? How will family be protected? How will the nation stand? The questions above and similar ones are based on living chastely by controlling what is between two legs. Chaste people and communities formed by them continue their inner structure up to Doomsday but the individuals and communities that fall into the swamp of fornication and prostitution cannot survive even one generation.  

In fact, "the limits of the permissible are broad, and are quite adequate for man’s desire; there is no need to trespass on the forbidden"; it is valid in every issue. That desire in man can be satisfied in the best way legitimately. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, 

"Get married and increase in numbers because I will be proud of your great numbers before the other nations.”(Munawi, Faydul-Qadir, III/269; Kanzul-Ummal, 16/276)

For, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) will be proud of the number of his ummah before the other ummahs. The number of his ummah will be so great that the other ummahs will be kept in the background compared to his ummah. The increase in the number of the ummah is dependent on “between two legs”. Yes, it can be achieved only by that way. Those who are illegitimate and noble come to the world through that way. That place is fertile land that is suitable for two opposite ends.  

If man seeks a legitimate way regarding the issue, he will gain a thawab of wajib. When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) told his Companions about it, one of them asked how it would be. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) smiled and answered: “If he does not it through a legitimate way, he will do it through an illegitimate way.” (Muslim, Zakah 53; Musnad, V/167, 168) It is wajib to abandon haram. Then, legitimate sexual intercourse gains man a thawab of wajib.

62 "A person who repents is not regarded as insistent on his sin even if he acts contrarily to his repentance seventy times a day." What is meant by that hadith?

وعن أبى بكر الصديق رَضِيَ اللّهُ عَنْهُ قال: قالَ رَسُولُ اللّهِ #: مَا أصَرَّ مَنِ اسْتَغْفَرَ، وَلَوْ عَادَ في اليَوْمِ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً [ أخرجه أبو داود والترمذي  

Hz. Abu Bakr as-Sıddiq (radiyallahu anh) narrates: "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"A person who repents is not regarded as insistent on his sin even if he acts contrarily to his repentance seventy times a day." [Tirmidhi, Da'awat 119, (3554); Abu Dawud, Salat 361, (1514)]

EXPLANATION:

1. Scholars explained the meaning of this hadith as follows:  

"If a person repents of a sin that he has committed and commits it again or commits another sin and repents again, this person is not regarded as insistent on his sin no matter how many sins he commits a day. A Musirr (insistent person) is a person who does not repent of his sins. Insistence means to commit a lot of sins. Ibn Malak says, "Insistence means to keep doing evil deeds, to continue committing sins continuously."

2. It is stated in this hadith that one must not give up hope of Allah’s forgiveness, that the door of God Almighty is always open to a person who definitely decides to give up sins and that the multitude, bigness and variety of the previous sins will not prevent the acceptance of such a repentance. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a verse:

"…O my Servants who have transgressed against their souls! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah: for Allah forgives all sins..." (az-Zumar, 39/53)

(Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-ü Sitte Muhtasarı, Tercüme ve Şerhi)

63 What does to check hadiths against the Quran mean? Did the Prophet say, "Whatever comes to you from me, check it against the Book of Allah; if it is in accordance with the Book of Allah, then I said it, but if it goes against it, then I did not say it."?

1. Information about checking against the Quran (Ard)

When we consider the issues that the Quran and the Sunnah are based on the same source, that both of them are revelations and the Prophet (pbuh) will not insist on a mistake, etc., the fact that they cannot be contrary to each other becomes clear. Therefore, the issue whether anything that is attributed to the Prophet (pbuh) is in accordance with the Quran or not has been discussed. Some people say, "We look at the hadiths that are narrated; if they arein accordance with the Quran, we will accept them; if not, we will not accept them." They show evidence from the Prophet (pbuh) and the Companions for these claims.

“Whatever comes to you from me, check it against the Book of Allah; if it is in accordance with the Book of Allah, then I said it, but if it goes against it, then I did not say it.”(1) They base their views on the hadith attributed to the Prophet (pbuh) above and lay compatibility with the Quran as a condition in order to decree about the soundness of a hadith. This checking is called “ard”.

There are some scholars who base the idea of Ard to the Prophet (pbuh) through the hadith of Ard but there are also some scholars who say that this hadith was made up by sinners and that it is not possible to act based on it. 

When the Prophet said a decree about something, he read a verse immediately after it on some occasions (2). Such practice was accepted as evidence for checking hadiths against the Quran. Those who do not accept Ard say those narrations are mudraj (interpolated) (3) and hence they cannot be used as evidence for the issue.

Hz. Umar stated the following about a narration of Fatima bint Qays: “We cannot leave the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger based on the words of a woman, whom we do not know whether she forgot or not.”(4) Acting upon this statement, it is necessary to think that Hz. Umar checked the Sunnah against the Quran. For, the understanding that all of the hadiths need to be checked against the Quran and those that are in accordance with it need to be accepted and those that are not need to be rejected is contrary to this attitude of Hz. Umar. Hz. Umar evaluated a statement that he heard for the first time based on the whole Quran and the Sunnah. Those who go to extremes regarding the issue of the understanding of Ard approach the issue with a style that rejects the Sunnah as a source.   

One of the evidences shown by those who support the view of checking the hadiths against the Quran is some practices of Hz. Aisha. Zarkashi collected some of her rejections related to some Companions in a book (5); some of them are as follows:

When Hz. Aisha heard the hadith “The illegitimate child is the evilest of the three evils” reported by Abu Hurayra, she said, "May Allah show mercy to Abu Hurayra! That hadith is about a munafiq. He pestered the Messenger of Allah a lot. The Messenger of Allah asked people about him. They said, “He is an illegitimate child.” Then, he spoke like that. Otherwise, the Quran says, “Nor can a bearer of burdens bear another´s burdens”; how can the Messenger of Allah say such a thing?"(6). That is, the woman and man who commit fornication are guilty. The illegitimate child is innocent.

As it is seen, Hz. Aisha corrects the incident first and says that it is misunderstood; then, she mentions a verse that is in accordance with the decree from the Sunnah in order to state that the Quran and the Sunnah cannot be contrary to each other since they come from the same source.

Hz. Aisha asked not only the Companions but also the Prophet (pbuh). As a matter of fact, once, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “Anyone whose account will be taken will be ruined.” Hz. Aisha said, “O Messenger of Allah! May Allah make me be sacrificed for you! Does Allah not say, ‘Then he who is given his Record in his right hand, Soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning’(7)?" The Prophet (pbuh) said, “That is only the presentation of the accounts; but he whose record is questioned, will be ruined." (8) Thus, he clarified the issue.

This example is significant. Hz. Aisha did not check a narration that reached her against the Quran; she asked it the Prophet (pbuh) himself because she did not understand the compliance of the decree with the Quran. This shows a different aspect of the issue. Therefore, the objection of a person who does not understand the compliance of the Quran and the Sunnah can be easily settled by someone else. This shows us the relativity of the issue.

2. Views about Ard

Those who say it is necessary to check hadiths against the Quran and their evidences, and those who say it is not appropriate to check hadiths against the Quran and their evidences do not interest our topic very much. Therefore, we do not regard it necessary to enter into details (9); instead, we regard it more appropriate to mention the views of the scholars regarding the issue and the practices about it.

It is claimed that the madhhab in which checking hadiths against the Quran developed as a method is Hanafi madhhab. However, to deduce such a decree without evaluating the understanding of the madhhab can mislead us. Since the Sunnah cannot be contrary to the Quran, for instance, those who accept Ard will not be able to lay conditions for its decree and will not convey it. However, Hanafi madhhab, especially its imam, (10) explains the position of the Sunnah according to the Quran as follows:

a) The Sunnah strengthens the Quran.
b) The Sunnah interprets and explains the Quran.
c) The Sunnah specifies (takhsis) one decree of the Quran (11).

However, it is necessary for the Sunnah to be mutawatir or mashhur to abrogate or specify the Quran. Khabar wahid that is contrary to the decree of the Quran cannot change its decree. What they say "Hanafis check the hadiths against the Quran" are these kinds of hadiths. Hanafi methodologists call it manawi inqita (disconnection in meaning) (12). In that case, Hanafi scholars act in accordance with hadiths without limiting the strengthening and interpretation of the Quran by the Sunnah but they lay it as a condition for a hadith to be mutawatir or mashhur if a hadith is to change or specify decree of the Quran (13). Therefore, it is not appropriate to say Hanafis check the hadiths against the Quran directly.

Imam Malik also adopts the three functions of the Sunnah exactly (14). According to him, even khabar wahids sometimes specify the Quran in general and limit its absoluteness. Besides, if it is supported with the practice of the people of Madinah, it becomes stronger. He even regards the hadiths about ru’yah (seeing Allah) to be in compliance with the verse “Some faces, that Day, will beam (in brightness and beauty)”; and, he accuses those who reject those hadiths of not following the Quran (15). If the rejection of khabar wahids due to the opposition to the Quran in some cases is called Ard, we can say that such Ard is in question for Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik.

Imam Shafii, who calls the narration mentioning the hadiths being checked against the Quran fabricated (16), states that it is Allah’s order to act in accordance with sound hadiths and that a person who does not act in accordance with such a hadith is insane (17). Therefore, the Sunnah interprets and limits the Quran, and it imposes independent decrees related to the issues that the Quran does not make a decree. The decrees imposed by the Sunnah might apparently seem to be contrary to the Quran but it is because the indications that show the determination of the purpose are not known (18).

It is important that Imam Shafii describe the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) as what he understands from the Quran. Therefore, he regards rejecting the Sunnah by using its contrariness to the Quran as an excuse as ignorance (19).

However, his evaluations are about sound hadiths. If a hadith is shazz and if it is contrary to the Quran, one cannot act in accordance with that hadith (20). In that case, the decrees of the sound hadiths that seem to be contrary to the Quran are understood not to be contrary when its indications are known; however, if the narration is shazz, the opposition is taken into consideration and one cannot act in accordance with it. In that case, we can say that Imam Shafii check shazz hadiths against the Quran virtually if they introduce additional decrees to the Quran.

According to Ahmad b. Hanbal, who thinks like Imam Shafii, Sunnah is not rejected by the apparent meaning of the Quran. For, the Sunnah determines the meaning and indications of the Quran. Therefore, a hadith is not rejected because it is contrary to the Quran in general. In fact, such a hadith explains and interprets the Quran (21). In that case, according to him, the Sunnah and the Quran are a whole. The opposition that is seen is apparent; it can be explained. Therefore, hadiths cannot be abandoned with the excuse of being contrary to the Quran.

There are also some other scholars who say that it is not appropriate to reject the Sunnah with the excuse of checking it against the Quran, that the Sunnah explains and interprets the Quran, that the Sunnah can impose some decrees that do not exist in the Quran, that hadiths cannot be rejected due to apparent opposition because the source of both of them is revelation, that they cannot be contrary to each other and that apparent contrariness can definitely be explained. Ibn Hazm, Ibn Abi Shayba, Suyuti, Ibn Abdil-Barr, Qurtubi, Shawkani, Saghani, Fattani, Ibnul-Arraq, Aliyyul-Qari(22) are some of them. Especially the writers of mawduat are against checking the Sunnah against the Quran by saying that the narration of Ard is fabricated.

However, we regard it appropriate to check shazz and weak hadiths against the Quran and the sound Sunnah when they are used to make decrees. As a matter of fact, acting upon the explanations we have made above, we see that they also do it actually though they do not use the name Ard. Besides, this is probably what the scholars who essentially reject Ard mean. It can be said that they express their concern that sound Sunnah can be abandoned with the excuse that it is contrary to the Quran.

The narration about Ard exists in fabricated resources but it is also present in reliable resources (23). Therefore, we think it will be more useful to place it on a certain ground instead of rejecting it completely. In our opinion, it will be more appropriate to apply Ard actually for the shazz or weak narrations that introduce additional decrees to the Quran, not for sound narrations. As a matter of fact, this is what the fiqh scholars do.

On the other hand, we do not approve eliminating many sound hadiths under the pretext of checking all hadiths against the Quran (24). This will lead us to the understanding of the Quran without Sunnah. In that case, it will be inevitable for the Sunnah that reflects the life of the Prophet (pbuh), who is the living interpretation of the Quran, to be replaced by other understandings and systems.

3. Checking the Life of the Prophet against the Quran

Checking the hadiths against the Quran and hence rejecting some narrations because they are contrary to the Quran, doubting everything that reached us from the Prophet (pbuh) with the understanding that it is necessary to check all narrations against the Quran by going to extremes will mean to accuse the previous of fourteen hundred years. It means to push those who reported these narrations to us, primarily the Companions, and to replace them with ourselves.

However, if we put aside the discussions whether the practice of Ard existed or not, let us see how the Prophet (pbuh) used his right to understand and interpret the Quran, which was sent down to him. Did he find it enough only to answer some questions and problems he was asked; or, did he practice the Quran actually with all aspects? 

As the person who understood and lived the realities practiced by the Quran in the best way, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) was also the person who reflected them in his life in the best way. Therefore, we will deal with the issue of Ard (checking the hadiths against the Quran) from a different viewpoint. We see the lifestyle that the Prophet (pbuh) displayed individually, familially and socially in all aspects as the explanation of the issues mentioned in the Quran and the seeds in the Quran being transformed into trees.

Therefore, instead of looking at the Quran with the same eye-glasses, it is necessary to think what outcomes will be brought about if we look at it from the window of the life of the Prophet (pbuh).

The reason why the Prophet who was sent to human beings was chosen from among them, not from among angels and jinn, is to shed light on all aspects of life and serve as a model. As Qardawi puts it (25), when life is dealt with in terms of length, width and depth, it will be seen that there is nothing left outside. The length includes life from birth to death and even from the realm of spirits to life in the hereafter; the width includes all aspects of life, the house, market, mosque, road, job, spouse, food, relationship with Allah, individual, family, Muslims, non-Muslims, human beings, animals, man’s relationship with all living and non-living beings; the depth includes the inner structure of man, that is, his apparent and hidden feelings like his body, mind, spirit and secrets, words, deeds and intentions. Form this viewpoint, it is necessary for the Prophet (pbuh) to be a model and example in terms of all these aspects that interest man.

In that case, when we evaluate the Sunnah from a wide window that include all aspects of life, it will not be wrong to describe it as all words, deeds and consents of the Prophet (pbuh) (26).

Then, let us check all aspects of the life of the Prophet (pbuh), whether you call it his lifestyle or way of life, against the Quran with a new point of view.

First of all, let us start with the issue whether the Prophet (pbuh) can make decrees in addition to the Quran. In fact, our intention is to go to the Quran from the Sunnah but we will go to this issue from the verses of the Quran due to its importance.  

All laws belong to Allah: the laws He imposed in the universe, in man and finally the laws in the Quran. We do not deal with the issue from a narrow viewpoint. We evaluate it with a wide and comprehensive understanding. For instance, Allah placed the whole program of the tree in its seed, of people and animals in their seeds or eggs but not everybody understands it. Even some experts do not understand it. He even wrote a separate program in both trees and human beings and placed a tree and a human being in every cell of a tree and human being.   

This law of Allah is also valid in the verses of the Quran. Besides, is the Quran not a book that reads the book of the universe and the Prophet (pbuh) a teacher that interprets and explains that book? Therefore, if the statements in the Quran are nuclei, seeds and eggs, every aspect of the life of the Prophet are their displays, trees and human beings, or roses, flowers, eyes and hearts.

Let us listen to Allah Almighty now:

“...The Prophet commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure);....”(27)

“...Fight those who do hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger.”(28)

Allah clearly states in the verses above that He gave the Prophet (pbuh) the authority to render things haram and halal. In the second verse, Allah mentions the name of the Prophet (pbuh) along with His name; thus, he closes the door to all interpretations to be made. If it is laid as a condition for the Prophet (pbuh) also to forbid anything Allah forbids and if it is understood as the Messenger of Allah and Allah forbid together, it will be meaningless. If the opposite is valid, if it is said that it is necessary for Allah to forbid clearly anything that the Messenger of Allah forbids, it will also be meaningless. In that case, it is a command related to the duty of the Prophet (pbuh) rather than stating the authority to render things haram and halal for both of them. Form this point of view, all of the commands and prohibitions of the Prophet (pbuh) as an indication of this verse means his commanding good (clean) things and ordering bad (dirty) things.

Since Allah gave the authority to render things haram and halal, which is the highest degree, it is clear that he definitely has the authority related to issues like wajib, makruh, adab, etc, which are under this level (29). As a matter of fact, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “I have been given the Quran and something like it.”(30) Thus, he showed the authority given to him and his position in the religion.

If we look at the Sunnah from the Quran,

1.  Hz. Prophet (pbuh) reiterates, states and interprets the deeds of worship like prayer, zakah, fasting and hajj mentioned in the Quran (31).
2. He specifies a general decree (32).
3. He limits an absolute decree (33).
4. He imposes a decree that does not exist in the Quran (34) (35).

If we combine these explanations, the following result is seen: Hz. Prophet (pbuh) explained and stated all of the issues in the Quran, specified those that expressed general things, limited those that were absolute and hence imposed decrees acting upon what Allah informed him.

Let us clarify the issue by giving a few examples from the chapter of al-Fatiha, the first chapter of the Quran.

For instance, the name of Allah in "Bismillah"; all of the explanations about it are either in the Quran or in the Sunnah; the same thing is valid for Rahman and Rahim; the first word of al-Fatiha: al-Hamd. How is hamd made? How will a person praise and thank Allah as it is necessary in prayer, hajj, street, at home, at work, in bed, in the toilet, etc.; the explanations are all in the Sunnah.  Maliki yawmiddin: All of the information related to the hereafter, principles of belief, Paradise, Hell, Sirat, Reckoning, Book of Deeds and the grave are explained by the Sunnah. From this viewpoint, every issue that is mentioned in the Quran is explained and interpreted by the Sunnah. 

Let us give a different example: Will it be appropriate to say that the Prophet (pbuh) did not understand the verse that mentions the stages of the creation of a child but the people living today did? In that case, it would be necessary to reject all of the hadiths mentioning the state of the child in the womb. However, it will be more appropriate to see the details of those verses in hadiths. The special states of women, wife-husband relationships, the strike of Doomsday, and the verses giving information about the future were narrated by the Prophet (pbuh) to the ummah in detail with divine permission.

We think every verse and decree can be checked against the Sunnah with this understanding and the target will be reached.

Let us look at the issue from the viewpoint of the Prophet (pbuh) this time. That is, let us not reach the tree from the seed but let us reach from the branches, flowers and fruits of the tree to its sapling and seed.

Since we deal with the relationship of the deeds and attitudes of the Prophet (pbuh) in the community with customs and manners in terms of our topic, we will give some examples related to issues other than worship and principles of belief:

All of the deeds and advice of the Prophet (pbuh) and his wives in their private lives and in the community related to tasattur (hijab), their relationships with others, talking, being alone, etc. are the explanations of the relevant verses. They are what the Prophet (pbuh) understood from those verses (36).

His attitudes toward children, his explanations and statements related to their education, treatment among children and relationships between parents and children (37) are the explanations of some verses related to those issues (38).

Similarly, it can be said that the relationships with neighbors, students and teachers, non-Muslims, orphans, administrators and officials, and the issues of greetings, visitors, feasts, cleanliness and clothing are explanations of relevant verses (39).

As for ethical qualities (40) and customs, which are human characteristics, we see that the Prophet is a model related to them.  

We see that the mental, lustful and furious feelings in man are not limited in his nature. Therefore, the Sunnah teaches us to use them in a moderate way, without going to extremes. Similarly, the ethical virtues like mildness, patience, thanking, justice, asceticism of the Prophet who was the addressee of the order “Therefore stand firm (in the straight Path) as thou art commanded”(41) and the prayer “Show us the straight way”(42), his easing humanity, intellect, bravery, mildness, and mercy, his good thoughts about others, fury, his attitude toward and warning against mistakes, his modesty, solemnity and generosity, his attitude toward invitations, his attitude toward his addressee in bilateral relations, his jokes, patience and perseverance, his chastity, generosity, good manners and modesty, his praise and criticism, his contentment, justice, loyalty, fulfilling trusts, keeping his promise and his attitude toward living and non-living beings (43), explain the verses in which these characteristics are mentioned, and show the moderate way, away from extremes, related to those characteristics.

Due to his nature, man is a being that eats, drinks, walks, sits, sleeps, meets his human needs, cries, laughs, yawns and sneezes. They are his natural acts. However, the time, manner and degree of these acts are seen in the nice customs and attitudes of the Prophet (pbuh).

The walking, sitting, clothing and manners of the Prophet (pbuh), who is a model of good manners, are the actual and verbal explanations of the verses that mention those issues. He showed the verses related to natural deeds that are present in man while going to the mosque, knocking on the door, walking, talking, laughing, eating, crying, yawning and even going to sleep through his words and deeds (44).

While looking at his life from the viewpoint of sound Sunnah, whether we look at the Quran from his life or from the Quran to his life, we can say that all of the things that he displays whether they are religious, worldly, customary, humane, etc. in both cases are explanations, expressions and actual indications of the things that Allah mentions in the Quran. The answer to be given to the question, “O Lord! What are the appropriate forms of our deeds and acts that we do in Your presence that deserve to be displayed in Your presence” is virtually “the life of the Prophet (pbuh)”.

In that case, the source of the Sunnah, which means the words, deeds, consents and attitudes of the Prophet (pbuh), is the Quran. In other words, it is what he understands from the Quran and his approval by Allah in this understanding.

References:
(1) For evaluation, see Saghani, Abul-Fadail, Mawduat, Beirut, 1985, s.76; Ajluni, Kashful-Khafa, I, 86; Haythami, Majmauz-Zawaid, I, 170; Suyuti, Miftah, 16.
(2) For examples, see Bukhari, Tafsir, Sura 1,3,4,6; Tirmidhi, Sifatu Ahlil-Janna, 1; cf. Yıldırım Suat, Peygamberimizin Kur’an Tefsiri, İst., 1983, s.138-147; Çakın, Kamil, Hadislerin Kur’an’a Arz Meselesi, AUİFD. XXXIV, Ank, 1993, p.240-243; Keleş, Arz, p.15 ff.
(3) Mudraj means addition of something that does not exist in the chain of narrators or text. Aydınlı, İstılah, p.106; For the evaluation of the narrations, see, Çakın, ibid, p.240-243.
(4) Ibn Hajar, Fath, IX, 596,603; Çakın, ibid, p.243-245; cf. Keleş, Arz, 24.
(5) Zarkashi, Badruddin Abu Abdillah, al-Ijaba li Iradi ma Istadrakathu Aisha ala’s-Sahaba, Beirut, 1985.
(6) Zarkashi, Ijaba, p.119; see Musnad, II, 311; VI,109.
(7) Inshiqaq, 7.
(8) Bukhari, Tafsiru Inshiqaq, 2; Musnad, VI, 103,206.
(9) see Keleş, Ard, 69 ff; Apaydın, Yunus, Hanefi Hukukçularının Hadis Karşısındaki Tavırlarının Bir Göstergesi Olarak Manevi İnkıta Anlayışı”, EÜİFD, p.8, Kayseri, 1992, Çakın, ibid;
(10) Abu Hanifa states the following: I refer to Allah’s book. If I cannot find there, I refer to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)..” Ibn Hajar, Asqalani, Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, Beirut, nd, X. 451.
(11) Abu Zahra, Abu Hanifa, 292-294.
(12) Bukhari, Kashf, III, 19,29; see, Sarakhsi, Usul, I,364; Ünal, Imam Abu Hanifa, p.84-88,141; Apaydin, ibid, It is the result of the understanding that a text that is definite cannot be abrogated and changed by a text that is not definite.
(13) However, for the practices in which even khabar wahid adds something to the Quran, see Ayni, al-Binaya fi Sharhil-Hidaya, Beirut, 1988, VI,261-262, 274-381; Ünal, Abu Hanifa, 141-142; For hadiths, see Bukhari, Hudud, 13; Muslim, Hudud, 7; Musnad, III, 253.
(14) That is, the Sunnah states and interprets the Quran. It introduces a decree that does not exist in the Quran. The Quran cannot be understood without the Sunnah. Abu Zahra, Imam Malik, 260-267.
(15) In some cases, he would not act in accordance with khabar wahids due to their contrariness to the Quran. Abu Zahra, Imam Malik, 283-86,296; al-Qiyama, 22-23; Imam Malik’s approach is parallel with the understanding of Abu Hanifa.
(16) Shafii, Risala, 80; In return, he mentions the hadith,“I have been given the Quran and something like it. I also order and prohibit.” Thus, he states that the Sunnah has a legislative value. 
(17) Dhahabi, Tadhkiratul-Huffaz, Beirut, nd, I, 362; The hadith was placed into the heart of the Prophet by Jibril. Therefore, the Sunnah is not contrary to the Quran. Shafii, Risala, 76-89.
(18) Shafii, al-Umm, Beirut, nd. VII, 273,286; see, Ghazali, Mustasfa, I,179.
(19) Shafii, Risala, 85,103; Qasimi, Qawaid, p.58.
(20) Shafii, Umm, VII, 307-308.
(21) Abu Zahra, Ahmad b. Hanbal, 239.
(22) See respectively Ibn Hazm, Ihkam, I,114-117; Ibn Qayyim, I’lamul-Muwaqqi’in, Beirut, 1994, II, 220 ff.; Ibn Abi Shayba, Musannaf, Beirut, 1989, VIII, 363 ff.; Suyuti, Miftah, 2 ff.; Ibn Abdil-Barr, Jami, II, 190; Qurtubi, Tafsir, I, 38; For the views of some writers and their outlook on the issue of Ard, cf. Akseki, Riyazu’s-Salihin Tercümesi, I, XX-XXI; Abu Zahw, Mukanatus-Sunna, 32-36; Abu Shahba, Sunna, I, 58; Ajjaj, as-Sunna, 49-50; Sibai, as-Sunna, 81-83,98-100; Keleş, Ard, 90 ff.
(23) see Musnad, V, 425; Daraqutni, I, 208; Abu Yusuf, ar-Rad, 31; Jassas, Ahkamul-Quran, Beirut, 1993, IV, 201; Shatibi, Muwafaqat, IV, 19; Qasimi, Kur’an’ı Anlamak, translated by Sezai Özel, İst, 1990, p.170.
(24) For instance, for the rejection of the hadith about the caliphate belonging to Qurayshis, see Hatiboğlu, Hilafetin Kureyşiliği, AUİFD XIII, Ank, 1979; Atay, for the views of Öztürk and Reşit Rıza, see Keleş, Arz, 53-58.
(25) Qardawi, Sunnah, p.115; Kulaçoğlu, Sünnet, p.98.
(26) The issue of the bindingness of the Sunnah will be explained later; therefore, it should be noted that the issue will be dealt with within the wholeness of the Sunnah and the Quran.
(27) al-A’raf, 157.
(28) at-Tawba, 29.
(29) For the Quran itself placing the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) into an equal level with the Quran without giving rise to any doubts (on whatever the Prophet says on behalf of the One who sent him, it is accepted within the concept of ethics), see Hamidullah, İslam Devlet İdaresi, translated by Kemal Kuşçu, İst. 1963, p.18; Koçkuzu, Haber-i Vahitler, p.107.
(30) Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 6.
(31) For, reiteration, cf. al-Baqara, 43, 183; Aal-i Imran, 97; an-Nisa, 29; Hud, 102; an-Nahl, 44; Bukhari, Iman, 1; Muslim, Iman, 19-22; Musnad, V,72; Ibn Majah, Fitan, 22; For the interpretation of concise things, see Bukhari, Adhan, 18; Adab, 27; Buyu, 78; Muslim, Musaqat, 81-84; Nasai, Buyu, 50; Darimi, Salat, 42; Musnad, III, 318; Ibn Majah, Tijarah, 48; For explaining difficult issues, see al-Baqara, 187; Tirmidhi, Tafsir, 3.
(32) Like the limitation of verse 11 of the chapter of an-Nisa showing that inheritance is given to all inheritors by the hadith there is no inheritance to an unbeliever. (Musnad, I,49; Abu Dawud, Diyat, 18; Darimi, Faraid, 41). The people that are haram to marry are determined by verses 23-24 of the chapter of an-Nisa. The others are rendered halal. However, the Prophet specified this general verse by stating that a woman cannot be married to the same man at the same time with her paternal and maternal aunt. see Muslim, Nikah, 37-38; Bukhari, Nikah, 27.
(33) There is no limitation in the verse stating that the hand of the thief needs to be cut off. (al-Maida, 38). The hadith specified the lowest amount stated that the hand of a thief who steals a quarter dinar and more be cut off. (Muslim, Hudud, 2-5; Ibn Majah, Hudud, 22; Musnad, VI, 104,249,252.
(34) In fact, each practice is a decree. Everything that the Prophet does, including the rak’ahs and times of prayers, how to perform prayers, determines the decrees of the Quran that can be understood differently. Therefore, we want to attract the attention to the vastness of the issue. If it is taken into consideration that there is nothing that is wrong in the Quran, every Sunnah is a statement; since most of the things that exist in the Sunnah are not present in the Quran exactly, it can be said that most of the practices of the Prophet are a decree each in this aspect.
(35) For evidences from verses, see, Aal-i Imran, 164; al-Jumua, 2; an-Nisa, 59; al-Ahzab, 36; an-Nur, 63; see also Bukhari, Ilim, 9; Tirmidhi, Ilim, 7; Ibn Majah, Muqaddima, 18; Darimi, Muqaddima, 24; Suyuti, Miftah, 19,23,27; Koçkuzu, Haber-i Vahitler 107-108.
* For the parts of the body that a man needs to cover in the presence of other men and women, and the parts of the body that a woman needs to cover in the presence of other women and men, and the manners of speaking with a woman, see Bukhari, Salat, 69; Nikah, 111; Muslim, Salatul-Idayn, 4; Salam, 8; Adab, 10; Abu Dawud, Libas, 37; Nikah, 44; Tirmidhi, Rada, 13; Adab, 38-40.
(36) al-Ahzab, 6,32,33; al-Baqara, 235; an-Nisa, 4; Bukhari, Nikah, 3,8,36,50,63,68,79; Muslim, Rada, 16; Nikah, 4,7,12; Tirmidhi, Rada, 1; Nikah, 5,38; Abu Dawud, Nikah, 20; The issues of asking a girl’s hand in marriage, engagement, nikah, marriage, the duties of husband and wife, etc. are explained in the Sunnah. Even the satisfaction of sexual desire (Abu Dawud, Salah, 367; Bukhari, Riqaq, 23), secret issues like sexual intercourse and the issues related to menstruation are stated.
(37) Bukhari, Adab, p.7,18; Isti’dhan, 35; Juma, 11; Nikah, 79; Abu Dawud, Adab, 66,129; Salat, 25,94-95; Sunnah, 18; Muslim, Itq, 25; Bir, 5; Ibn Majaj, Nikah, 28; Adab, 3; For detailed information, see. Canan, İ. Hz. Peygamberin sünnetinde Terbiye, Ank, 1980, D.I.B.
(38) al-Kahf, 46; al-Isra, 6; al-Furqan, 74; Aal-i Imran, 159; al-Maida, 8; ash-Shua’ra, 49; an-Nahl, 58-59; at-Tahrim, 6.
(39) For detailed information regarding these issues, see Duman, Adab.
(40) Hz. Aisha answered the question how the ethics of the Prophet (pbuh) was as follows: “His ethics was completely the Quran.” (Abu Dawud, II, 56) That is, he displayed the high ethics that the Quran ordered in the best way. 
(41) Hud, 112.
(42) al-Fatiha,
(43) see Bukhari, Iman, 30; Bad’ul-Khalq, 6; Adab, 27; Jihad, 50; Nikah, 1; Tirmidhi, Adab; Abu Dawud, Adab, Qadi Iyad, ash-Şifa, bi Ta’rifi Huquqil-Mustafa, Damascus nd. I,140-210; II, 330-341; Dihlawi, Hujja, II, 80 ff; Ghazali, Ihya, III, 50 ff; Nadwi, Sulayman, Konferanslar, translated by Osman Keskioğlu, DIB.1957; Bukhari, al-Adabu’l-Mufrad; Abdurrahman A’zam, Rasulü Ekremin Örnek Ahlakı, translated by Hayrattin Karaman, Ist, 1975; Bayraktar, Şemail; Yardım, Şemail; Canan, Terbiye.
(44) For instance, his deeds related to starting things from the right or left (al-Balad, 13-18; al-Waqia, 27-38; al-Baqara, 115; Inshiqaq, 7-8; Haaqqa 19-21;) styles of walking; al-Furqan, 63; Luqman, 18-19); are the explanations of these verses and similar ones.

64 Do we have to act in compliance with every hadith? We read and hear many hadiths as the statements of the Prophet. Are they really his statements?

Madhhab imams informed us about the hadiths that are necessary to act in compliance with. When madhhab imams deduced decrees from hadiths, they acted carefully about the degree of soundness of the hadiths they used as evidence. They did not use every hadith while making decrees. This issue is explained in detail in hadith and fiqh usul (methodology) books. 

The hadiths of the Prophet (pbuh) are always valid in terms of decree. However, the circumstances of the community are determinative for the application of that decree. For instance, the Prophet (pbuh) prohibited visiting graves in the first years of Islam. Afterwards, when the belief of oneness settled, he allowed people to visit graves. Nowadays, if there are idolatrous societies that regard graves as holy, and if they embrace Islam, the same method will be applied for them. First, these people will be prohibited from visiting graves; it will be allowed after the belief of oneness settles in that community.

In addition, once, the Prophet (pbuh) prohibited people from keeping the flesh of the sacrificed animals at home for more than three days. For, there was a famine in that year and many people could not find food. However, when the famine ended the following year, he allowed people to keep the flesh of the sacrificed animals at home as long as they wanted.

All of these examples show that the decree of no hadith of the Prophet (pbuh) was annulled; every statement and deed of the Prophet (pbuh) will be practiced if the circumstances are appropriate.  

If it is certain that a statement attributed to the Prophet (pbuh) is a hadith, it must not be denied. Mutawatir hadiths are like that. A person who denies a mutawatir hadith of the Prophet (pbuh) becomes an unbeliever. For, to deny such a hadith means to deny the Prophet. It is definitely unbelief.

(Ahmed Naim, Tecrid-i Sarîh Tercemesi, Ankara 1976, Mukaddime, p. 102).

 

MUTAWATIR HADITH

It means a hadith that has the criteria of mutawatir khabar. The hadiths of the Prophet are generally divided into two in terms of the number of the narrators, that is, whether very few people or a lot of people narrated them: Mutawatir and Ahad. Mutawatir hadith is a hadith that is narrated by groups of people that cannot be rationally thought to have agreed on a lie beginning from the period of the Companions and the periods after them. In other words, it is a hadith that has the criteria of mutawatir news.   

A hadith needs to have the following criteria so as to be regarded as mutawatir:

I) A mutawatir hadith must be narrated by many people in each period. However, there is no need for determining a minimum number for the narrators in each level. There are some people who say that the number of people who will not agree on something lie must be at least 4, 5, 10, 12, 20, 40, 70 and more than 300, but none of them base their claim on serious evidence. (Subhi as-Salih, Hadis İlimleri ve Hadis Istılahları, Ankara 1973, p. 120-122). What matters is that the hadith must be reported by a group of people that is impossible to agree on a lie whether voluntarily or involuntarily.

2) There must not be an decrease in the number of the narrators in any generation. On the contrary, an increase in the number confirms the trueness of the news. 

3) Those who report the incident or the news first must see or hear the incident. The thing that is reported must be something possible, not impossible. (Abdullah Sirajuddin, Sharhul-Manzumatil-Bayquniyya, Aleppo 1372, p. 40)

Mutawatir hadiths are divided into two as "mutawatir lafzi" (words) and "mutawatir manawi" (meaning).

a) Mutawatir Lafzi is a hadith that is reported with the same words by all narrators in all levels from the beginning to the end. It is not possible for the statements of the Prophet to be reported word for word by many people in all periods. If such a criterion had been obligatory, all of the hadiths would have been forgotten. The number of mutawatir lafzi hadiths is very few because it is permissible to narrate hadiths with meaning. The following hadiths are examples for mutawatir lafzi hadiths:   

"Whoever tells a lie about me let him take his place in Hell." "Every intoxicant is haram." "Whoever builds a mosque for Allah’s sake, Allah will build a house for him in Paradise." "The Quran was sent down in the form of seven letters."

b) Mutawatir manawi: An issue or incident that is reported with various words by the narrators is regarded as mutawatir manawi. In those kinds of narrations, the common part is regarded as mutawatir. There are a lot of hadiths that are mutawatir manawi. The deeds of worshipping like prayers, fasting, zakah and hajj are all mutawatir manawi. For instance, about one hundred hadiths were reported related to the Prophet’s raising his hands while saying prayers. However, what is common in those narrations is raising hands; and this aspect is mutawatir. 

According to hadith scholars, it is not necessary to examine the narrators of mutawatir hadiths one by one. The multitude of the narrators is taken into consideration. For, it is agreed that they would not agree on something that was a lie. Therefore, all hadith scholars agree that mutawatir hadiths that are both lafzi and manawi give correct information. (Nuraddin al-Itr, Manhajun-Naqd fi Ulumil-Hadith, Damascus 1392/1972, p. 382; Subhi as-Salih, ibid, p. 124).

Mutawatir hadiths are regarded as evidence in aqaid (creed) issues alone. Therefore, a person who denies a mutawatir hadith of the Prophet is regarded to become an unbeliever because denying such a hadiths means denying the Prophet, which is definitely unbelief. (Ahmed Naim, Tecrid-i Sarîh Tercemesi, Ankara 1976, Mukaddime, p. 102).

Jalaladdin as-Suyuti (911/1505) compiled the hadiths that he decided to be mutawatir after his researches in his book called "al-Azharul-Mutanasira fil-Akhbaril-Mutawatira", classifying and arranging them based on their topics and giving the resources and various sanads (chains of transmission or narrators). (Ahmed Naim, ibid, p. 104).

Nuri TOPALOĞLU

 

USUL AL-HADITH (HADITH METHODOLOGY)

It is a branch of science that examines the chain of narrators (sanad) and text of the hadith. 

The science of hadith is basically divided into two main branches as riwayatul-hadith and dirayatul-hadith. The science of riwayatul-hadith is a branch of hadith that deals with the words, deeds, consent (keeping silent hence approving) and attitudes of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), their recording and their transmission (riwayah) to the following generations in due form.

The science of dirayatul-hadith, which is also known as mustalahul-hadith and usulul-hadith, is defined as the science of rules that enables understanding the states of the chains of narrators and the texts of the hadiths. As it can be clearly understood from this definition, the science of dirayatul-hadith imposes general and theoretical rules, enabling the examination and criticism of the issues of narrators, narration and what is narrated. The literature of this science is the literature of principles. (İsmail Lütfü Çakan, Hadis Edebiyatı, İstanbul 1985, 162)

In fact, usul is the plural form of asl and it means principles, roots and sources. Usul, which terminologically means way, method, rule and system, means the principles, initial knowledge and techniques that are necessary to be learned before the real topic of a science. Accordingly, usul al-hadith means the principles that the science of hadith is based on, and hadith methodology. The term hadith methodologists means the scholars who study the principles of the science of hadith that are based on dirayah.

The science of dirayatul-hadith and hence the literature of hadith methodology are based on the science and literature of riwayatul-hadith, and also the meticulousness, research (tathabbut-taharri) and checking activities shown by the Companions in reporting and narrating hadiths. Along with having a very high level of carefulness and meticulousness, it is known that the Companions also examined the hadiths that they heard from one another and asked those who knew about them better. Badraddin az-Zarkashi included about twenty hadiths that were reported by the Companions and that were corrected by Hz. Aisha in his work called "al-Ijaba". On the other hand, Khatib Baghdadi narrates the Companions that set out on long journeys in order to learn hadiths and to check the hadiths that they knew in his book called "ar-Rihla fi Talabil-Hadith".

These efforts of searching and checking, which started with the Companions, paved the way for the preparation of the rules related to dirayatul-hadith. The duty of conveying the message of Islam and the carefulness of not attributing lies to the Prophet form the basis for all of the activities related to the science of hadith; they are also the main reasons that enabled the methodology of hadith to move to the field of practice beginning from a very early period. However, we can find the independent literature about hadith methodology in a period after the literature of riwayatul-hadith. (İsmail Lütfü Çakan, ibid, 162).

The main reason for putting hadith texts together in hadith books is the aim of determining “sound” hadiths. These works of determination were carried out based on certain rules. Some hadiths were accepted but others were not found to be reliable and they were rejected. However, these rules (usul), which were used as a basis for the determination, rejection and acceptance, were not compiled in certain books. The fact that the rules were known and applied was found enough. After the determination of the hadith texts based on these living rules, which were applied, the duty of explaining based on which rules the literature of hadith was formed would be fulfilled. As a matter of fact, this was not delayed very much; in the years after Kutub as-Sittah, the literature of methodology produced independent works.  

However, there is something that should be remembered here: Some rules of hadith methodology were included in the previous books of rules – though not independently. For instance, ar-Risala of Imam Shafii, Ahmad b. Hanbal's answers to the questions he was asked, Muslim's introduction he wrote in Sahih, the letter Abu Dawud wrote to the people of Makkah, Tirmidhi’s Jami’ and the chapter called Kitabul-Ilal at the end of it are among them. Bukhari’s three books of Tarikh, the information he gives about jarh and tadil are sub-resources of the rules of hadith methodology. (İsmail Lütfi Çakan, ibid, 162)

It is possible to list the works written independently about hadith methodology as follows:

1- Abu Muhammad al-Hasan b. Abdirrahman b. Khallad ar-Ramahurmuzi's work called "al-Muhaddithul Fasil Baynar-Rawi wal-Wai".

2- Al-Hakim Abu Abdillah an-Naysaburi's "Ma'rifatu Ulumil Hadith".

3- Abu Nuaym al-Isfahani's "al-Mustakhraj".

4- Al-Hatib Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's "al-Kifaya fi Ilmir-Riwaya".

5- Qadi Iyad’s work called "al-Ilma' ila Ma'rifati Usulir-Riwaya wa Taqyidis-Sama".

6- Abu Hafs Umar b. Abdulmajid al-Mayanji's booklet called "Ma'la Yasaul Muhadditha Jahluhu".

7- Ibn Salah's "Ulumul-hadith" and the works of the following writers in which they shortened this book are very important works:

a) An-Nawawi's "at-Taqrib wa't-Taysir",

b) Ibn Kathir's "Ikhtisaru Ulumi'l-Hadith",

c) Ibn Hajar's "Nukhbatul-Fikar fi Mustalahi Ahlil-Athar".

8- Suyuti's work called "Tadribur-Rawi fi Sharhi Taqribin-Nawawi".

9- Jamaluddin al-Qasimis "Qawaidut-Tahdith".

10- Tahir al-Jazairi's "Tawjihun-Nazar ila Usulil-Athar".

Those books are the most important ones on hadith methodology.

Doubtlessly, they are not the only books on hadith methodology. In the course of time, the issues of hadith methodology started to be examined and studied in the books written in the form of ta'lif, ikhtisar, sharh and nazm. The works of hadith methodology that revived in the Islamic world especially at beginning of the fourteen century H have been developing in a positive way. The works written on hadith methodology show us, first of all, the level of the extraordinary scientific seriousness shown by Muslims in order to have sound hadith texts. As it is seen here, Muslims have given great importance to hadiths and the issues need to be known related to hadiths. Although this is the scientific and historical fact, the claims by some writers that scholars did not give the necessary importance to hadiths are understood to be unserious statements that are contrary to the truth.

Sabahattin YILDIRIM

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Should a Muslim be guided by the Quran or hadiths? Are the Sunnah and Hadiths binding? To what extent are hadiths reliable?

65 Are narrations like "A person who informs others that the month of Rabiulawwal starts will go to Paradise, will be saved from Hell" true?

We could not find such a narration in hadith resources. Do not rely on such narrations mentioned without evidence and resource.

RABIUL-AWWAL

It is the third month of the lunar calendar. It is one of the months of the Islamic calendar that is formed based on the movements of the moon.

The name of this month is derived from the word "rabi", which means "spring" in Arabic. Arabs have an understanding of a time with two springs called "Rabiush-Shuhur" and "Rabiul-Azmina". Rabiush-Shuhur is the two months following the month of Safar. Rabiul-Azmina means the seasons of spring and fall. The month in which flowers blossomed was calledRabiul-Awwal and the month in which fruits ripened was called Rabiuth-Thani in the past. In the beginning, Arabs divided a year into four seasons. They accepted sayf (summer) as the first season and called the fourth season Rabi' (spring). However, since a difference of about eleven days in a month occur between a solar and lunar year, lunar months sometimes corresponded to summer and sometimes to winter; they come to the same point in every thirty-three years. The month Rabiul-Akhir is abbreviated as "R" in old documents.

This month is one of the honorable months since the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was born in this month. According to the view accepted by the majority, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was born on the twelfth day of this month. His time of birth was close to the morning. Therefore, this day of the month of Rabiul-Awwal has a special importance in the long poems written about the birth of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and other works. Muslims have tried to do charity and help the poor in this month and especially on the twelfth night, and to remember the Messenger of Allah since such a historical incident took place in the month of Rabiul-Awwal.

Ömer TELLİOĞLU

66 "If a person comes to Me walking, I will go to him running." Is this a sacred hadith or a verse?

It is a sacred hadith.

1. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says,

"Allah says, 'I am just as My slave thinks I am, and I am with him if He remembers Me. If he remembers Me in himself, I too, remember him in Myself; and if he remembers Me in a group of people, I remember him in a group that is better than them; and if he comes one span nearer to Me, I go one cubit nearer to him; and if he comes one cubit nearer to Me, I go a distance of two outstretched arms nearer to him; and if he comes to Me walking, I go to him running. If he comes to me with sins that will fill the world without associating partners with Me, I will welcome him with pardoning as big as that.’" [Bukhari, Tawhid 16, 35; Muslim, Dhikr 2, (2675), Tawba 1, (2675)]

2. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says,

"Allah says, ‘Anyone who does a good deed is given tenfold of thawabs; or I will increase it. Anyone who commits a sin is punished once; or I will forgive him. If a person comes one span nearer to Me, I go one cubit nearer to him; and if he comes one cubit nearer to Me, I go a distance of two outstretched arms nearer to him.If a person comes to Me walking, I will go to him running.  If he comes to me with sins that will fill the world without associating partners with Me, I will welcome him with pardoning as big as that.’" [Muslim, Dhikr 22, (2687)]

3. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) says,

"Allah says, 'I am just as My slave thinks I am, and I am with him if He remembers Me. If he remembers Me in himself, I too, remember him in Myself; and if he remembers Me in a group of people, I remember him in a group that is better than them; and if he comes one span nearer to Me, I go one cubit nearer to him; and if he comes one cubit nearer to Me, I go a distance of two outstretched arms nearer to him; and if he comes to Me walking, I go to him running.’" [Bukhari, Tawhid 50; Muslim, Dhikr 2, (2675); Tirmidhi, Da'awat 142, (3598)]

67 Will you explain the hadith "Allah created the cure for every illness"? How should we understand the hadith, "O people! Be treated. For, there is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its treatment"?

Abud Darda (radiyallahu anh) narrates: "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

‘Allah has sent down both the disease and the cure, and He has appointed a cure for every disease, so treat yourselves medically, but use nothing unlawful." [Abu Dawud, Tibb 11, (3874)]

EXPLANATION:

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) emphasizes that there is a legitimate and halal cure for every disease. We should not say, "There is no cure for this or that disease." It is possible that humanity has not developed a method of treatment or has not found a cure for certain diseases yet. However, according to Islamic belief, it is not an unchanging destiny.  It is essential to look for treatment; a cure for every disease will definitely be found.

In that case, that some people say, "A cure will not be found" for AIDS, which is a disease of this age, originates from ignorance. We can definitely say that its cure is present in the treasure of cure of Allah Almighty acting upon the hadith of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) above and similar ones.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following in a narration by Abu Hurayra included in Bukhari:

"There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its treatment." [The following addition exists in Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi: "There is no cure for only one illness." He was asked, "What disease is it?" he answered: "Old age." [Bukhari, Tibb 1, Abu Dawud, Tibb 1, (3855); Tirmidhi, Tibb 2, (2039); Ibn Majah, Tibb 1, (3436)]

Hz. Jabir narrates: "The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"There is a cure for every disease. If the cure for a disease is met, the person will be saved from that disease with the permission of Allah."

EXPLANATION:

1. The first hadith included in Bukhari aims to persuade believers that there is definitely a cure, treatment for every illness. There are various versions of the hadith:

"O people! Be treated! There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its treatment. Then, seek treatment."

"O slaves of Allah! Be treated! Allah has not created a disease without treatment except one: old age – in another narration – death."

The following is stated in a narration of Abu Hudhama from his father: “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Is it permissible if I have ruqya and use medicine? Can anything from Allah’s qadar be change with them?’ He said, ‘They are also Allah's qadar.’"

Hz. Jabir’s hadith is remarkable. Accordingly, treatment is not based on the right medicine only; the permission of Allah is also necessary. In that case, a believer needs to seek ways of treatment but he needs to know that cure is based on the permission of Allah. Thus, a believer who is cured will attribute it to Allah, not to the medicine, and increase his gratitude to Allah.

This brings the following issue to mind: It is essential for the medication to cure but the traits of the person who uses it, the dosage, amount and way of using of the medication may lead to different results in different patients. Some will give full treatment while others will give partial treatment; some may deteriorate the disease and even trigger another disease with its side effects. A believer who knows this needs to take refuge in his Lord when he uses medication in order to be cured with the permission of Allah. It seems that the hadiths also aim to teach this principle to believers.

2. Those hadiths tell us to believe in the effects of medication. On the other hand, it is a good manner originating from belief that a believer needs to attribute everything to Allah and to trust Him. A contrast appears between those two principles. Explainers of the hadith state the following regarding the issue: "All of those hadiths determine the place of causes in treatment. However, according to the hadiths, it is not contrary to tawakkul (trust in Allah) for a person who believes that the cure will come not from the medication itself but from the properties Allah has placed in it and with the permission of Allah and that medication can even cause an illness with the will and predestination of Allah." Besides, they compare it to getting rid of hunger and thirst by eating and drinking and avoiding things that will lead man to destruction, and say, "they are not contrary to tawakkul, neither is this."

3. Some narrations state that there is a cure for every disease except "old age" and "death". This emphasizes that there is definitely a cure for every disease and encourages people to search, presenting a hope and source of consolation to those who suffer from a disease that is thought to be incurable. Attention is drawn to the fact that "old age" and "death" occur as a result of a kind of illness. This prophetic guidance suggests that it is possible to analyze the thing that causes old age more closely and make scientific explanations.

The following statement of Badiuzzaman Said Nursi opens the door slightly to doctors who are believers for serious research that promises original results and encourages them:

"The bodies of living creatures are doomed to annihilation and death in this world because of an imbalance between what is taken in and what is expended. From childhood until maturity much taken in, and after that what is expended increases; the balance is spoilt, and the body dies. In the world of eternity, however, the particles of the body remain constant and are not subject to composition and dissolution, or else the balance remains constant." (Sözler (Words), Yirmi Sekizinci Söz (Twenty-Eighth Word))

He mentions this issue while explaining the immortality in Paradise and the permanence of youth.

68 Is the hadith "I was sent to you at a time when the Last Day is very close like these two fingers" sound? How should we understand this hadith?

Hz. Jabir narrates:

"When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) delivered a sermon, his eyes would become red, his voice would rise and his anger would increase. He would sound as if he would give his army a warning against the enemy and say, "The enemy will attack you in the evening or morning." He would also say:

"I was sent to you at a time when the Last Day is very close like these two fingers." And he would join his forefinger and middle finger and would further say:

"After that, you should know that the best of the speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of the guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every innovation is error." He would further say,

"I am closer to a Muslim even than his self; and he who left behind property that is for his family; and he who dies under debt or leaves children (in helplessness), the responsibility (of paying his debt and bringing up his children) lies on me." [Muslim, Jumua 43, (867); Nasai, Iydayn 22, (3, 188, 189).]

EXPLANATION:

1. This narration shows that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had an attitude based on the issue of the sermon while delivering a sermon. If the issue contained serious things and if he reminded certain things, he would mention destroying everythingin the evening or morning and assume the seriousness of a commander that would inform about the attack of the enemy that wanted to kill them, his face would become red and his voice would rise, etc.

Doubtlessly, assuming an attitude that is in compliance with the issue is not a forced and factitious state but a natural state that is a result of experiencing the importance of the issue with the spirit and approving it with absolute belief. Thus, the Prophet (pbuh) imposed the principles of oratory.

2. It is definite that the state of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) described in the hadith above is not peculiar to all of his sermons. It is peculiar to the sermons related to giving warning.

3. The reason why the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) brought hisforefinger and middle finger together may aim to show that the Day of Judgment is near due to their closeness or may aim to indicate that there will be no prophet between him and the Day of Judgment since there is no other finger between those two fingers.

That a long time passed after the death of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) does not refute the closeness of the Day of Judgment because it is really a very short time compared to the life of the world. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) mentioned this closeness in other hadiths too. One of them is as follows:

"The life of the world is seven steps; I was sent in the seventh step."

Another one is as follows:

"I saw Israfil; he was holding the Trumpet and waiting for the permission to blow it."

The following is stated in the Quran:

اِقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ "The Hour (of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon is cleft asunder." (al-Qamar, 54/1)

4. It is an order of the Quran for the Prophet (pbuh) to be closer to believers from their own selves. Every believer has to love the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) more than his own self, wealth, relatives, business, etc; it is a divine order and a necessity of being a believer and a Muslim. The following is stated in a verse:

"Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates, or your kindred; the wealth that ye have gained; the commerce in which ye fear a decline: or the dwellings in which ye delight - are dearer to you than Allah, or His Messenger, or the striving in His cause;- then wait until Allah brings about His decision: and Allah guides not the rebellious." (at-Tawba, 9/24)

5. The debt of a believer who dies to be paid by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is a controversial issue. For, some hadiths state that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) prohibited going into debt once and refused to perform the janazah prayers of those who died in debt. The hadith above states that he undertakes the debt of the debtor. Scholars state that the prohibition was peculiar to the period before the conquests when there was a financial problem and that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) started to pay the debts of the poor Muslims after the conquests.

Another controversial issue is whether paying the debts of the people who die in debt related to the personality of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), that is, something private, or related to being the president. If it is something private, it will not be the duty of the state to pay the debts of the debtors after the death of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). On the contrary, if it is the duty of the president, it will be a responsibility that is impossible to evade for the Islamic state to pay the debts of the debtors.

Before entering into the details of the debate, we want to state that the verse listing the items of expenditure of the Treasury of the Islamic states mentions  وَالْغَارمِينَ gharimin, that is, "those who are in debt". (at-Tawba, 9/60)

Thus, the hadith makes it necessary for the state to pay the debts of the debtors when the state has enough money if the “paying” in the hadith is not regarded as something peculiar to the Prophet (pbuh). If it is regarded as something peculiar to the Prophet (pbuh), the state will not be responsible to pay the debts of the debtors even if it is rich.

Mustawrid Ibn Saddad al-Fihri narrates: The Messenger of Allah said,

"I was sent in the same era as the day of Judgment. However, I came a little before the Hour as this one passes this one."He showed his middle finger and forefinger." [Tirmidhi, Fitan 39, (2214).]

EXPLANATION:

1. Qadi Iyad says,"What is meant by this hadith is to state that the Day of Judgment is very close."

2. The Prophet bringing his forefinger and middle finger together and saying "like these two" caused different interpretations:
     * The comparison is based on the length; the middle finger is a bit longer.
     * There is no finger between them; therefore, there is no prophet between him and the Day of Judgment. 
     * It is stated that the Day of Judgment is very close. 
     * The advent of his prophethood is a bit before the Day of Judgment like the length of the middle finger.
     * The call of the Messenger of Allah will continue up to the Day of Judgment like those two fingers not being separated from each other.

3. Qurtubi states the following in at-Tadhkira: "The meaning of the hadith expresses the closeness of Day of Judgment. There is no contrariness between the hadith above and the following one:مَا المَسْئُولُ عَنْهَا بِأعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِلِ "The one who is asked does not know better than the one who asks when Doomsday will strike." For, wat is meant by the hadith we are analyzing is the fact that there is no prophet between the Messenger of Allah and the Day of Judgment just like being no finger between the forefinger and middle finger. Knowing the time of the Day of Judgment cannot be deduced from that statement. However, it is understood from the context of the hadith that Day of Judgment is near. Its signs come one after another as it is stated in the verse below:

فقد جاء اشراطُها.. .. "Do they then only wait for the Hour,- that it should come on them of a sudden? But already have come some tokens thereof, and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their admonition?" (Muhammad, 47/18).

Dahhak says that the first one of the signs that are mentioned to have started to come in the verse is the prophethood of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh).

As it is understood from the verse, the advent of the signs earlier is for warning and guiding people; it aims to warn people against heedlessness, to encourage them to repent and to prepare for the hereafter. The frequent warnings of the Prophet that the Day of Judgment is near have the same aim.

69 The following sentence exists in Ibn Arabi’s book: "I remembered a hadith in which the Prophet (pbuh) said, 'Allah created one hundred thousand Adams.'" How should this statement be understood? What is meant by it?

There is a hadith mentioned in Ibnul-Arabi’s "Futuhat al-Makkiyya". Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said,

"One hundred thousand Adams passed; we are the children of the last one."

According to another hadith, one hundred and twenty-four thousand prophets came after Hz. Adam. All of those prophets taught people the same truths, that is, what Allah informed them about and resurrection after death. (Prof. Dr. İbrahim Canan, Kütüb-i Sitte Muhtasarı, IV/63)

Besides, he wanted to indicate this with that statement: “every being has an origin; every species has an ancestor like Adam.” When we think that human beings were created after the other non-living and living things, his expression “before Adam…” becomes more meaningful. Otherwise, we have no sound knowledge about the existence of another group of humanity that lived before human beings. There is no such information in the Quran and hadiths.

70 Will you explain the hadith, "The best ones among you are the ones who make people remember Allah when they are seen"?

Some hadiths regarding the issue are as follows:

1. “When Allah’s best slaves are seen, Allah comes to mind. The worst slaves of Allah are the ones who bear tales to cause mischief, destroy the friendship between those who love each other and who want to cause innocent people to commit sins and fall into trouble." (Majmauz-Zawaid, h. no: 13140)

2. They asked, "Which people are better to be together with?" The Prophet answered: "Those who make people remember Allah when they are seen." (Majmauz-Zawaid, 1/226)

3. "The best ones among my ummah are thosewho make people remember Allah when they are seen. The worst ones among my ummah are those who bear tales, destroy the friendship between those who love each other and habitually cause trouble to innocent people." (Musnad, IV/277)

4. The Prophet (pbuh) was asked, "Who are the saints of Allah?" he answered: "They are such people that Allah comes to mind when they are seen." (Tabari, 4/2731)

5. They asked, "O Messenger of Allah! Which people with whom we sit are better?" The Prophet answered: "Those who make you remember Allah when they are seen, who increase your ilm when they speak and whose deeds remind you of the hereafter." (Abd b. Humayd, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Matalibu Aliya, Tevhid Publications: 3/123)

The characteristic mentioned in the hadith is to place Islam in the first place in all phases of life. When a person tries to do everything in accordance with the consent of Allah, those who see him remember Allah from his deeds. The strongest means of conveying the message of Islam is tongue of one’s deeds; that is to convey the message of Islam with his deeds and attitudes. Reflecting Islam in one’s life is superior to telling people about Islam. 

Mentioning Allah is a great fact advised in the Quran. Mentioning Allah also means remembering Allah. Reading the Quran, adhan, deeds of worshipping like prayers and fasting are also dhikr and they remind people of Allah.

The orders and prohibitions of the religion of Islam, which consists of belief and deeds, remind people of Allah; similarly, there are some people who obey Allah’s orders and prohibitions so perfectly, they became such nice models with their words and deeds that it is impossible not to remember Allah when they are seen.

For, worshipping has two aspects: One aspect is related to Allah and the other is related to His slaves. Thus, the best slaves worship and display their servitude wherever they are so much so that Allah comes to mind at once. That the expression “Allah’s slaves” exists in the hadith in meaning indicates what we mention.

71 How should the hadith "to want for his believing brother what one wants for himself" be understood?

We will try to explain it by reporting a few hadiths:

1. Narrator: Abud-Darda: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"There is no believer who supplicates for his brother in his absence that the angel does not say, ‘The same be for you too.’" (The following addition exists in Abu Dawud's narration: "Angels say, "Amin. The same be for you too.") [Muslim, Dhikr 86, 88, (2732, 2733); Abu Dawud, Salat 364, (1534)]

2. Narrator: Abu Hurayra: Once, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to his Companions,

"Who will take these statements from me, so that he may act upon them, or teach one who will act upon them?" I immediately said,

"Me! O Messenger of Allah!" He took my hand and listed five things:

"Be on guard against the unlawful and you shall be the most worshipping among the people. Be satisfied with what Allah has allotted for you and you shall be the richest of the people. Be kind to your neighbor and you shall be a believer. Love for the people what you love for yourself and you shall be a Muslim. And do not laugh too much, for indeed increased laughter kills the heart." [Tirmidhi, Zuhd 2, (2306); Ibn Majah, Zuhd 24, (4217)]

3. From Anas b. Malik: Hz. Prophet (pbuh) said,

"I swear by Allah who holds my soul in His hand that a person is not regarded to have believed perfectly unless he wants for his Muslim brother what he wants for himself." (Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, al-Fathur-Rabbani Tartib, Ensar Publications: 1/113.)

What is meant by wanting here is perfection. It does not mean "A person who does not want for his Muslim brother what he wants for himself becomes an unbeliever." It is evaluated in terms of the perfection of belief. It does not mean that a jealous and egoistic person who does not want for his brother what he wants for himself is an unbeliever but it means "He does not have perfect belief."

One should want for his believing brother whatever good he wants for himself. However, it does not mean not to work but to want happiness for his believing brother.

72 What is the apparent reason for and wisdom behind the fact that the Prophet gave glad tidings for the conquest of Istanbul, not another city?

The Prophet (pbuh) gave glad tidings for not only Istanbul but also other important places that would be a means of service to Islam, Muslims and humanity. Before their conquests, he stated that, for instance, Makkah, Khaybar, IraqQuds (Jerusalem) (Ali al-Qari, Sharhush-Shifa 1/678, 679), Damascus (Waqidi, Maghazi, 2/450) and Iran (Ahmad b. Hanbal, 4/303) would be conquered and they were conquered.

This primarily encouraged the conquest of those places but is also an evidence for the prophethood of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh).

The reason why Istanbul was given so much importance might originate from the fact that its conquest would bring about material and spiritual benefits to not only Muslims and the Islamic world but also the world.

Besides, there is a special praise for the commander who would conquer Istanbul and his army. This is a praise for the Ottoman State, which is represented by the commander and the army that conquered Istanbul. The Ottoman State showed that it deserved this praise by the services it made.

"O ye who believe! If any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him,- lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault...”

As a matter of fact, it is stated that one of those praised in verse 54 of the chapter of al-Maida is the Ottoman state. (see Elmalılı, ilgili ayetin tefsiri; Nursi, Mektubat, Yirmi Altıncı Mektup)

Due to those properties and the information to be given below, a special importance was given to the conquest of Istanbul. In addition, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) praised the commander who conquered Istanbul and his army.

What the Conquest of Istanbul Gained the World and the Islamic World

We will deal with the benefits of the conquest of Istanbul from material and spiritual point of view, combine them and indicate some important results:

1. Legal Results of the Conquest

As it is known, before the Conquest of Istanbul, Byzantines were dominant in Istanbul; the Roman Law colored with Christianity was applied. When Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Istanbul with the help of Allah and the strength of his sword, he enacted a new legal system in Istanbul; this legal system was the Islamic Law. When the people of Istanbul, who were Jews and Christians and who were sick and tired of the violations of the Byzantines related to tax, life and honor, understood that Islam’s principles of justice were applied by the Sultan himself and that they would live comfortably in Istanbul under the security of Islam, they supported the conquest of the Conqueror, let alone resisting it. Some concrete examples seen after the conquest:

The Existence of the Churches in Istanbul is a Result of the Conqueror’s Tolerance

According to the decrees of Islamic law of states, the temples belonging to the People of the Book in the countries that are conquered through peace are not touched. Just the opposite is valid in the countries that are conquered through war. That is, if the Islamic sultan wants, he can eliminate all of the temples and deport all non-Muslims. Istanbul was conquered through war. This decree is the reason why St Sophia and some other churches were transformed into mosques (Cin, Halil/Akgündüz, Ahmet, Türk Hukuk Tarihi, 1/393 ff).

If that decree had been applied throughout Istanbul, all of the churches and synagogues in Istanbul would have been demolished. Sultan Mehmed II (the Conqueror), who conquered Istanbul with the help of Allah and the strength of his sword, accepted a committee consisting of priests and rabbis into his presence after transforming St Sophia into a mosque. The committee of priests and rabbis told Mehmed the Conqueror that he conquered Istanbul through war and that it was his right originating from the law of states not to leave any churches and synagogues in Istanbul if he wished. However, they asked him to treat them and their temples as if Istanbul had been conquered by peace and wanted their late entrance into his presence to be accepted as a means of this request. Consulting the religious scholars around him, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror accepted their requests and though he had the right, he did not intervene in the churches and synagogues that had not been transformed into mosques.

A fatwa issued by the famous sheikhulislam Ebussuud Efendi of the Ottoman state shows that the real secret of the existence of the churches and synagogues that have survived up to now is Mehmed the Conqueror’s understanding of the freedom of religion and conscience. The fatwa is as follows:

"Did Sultan Muhammad II conquer Istanbul and the towns around it by force? El-The answer: It is known that he conquered Istanbul by force. However, old churches indicate conquest through peace. This issue was searched in 945. A person aged 130 years old and another person aged 110 years old were found; they witnessed that the group of Jews and Christians formed an alliance with Sultan Mehmed II secretly that they would not help the Byzantine rulers and that Sultan Mehmed II would not enslave them, and that Istanbul was conquered like that. Due to this witnessing, the old churches remained as they were. Written by Ebussuud" (Ebussuud, Ma'ruzat, İst. Univ. Library, Turkish Manuscripts No: 1798, vrk. 130/a-b).

As it is seen, the promise of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror “to permit the construction of a church near each mosque” practiced in Serbia was also applied in Istanbul. Does the existence of the Byzantine Patriarchate and the church next to the mosque in Abdi Subaşı District, Fener not show the freedom of religion and conscience in the real sense? Is it not one of the material evidences of this freedom to permit the construction of a Byzantine church opposite Mihrimah Sultan Mosque in Edirnekapı? Despite the nice treatment and tolerance of Muslims toward non-Muslims, the Muslim people who remained under the domination of non-Muslims in the previous centuries, especially in Andalusia, and in the land that was abandoned by the Ottoman State in the last two centuries were treated so badly that their freedom of religion and conscience was completely violated; therefore, the treatment of the Muslims and non-Muslims cannot even be compared. That is one of the legal results of the conquest. (Osman Nuri, Mecelle -i Umur, 1/217-218).

Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror did not apply double standard like the Europeans of today. He applied exactly the same things as he promised in theory except for a few mistakes. We understand a living example of this from the following sentences of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, who rendered the rights given to dhimmis a written order and decree, in the edict he gave to the non-Muslims in Galata:

"I am the Great Sultan and great king Muhammad Khan bin Sultan Murad. I swear by Allah who created the earth and the sky and by the clean, bright and pure spirit of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), by the seven original copies of the Quran, by one hundred and twenty-four thousand prophets, by the spirit of my grandfather, the spirit of my father, by my head, by my children’s head and by the sword that the people of Galata now

1. will practice their rituals and customs as they did in the past. I will not attack them and will not demolish their castle.

2. I decree that their goods, sustenance, property, cellars, vineyards, mills, ships, boats and all goods, women, children male and female slaves will remain with them; I will not oppose them.

3. They will work. They will travel by sea and land like the people of the other land; nobody will prevent and oppose them; they will be exempted.

Due to these lofty principles that were applied in Istanbul for years after the conquest, the descendants of the non-Muslims of that time still live in Istanbul and do business; however, they dare to insult our Ottoman ancestors, with whose tolerance they lived.

In conclusion, the city of Istanbul, which lived under the arbitrary regime of the Byzantine, the old rules of the Roman Law and the Byzantine judges who dispensed oppression instead of justice, experienced a perfect legal system that did not violate even the rights of ants, let alone human beings, and saw judges like Hıdır Bey, who made Mehmet the Conqueror sit next to the chair of a Byzantine man who complained about him in the court.

Along with the application of the religious decrees in the fiqh books that compiled the decrees of the Islamic Law, more than 80 laws were enacted based on the authority given to ulul-amr by the Islamic Law including Sate Organization Law after the conquest; this application was the first in the history of Islamic Law.

2. The Results of the Conquest in the Field of Ilm (Science)

When Istanbul was conquered, the Christian scholars were still under the influence of priests and they despised the people who said the world was round. Besides, there was not a bright scientific life. With the conquest, Istanbul became the center of the world of science and especially great scholars like Hoca Çelebi, who tried to measure around the world using a measuring stick, and Molla Fenari. Istanbul Palaces, which had previously been the scene of entertainment and illegitimate sprees, began to become the scene of scientific discussions and the celebrations of the presentation of wonderful works written in all branches of science to the statesmen.

Fatih Complex, which was one of the first great universities in the world, was an important fruit of the conquest. All branches of science were studied in this university, from the Faculty of Medicine, in which one of the course books was Ibn Sina’s (Avicenna’s) "al-Qanun Fit-Tibb", to various madrasahs, in which one of the course books was Sayyid Sharif Jurjani’s encyclopedia of kalam and philosophy called "Sharhul-Mawaqif" The Renaissance movements in Europe began as a result of the influence of the scientific atmosphere introduced by the conquest of Istanbul. For, not only the religious schools where religious sciences were studied but also modern schools where technical staff who made Fatih’s cannon balls, which were well-known and heard by everybody, were brought up were established in Istanbul.

Europe started to question itself. What enabled Mehmed the Conqueror to conquer Istanbul were the doors of institutions of science opened wide for scientists and scholars thanks to the encouragement of Islam and his respect to scientists and scholars. What caused them to lose Istanbul was to plunge into the dark well of ignorance that caused them to execute the scientists who said the world went round. In other words, it can be said that the Renaissance movements in Europe started with the conquest of Istanbul. Thus, the conquest of Istanbul meant the conquest of Europe, which had been captivated by ignorance, by science.

After the conquest, Istanbul became a city for scholars in all fields, which had to be migrated to.

3. What the Conquest Gained in Political and Social Fields

As it is known, the Ottoman state was not a state but a kind of chiefdom during the time of Osman Bey and Orhan Bey. Those who ruled the Ottomans were not called sultan or king, but Bey or Emir-i Kebir (Great Amir).  Although Murad I called himself the Sultan, the other states did not regard the Ottomans as an independent state; they used the title Amir in the correspondence (see Feridun Bey, Münşeât, Fâtih Devri Fermânları). Bayezid I partly ended this status but the incident of Timur and the period of interregnum started. It was the conquest of Istanbul by the Mehmed the Conqueror that caused the title the Ottoman State to be accepted by both the groups inside and outside the Ottoman State; after the conquest, both the friendly and enemy states used the title the Ottoman State until it declined.

In that case, we can say that the Ottoman state became a real state with the conquest of Istanbul

We can say that the conquest of Istanbul, which made Istanbul the capital of the only super-state of the world, made a great change in Istanbul socially. First of all, people living in Istanbul were presented a peaceful and fair atmosphere that would last for centuries. While adhans were heard from the minarets of the mosques in Kumkapı, Edirne Kapı and Sultan Ahmed, Christians and Jews in the same Kumkapı and Edirne Kapı went to the churches and synagogues peacefully like the Muslims.

All residents of Istanbul, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, benefited from so many social services and took advantage of so much social help that the zakah money (alms) put in the charity stones sometimes stayed there for days and no one took them. In other words, the social structures improved both Muslims and non-Muslims.

4. What the Conquest Brought in the Commercial and Economic Field

The conquest of Istanbul also changed the world's trade and economy balance. On the one hand, it encouraged the geographic discoveries; on the other hand, it made Istanbul the center of world trade. As far as we understand from the provisions of the Regulations and the Customs Laws prepared at the time of Mehmed the Conqueror, a significant part of the goods of London, Baghdad, Far East and Russia was marketed in Istanbul. Istanbul became the financial center of the Silk Road. Muhammad coins, made of solid gold, became the convertible currency in the world trade.

In Istanbul, trade was based on rules. The merchant to bring goods to Istanbul knew the amount of tax to be taken from his goods no matter what his religion was. Based on the permission given by the Islamic Law, commercial consulates were opened. The edicts of privilege given to the Venetians and Greeks during the time of Mehmed the Conqueror showed them clearly.

To sum up, the conquest of Istanbul was also a conquest for Europe because it started the renaissance movements and showed what justice was to non-Muslims; in addition, it became a source of pride for the people living in the Ottoman State and the Islamic world; and it caused the Ottoman state to be the only super state of the world for four hundred years... (see Osmanlı Araştırmaları Vakfı, web page.)

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Will you explain the hadith informing about the conquest of Istanbul?