FAQ in the category of Hajj - Umrah

1 What is the wisdom behind circumambulating the Kaaba seven times? What is the meaning of tawaf (circumambulation)

Circumambulating the Kaaba represents the idea of oneness. Its meaning regarding the social life is not to leave unity and to try to maintain this unity. Its meaning regarding individual life contains deep truths. The sky has seven layers; man has seven souls. Each turning around the Kaaba represents a phase, a stage; man covers a phase and is elevated up to the seventh sky, above the material realm. Besides, it means to rise from the lowest step of the soul, which has seven steps, to the highest one. That is, from nafs al-ammarah (soul commanding the evil) to nafs al-mutmainnah (tranquil self); from the animal life to the spiritual life. Circumambulating the Kaaba is a kind of worshipping taken from the order of the universe. The planets rotate around the sun, the electrons around the nucleus, the moth around the candle; rotating around such a center means allegiance with love.    

God Almighty states the following in the Quran: "The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare His glory: there not a thing but celebrates His praise; and yet ye understand not how they declare His glory...". (al-Isra, 44) The advancement in science as helped explain that verse. As a matter of fact, including the beings that had been thought to be lifeless, everything was found to consist of atoms. The electrons around the nuclei of the atoms rotate continuously and regularly around the nucleus; it was expressed as declaring the glory of Allah in the Quran. Therefore, to rotate around the Kaaba, which is the symbol of Islam, means to love Islam, to rotate around it like a moth and to attach oneself to Allah.

Worshipping; is fulfilling the duties like takbir, hamd, shukr by a slave for Allah in the way that He orders. Therefore, the fulfilling of the duties by each being can be said to be their worshipping and glorifying Allah

Understanding Tawaf: Lexically, tawaf means to turn, walk, etc around something. Everything in the universe, from the tiny atoms to huge galaxies, is in a state of tawaf. In the atom, electrons turn around the nucleus, which is like the heart, with a dizzying speed; in the galaxy, billions of stars rotate around the center of the galaxy with an incredible speed. They rotate as if they worship the Creator that created them. As it is stated in the Quran, each swims along in an orbit. (Yasin, 40)

The view formed by tens of thousands of Muslims walking around the Kaaba is like the view of a galaxy turning together with billions of stars. Therefore, it is necessary to let oneself be on the orbit in order to get full spiritual pleasure in tawaf. A Muslim who can enter this orbit lets himself be controlled by that spiritual flow and gets the pleasure of becoming a drop in the sea of the believers. The circumambulation around the Kaaba is regarded to be the symbol of the summary of the universe and creation, and surrendering to the divine pre-ordainment.  

The formidable walk by men during the first three shawts of tawaf is called ‘ramal’ and leaving the right shoulder uncovered is called ‘iztiba’. 

The historical meaning of the three acts done was a display of power and intimidating the opponents. When Makkan Muslims migrated to Madinah, the climate of Madinah affected them they became a bit weak. When they went to Makkah again after seven years for umrah, they explained the situation to the Prophet. Thereupon, he told his Companions to seem powerful to polytheists and to walk formidably when they passed in front of them; and the Companions walked like that.

Doubtlessly, their walking formidably was enough to show that they were powerful that day. What about today? How will hajjis show that they are powerful today? Material power, spiritual power, moral power… What did we lose, where and how? How will we recover them? We definitely should think about them during hajj.

The ramal (formidable walking), which was performed in order to show the strength of Muslims to the Qurayshis according to what Ibn Abbas says, became a sunnah when Hazrat Prophet walked like that during the first three shawts of the Farewell Hajj. Hazrat Umar had said, after commenting on Hajar al-Aswad, “Why do we still maintain ramal? We did it in order to be seem powerful in the eyes of polytheists, who said we were weak. As a matter of fact, Allah destroyed them.” (Bukhari, Hajj, 57) Although Umar thought that the reason for ramal did not exist any more, he did not want to abandon something that Hazrat Prophet did and thus he continued the same application. Ramal may have continued because Muslims always need to be powerful and because they should never forget it. 

A person starts tawaf leaving the Kaaba on his left. It has a symbolic meaning. The heart of man, which is the place where Allah looks, faces the House of Allah in tawaf. Allah looks at the heart of man, not his shape, appearance, money and property. In this sense, there is an interesting relation between the Kaaba and the heart of man. Therefore, the heart of man faces the Kaaba during tawaf. It also indicates that tawaf should be performed heartily.  

A person enjoys the pleasure of being a believer around the Kaaba. It is very difficult to taste that pleasure, which takes place so vividly and enthusiastically in any other place. The feeling of closeness experienced in that holy place makes hajjis feel at home. Hajjis feel as if they are at home because the face of the Kaaba seems so familiar, its scent feels so acquainted and its coziness feels so comprehensive that no other love can be so attractive for a believer.

There is no difference among people who perform a prayer in congregation; similarly, there is no difference among people who circumambulate the Kaaba. All believers are equal there. There is no sign that differentiates a person from others. There exists unity, which is the symbol of oneness. It is necessary to be lost in the sea of believers and to melt in the congregation.

To turn around somebody and to rotate like a moth around him is an act that shows hearty allegiance and that one can sacrifice everything for that person. In this sense, circumambulating the Kaaba is an indication of turning toward the Exalted Creator, bowing down only in the presence of Him and worshipping none but Him.

During circumambulation, the hajji should have a respect worthy of Him and a love between fear and hope. While circumambulating, the haji should build the house of belief, that is, his heart, just as Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Ismail, his son, built the House of Allah by turning around it. The Kaaba is His house and the heart is the place where He looks at. The hajji continuously looks at the Kaaba, observes it and watches its loftiness; similarly, Allah watches the heart of His slave and pays attention to it. As Hazrat Prophet expressed concisely, “Allah does not look at your shape, appearance or property but at your hearts and deeds. (Muslim, 1, 33) It is like that both in the world and in the hereafter. As it is expressed based on the 88th verse of the chapter ash-Shuara, on the Day of Judgment, when nothing will be of any use, Allah does not want gold or silver but a sound heart. “Oh hajji! Do not think that they want gold or silver from you. They want a sound heart on the day when wealth and sons are not beneficial.” As a matter of fact, in our culture, the sufis use all of the adjectives that are used to describe the Kaaba for the heart and call the heart the House of Allah. Or, they call it bayt al-haram (the honorable house) and they use the same expression for the heart because the heart is the house of Allah and it is haram (forbidden) for anybody but the beloved to enter there. As a matter of fact, the following hadith that the Messenger of Allah stated while circumambulating the Kaaba confirms it. “(O Kaaba!) You are so nice; your smell is so beautiful. Your fame and honor are so high. However, I swear by Allah, in whose hand is my life, that the honor and immunity of a believer with his property and life is greater than your honor.” (Ibn Majah, Fitan 2)

References:

1- Kur'ân'in Getirdigi - Emin Isik.

2- Kurban Kesmenin Psikolojik Temelleri - Doç Dr. Ali Murat DARYAL.

3- Kur'ân-i Kerîm ve Açiklamali Meâli - Türkiye Diyanet Vakfi.

4- Diyanet Islâm ilmihali.

5- Hac Rehberi - Irfan YÜCEL - Türkiye Diyanet Vakfi.

6- Diyanet yayinlari (hacci anlamak)

2 What is the Difference between Hajj and Umrah?

Hajj is performed within the period of time which is called “Hajj months”. According to Hijri calendar, Hajj months are Shawwal, Dhu’l-qada and the first ten days of Dhu’l-hijjah. Hajj can be performed either with or without umrah within these months. Performing Hajj with or without umrah is called “ways of performing hajj.”

The statement of “The time of Hajj is the months Shawwal, Dhu’l-qada and Dhu’l-hijjah, which are called the months of Hajj” is the explanation of the Quranic verse “For Hajj are the months well known” (al-Baqarah, 2:197).

The duty of Hajj starts with entering the state of Ihram. The beginning of it is the month of Shawwal. Those months are called the months of Hajj because a person who enters the state of Ihram in Shawwal can complete the requirements of Hajj until the evening of the tenth (or thirteenth) day of the month Dhu’l-hijjah.

That is to say; the reason why these months are called the months of Hajj is that one is supposed to enter the state of Ihram, which is the first condition of Hajj, only in these months. It is makrooh (abominable) to enter the state of Ihram before these months according to the sects of Hanafi and Hanbali. The following hadith which Bukhari narrated from Ibn Abbas was influential on scholars’ view on this matter: “It is sunnah not to enter the state of Ihram outside the months of Hajj.” (see Zukhayli, al-Fiqh al-Islami, 3/64-65).


According to the sect of Shafii, entering the state of Ihram outside the months of Hajj is accepted for umrah, not for Hajj; because, the Quranic verse “For Hajj, are the months well-known” (al-Baqarah, 2:197) states that one cannot enter the state of Ihram in months other than the months of Hajj. (see ibid., Mughni muhtaj, 1/471, Muhadhdhab, 1/200).

Umrah is the worship which is performed independent of time by doing tawaf around the Kaa’ba after entering the state of Ihram in accordance with its rules and by fulfilling some other religious duties.

3 Can I make Hajj on behalf of someone else? Can a person make Hajj for someone who died?

It is necessary for those who are obliged to go to Hajj but die before they go to Hajj or send someone to Hajj in lieu of themselves to state in their will that someone should be sent to Hajj for them. If one third of the inheritance is enough to meet the expenses of the person to be sent to Hajj and the heirs do not send anybody, they will be responsible before Allah. If one third of the inheritance is not enough to meet the expenses of the person to be sent to Hajj or there is no statement in the will of the person regarding the issue, the heirs will not be responsible for it. However, if there is no statement in the will or one third of the inheritance is not enough to meet the expenses of the person to be sent to Hajj but if the heirs meet the expenses and one of them goes to Hajj or send someone to Hajj in lieu of the late person, the responsibility of the late person will be removed. 

According to a narration, a woman from the tribe of Has`am went to the Prophet and said that her father was too old to sit on a mount and asked whether she could make Hajj for him. The Prophet replied that she could. (Bukhari, Hajj, 1; Muslim, Hajj, 407).

Ibn Abbas narrates: A woman vowed to make Hajj but her life was not long enough to make it; she died before she could make Hajj. The brother of the woman went to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and asked him what he should do. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asked him, “If she had owed some money, would you pay it? The man said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah“. The Messenger of Allah said: "Then, pay her debt to Allah, too, because He deserves more to be paid." (Nasai, Manasik'ul-Hajj, 7)
Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) also narrates: Sinan b. Salama al Juhani’s wife wanted someone to ask the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) if she could make Hajj on behalf of her mother who died. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: “Yes” and added, “if your mother had owed some money and if you paid for it, her debt would be removed, wouldn’t it? Then, let her make Hajj for her mother.” (Bukhari, Jazau’s Sayd, 33)

According to another narration, a woman asked the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) about the state of her father who died before he made Hajj. He said: “Make Hajj on behalf of your father. (Bukhari, ibid; Tirmidhi, Hajj, 85; Nasai, Manasik'ul-Hajj, 8)

It is necessary not to neglect Hajj. A person who is obliged to make Hajj but cannot do it has to send a relative or friend he trusts to Hajj on behalf of him. Neglecting Hajj brings about divine wrath not divine misfortune. Its punishment takes place in the form of the increase of the sins. (Nursi, Sünûhât, p. 54)

The reward of a performed worship, the prosperity of the verses of the Quran or prayers and the reward of a charity and good deed can be donated to someone else, and the person to be donated benefits from it without any decrease. (Nursi, Şuâlar (Rays), p. 589)

Please click on the link given below;

Can a person appoint a proxy for worships like daily prayers (salah), fasting, zakat (almsgiving) and Hajj?

4 What is the wisdom behind throwing pebbles at Satan in Hajj (Pilgrimage)? What does this action symbolize?

Throwing pebbles at Satan is one of the stipulations of Hajj (Pilgrimage). This symbolizes Prophet Abraham’s throwing pebbles at Satan in order to drive him away when he tried to prevent him. As a prophet, he was shown Satan and he threw pebbles at Satan who tried to come between him and His Lord in order to prevent him. Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessing be upon him, said “Learn your duties related to Hajj from me.” (Nasai, Menasik, 220) and he himself performed this ritual and taught it to other people.

Throwing pebbles in a way symbolizes the war waged against Satan. One throws each pebble at one’s own evil commanding soul, lust and at Satan. One tries to exterminate those different fronts from which various mistakes and sins attack him. In the cause for sacrificing what one possesses for Allah’s sake, one has to eliminate whatever Satan devises and whichever arms and fronts he makes use of. Pride, arrogance, property, position, rank, fame, renown, egotism, youth, marriage, children… Whatever the obstacles are before servitude to Allah and its responsibility…

Today, when the pilgrim throws pebbles at the Satan, he both imitates Prophet Abraham, and follows the sunnah (practice) of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). However, even though the pilgrim who performs his ritual throws his pebbles symbolically at the pile of pebbles which symbolize the devil, in reality he must throw the pebbles by thinking his weak points from which Satan deceives him. As everybody knows better of their own defects, blemishes and sins, with each pebble he must aim at his evil commanding soul, lustful desires and his drives which lead him into sins. There, on the first day, he throws seven pebbles, the following days forty-nine or seventy, symbolically. They refer to multiplicity. It means that from then on, he must always be alert against the devil, and even if Satan encounters him hundreds of times, he must have thousands of pebbles to throw at him. From then on, he must carry out the meaning of the prayer he has been reciting for long “I seek refuge in Allah from Satan eternally rejected” (Auzu billahi min ash-Shaytanir-rajim.) not only with his words but also in its essence with more awareness. He must perceive in Whom he seeks refuge and from whom. He must comprehend that he seeks refuge from Satan the ‘Rajim-stoned/rejected’ in Allah the ‘Rahim-the All-Compassionate’. If he does not understand this meaning and does not reason the meaning and wisdom of this by caring only about the symbol and the outer look, he only gets deceived one more time with the apprehension that he ‘stoned the devil’, that’s it! This is because Satan does not wander outside as is symbolized there, but with the words of the Prophet “wanders inside man just like blood wanders in veins.” (Bukhari, Itikaf 11-12)

5 Is it permissible for a person in ihram to wear a wristwatch?

It is not forbidden for a person in ihram to have a shower or bath, to use odorless soap, to brush his teeth, to have his tooth pulled out, to pluck a piece of broken nail or a hair that hams him, to donate blood or to, to have himself cupped, to have an injection, to have his wound wrapped, to wear a wristwatch, ring or bracelet, to wear a belt, to carry a bag on his shoulder, to have a blanket, pique, etc  on him without covering his face and to put a coat, etc on his shoulders without wearing it.

6 What should we do in order to perform an accepted (mabrur) hajj?

A person cannot know whether his hajj is mabrur or not. When the necessary conditions are met and when one fulfills his duties regarding hajj, it is expected that Allah will accept the hajj.

The following is reported from Abu Hurayra (d. 58/677): "When the Messenger of Allah was asked what deed was more virtuous, he said, ‘belief in Allah and His Messenger’; when he was asked about the next virtuous deed, he said, ‘Jihad (holy war) in the way of Allah;’ when he was asked about the next virtuous deed, he said, ‘hajj mabrur’ " (Bukhari, Jihad l; Hajj, 4, 34, 102; Umra, 1; Muslim, Iman,135,140; Tirmidhi, Mawaqit, 13, Hajj, 6,14, 88; Darimi, manasik, 8, Salah, 24, 135).

As it is known, an accepted hajj is enough to eradicate all of the sins of a person except the rights of other people that he violated. It is as if a person is born again after hajj in terms of sins. However, it is necessary to act in accordance with the following five conditions:

1. To go to hajj with a very sincere intention, that is, only for the sake of Allah. To ignore everything except Him as if one is going there to visit Allah.

2. To go to hajj with clean, halal money,

3. To pay the rights of other people or to ask for their forgiveness; to perform the worshipping like missed daily prayers and fasting or to decide definitely to fulfill all of the missed worshipping,

4. To avoid nonsensical and ugly words, intentions and acts (rafath and fusuq) during hajj,

5. To complete hajj by paying attention to all of the external and internal conditions of hajj; only Allah knows the amount of thawabs that such a hajj will earn a person after eliminating all of the sins.

The thawabs of the hajj will decrease based on the deficiencies in those conditions. The hajj of some people will not earn them anything; it will only make them fulfill a fard. For some people, the hajj will make them earn sins. Therefore, it is advised that the rich people who have earned some haram money or whose wealth are doubtful should borrow some money and use that money to go to hajj and then pay their debts when they return out of their own property.  

Besides, Imam Ghazali gives the following advice: "A person who goes to hajj using haram or doubtful money should at least try to eat his food out of halal earnings. If he cannot do it during the whole period of hajj, he should do it at least when he is in ihram. If he cannot do it, either, he should do it on the day of Arafa. If he cannot do that, either, he should always have the feeling of fear, sadness and repentance because of going to hajj with such money so that he may receive mercy on Arafat." (Husayn al-Makki, Irshadu s-sari, 3)

7 Can a woman perform the duty of Hajj or Umrah without a mahram?

The pilgrimage is fardh (obligatory) for all women and men who are healthy, wise and who can afford it. A woman must try to perform the pilgrimage when it is fardh for her as Muslim men do.
The pilgrimage has an important and special part in a woman’s life. As it is told in a hadith”The pilgrimage is the jihad of the women” (1)
Among the conditions of the pilgrimage, women have a different and more special condition. That is; a woman who is about to have a journey for the pilgrimage is bound to have her husband or somebody whom she is never allowed to marry like her father, son, brother, uncle, son-in-law or her nephew with her.
According to the sect of Hanafi, it is not obligatory for a woman who has none of the people mentioned above with her to perform the pilgrimage and the journey is not religiously allowed. That restriction is not just for air flights. It is wrong for a woman to go somewhere that is religiously regarded as a journey without her husband or one of her close relatives.
However, it is different according to the sect of Shafii. According to that sect, it is enough for a woman to have her husband, or one of close relatives or two or more trustable women with her to have the journey for the pilgrimage. She can have the journey with them and perform the pilgrimage. A woman having no male close relatives with her can imitate the Shafii sect regarding that issue.(2)

For more information, click on the link given below.

What are the situations that women can encounter during hajj (pilgrimage) and what are they supposed to do in those conditions?

8 Can Umrah be performed during the month of Dhu’l-qidah?

There is not a certain condition of time period for Umrah. Umrah is a kind of worship in which people visit the Kaaba by getting into the state of Ihram (A spiritual, mental and physical state that one is in when embarking on Hajj or Umrah. It is also the clothing one is wearing while in this state) and performing Tawaf (circumambulation of the Kaaba during hajj) and performing some other religious tasks.

Hajj is a kind of worship performed during the months which are called the months of Hajj. The months of Hajj are Shawwal, Dhu’l-qadah and the first ten days of Dhu’l Hijjah according to Hijri Calendar. Hajj can be performed within these months both with or without Umrah. Performing Hajj with Umrah or without Umrah is called the kinds of Hajj performance.

The statement of “The time of Hajj is during the months of Hajj which are Shawwal, Dhu’l-qadah and the first ten days of Dhu’l Hijjah” is the interpretation of the Quranic verse which is translated as “Hajj is in the well-known months” (al-Baqarah, 2/197).

The duty of Hajj starts when one gets into the state of Ihram. The beginning of it is in Shawwal. Those months are called the months of Hajj because one getting into the state of Ihram in Shawwal can complete the requirements of pilgrimage until the evening of 10th (or 13th ) day of Dhu’l-Hijjah.

In conclusion, the reason why those months are called the months of Hajj is that one can get into the state of Ihram, which is the first condition and element of Hajj, only in those months. Getting into the state of Ihram before those months is makrooh (abominable) according to Hanafi and Hanbali sects. The hadith “It is Sunnah not to get into the state of Ihram except in the months of Hajj” (see Zukhaili, al-Fiqh’al-Islami, 3/64-65) narrated by Bukhari from Ibn Abbas was influential on the scholars’ view regarding the issue.

According to the Shafi’is, getting into the state of Ihram in other months is valid for Umrah, not for Hajj; because, the verse “Hajj is in well-known months (al-Baqarah, 2/197)” does not mention that one cannot get into the state of Ihram in the other months that are not determined for pilgrimage (see Mughni Muhtaj, 1/471, Muhadhdhab, 1/200).

9 What is the Wisdom Behind Stoning the Devil?

As it is known, during the hajj season the devil is stoned in three places called Jamratul-Aqaba, Jamratus-Sughra and Jamratul-Wusta in Mina on the first, second and third days of Eid al-Adha. It is wajib. The acts carried out there are among the essentials of hajj. It is done to recall a nice reminiscence. The devil, who is the common enemy of the humankind, is stoned and damned.   

Stoning is carried out in thee places that were determined allegorically. That worshipping dates back to Hazrat Ibrahim (pbuh).

There are two narrations regarding the issue. One of them as follows:

While Hazrat Ibrahim was taking Hazrat Ismail to a place to sacrifice based on the order of Allah, the devil appears before them. He wants to dissuade Hazrat Ibrahim by trying to exploit his paternal compassion. However, the devil is rejected. Then, he tries to dissuade Hazrat Ismail. He tells Ismail that his father misunderstood the order of God Almighty and that he left his mother in tears, and asks him not to obey that order. Hazrat Ismail does not heed the misgivings of the devil; he dismisses the devil and throws seven stones at him. Hajjis throw stones at jamras to recall and relive that reminiscence.

The narration of Ibn Abbas regarding the issue is as follows:

When Hazrat Ibrahim came to perform hajj, the devil appeared near Jamratul-Aqaba. Then, Hazrat Ibrahim threw seven stones at him. The devil sank into the ground. Then, he appeared again near Jamratul-Wusta. Hazrat Ibrahim threw seven stones at him. The devil sank into the ground. Then, he appeared again near Jamratul-Wusta. Hazrat Ibrahim threw seven stones at him again. The devil slumped.  

Then, Ibn Abbas added,

“You only stone the devil and follow the way of Hazrat Ibrahim (pbuh), your ancestor.”

That kind of worshipping means not to approve the wish of the devil, who has been the enemy of man since Hazrat Adam, not to heed his misgivings, to curse the devil again within the circle of faith and to make him sink into the ground. That stoning is a display of fitness against the evil forces, symbolization of the determination to overcome all kinds of evil and the application of the spiritual treaty made with our Lord.

Our Prophet (pbuh) stated the following:

To circumambulate around the House of Allah, to go to and come back between Safa and Marwa, to stone the devil are performed in order to keep alive the signs of Allah.”

Believers show their servitude to their Lord by performing those acts of worshipping during the season of hajj. They enjoy the pleasure of being a servant to Him and being addressed by Him.

10 Why do we worship hajrul aswad?

People do not worship at Hajar Al-Aswad  because, it has no feature to be worshipped at. That blessed stone, which is called as Hajar Al-Aswad (The Black Stone) because of its black color, takes place on the east edge of Ka’aba and was located in a place one and a half meters high from the ground and near the gate of the Ka’aba.. It consists of three big and a few small pieces. It is surrounded by a silver ring. Another name of it is Ruh Al-Aswad.
That blessed stone is a heavenly stone and has been delivered to Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) by Gabriel. It had been kept on Abu Qubays Mount before it was placed on the Ka’aba’s wall. According to a relation, Hajar al-Aswad is the stone that the Prophet’s, the chief of the universe’s expression “I still know and recognize the stone that had greeted me in Makkah before I was sent as a prophet” points out.   
The scholars have the opinion that kissing that stone is approvable. (cf. Zuhayli, al- Fiqh al Islami, 3/151)
In a famous relation, Hazrat Umar kissed Hajar al-Aswad and said: “I swear by Allah, I know you are a stone. I would not have kissed you, if I had not seen the Prophet had kissed you.” (Refer to Nawawi, Majmu, 8/29).
Then, kissing Hajar al-Aswad is sunnah (an act of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)). However, if the place is overcrowded and if it will be a torment for people, one should content oneself with greeting from a distance and should not give torment to people. Because, kissing Hajar al-Aswad is sunnah, but giving torment to people is haram.
It is not harmful in point of health. Otherwise, similar things can also be told for mosques. It is essential to rely on Allah in such cases.      

11 Is it fard to go to Hajj for one who goes to Umrah?

If someone for whom Hajj is fard goes to Makkah or does Umrah, his obligation to go to Hajj is not removed because Umrah is Sunnah; it cannot replace the fard Hajj. Besides, Umrah does not include all conditions and rules of the fard Hajj. According to the view “Hajj is immediately applicable”, even if that person arrives in his/her country, he/she must go to Hajj in the first year. Without paying back his or her debt for prayers, they must not be considered free of the obligation to go to Hajj.
However, if someone who is in Makkah for any reason sees the Kaaba and if it is the season for Hajj, he or she must fulfill Hajj. The months of the Hajj are the first ten days of Shawwal, Dhul Qadah, and Dhul Hijjah. If the time when he or she is in Makkah is not the season for Hajj but if he/she can stay there, according to some Hanafi scholars, he/she must perform Hajj by staying there until the season comes. According to some scholars who consider the difficulty of staying there for a long time and that it can be hard for a person, it is not compulsory to stay in Makkah under such conditions.
Today it is not possible to stay and waiting for the season of Hajj, because the government of Saudi Arabia does not give residence permit to people for a long time except people who work there and the officials.
In that case, Hajj is not fard for a poor man who goes there on duty before the season of Hajj, performs Umrah and sees the Kaaba because he/she has an anxiety to be imprisoned and to be expelled. Moreover s/he is not rich, it means Hajj is not fard for her or him.
Mehmed Paksu

12 hajj money

According to the three sects (Shafi, Hanefi and Maliki sects) performing hajj (pilgrimage) duty with ill-gotten gains is acceptable, but its merit will be less and s/he will be sinful. But according to Hanbali sect, one can not perform hajj duty with ill-gotten gains.

But, in a hadith passes in the books of the Islamic Canonical Law, the Prophet (PBUH) clearly states that Muslims in non-Muslim countries may receive interest. Muslims need to receive both the capital and the interest given as a result of this money.

Here is a known truth that a Muslim cannot receive interest from another Muslim even in a non-Muslim country.

 

Is it religiously allowed to buy a house with the mortgage system?

 

13 Is it compulsory to do Hajj if one does Umrah?

If the conditions that make Pilgrimage compulsory have not formed, it is not compulsory for the one who goes to Umra (small pilgrimage) to go to Pilgrimage.

14 About Umrah and missing the down (fajr) prayer.

The First Answer:
Every worship has an auspicious. However, the degree of it changes according to the place of the worship, avoiding from sins and sincerity.
Umra is a term which has the meaning to visit the Kaba without depending on a certain time like Hajj (Pilgrimage). The worship of Umra -according to the sects of Hanafi and Maliki- is muakkad sunnah, to the sects of Shafii and Hanbali is obligatory (fard).
The worship of Umra can be performed anytime wanted whereas the Hajj is only performed in its season. However, it is makruh (disgusting, revolting, abominable) to perform it on the eve of the Sacrifice Holiday and the four day of that holiday. And to establish it in the month of Ramadan is an opportunity for more auspicious. 
The Second Answer:
All of the prayers that have been decreed as five times are precious and important. One cannot stand for other. However, a part of them is more virtuous and auspicious. And the dawn prayer (fajr salath) is one of them. Allah All-Mighty in one verse, in the Qur’an says as follows:
“Therefore be patient with what they say, and celebrate (constantly) the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun, and before its setting; yea, celebrate them for part of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day: that thou may be pleased.” (the Qur’an, Ta-ha,  20/130)
Interpreters comment the aim with the statement of “celebrate the praises” is to be salath (prayer). The glorification before the rising of the sun points to the fajr prayer.
Why the fajr prayer has so much virtue and auspicious is because it coincides with the time of sleep. To give up sleeping which is very sweet and something pleasant for the soul and then to face to the Creator of allthings; to plead with Him; to prostrate Him in awe; while being an absolute impotetent, poor and weak to depend on the Lord of the worlds Who has an infinite power, wealth and force; to glorify and offer thanks to Him, to honor Him makes person to be the recipient of having an exalted taste and a holy pleasure. Together with this honor, the comfort and peace of being admitted into the presense of Allah, being an addressee and friend to Him, and also fulfilling a holy duty shall cover all of the personality.
Because the fajr prayer coincides with the time of sleep, the soul finds it difficult to wake up. Islam scholars advise for those who are weight sleeper to go to bad early to be able to wake up for fajr prayer. They do not approve them to procrastinate until late hours and then miss the prayer.
If it is intentionally or because of ignorance and slubbering; the prayers which are missed and left for qadha (late performance of an act of worship) are not considered as a legistimate excuse. Such acts and ignorences gain people to sin. The reality that the first account for people’ deeds will be prayer, that even leaving one time of prayer knowingly and willingly will cause punishment, and that the committed sins even they are a atom’s weight will be shown us should prompt us to be careful and pay attention always. 
In order to be able to wake up for fajr prayer, we need to get all kinds of measures. As a matter of fact, once during an expedition Our Prophet (peace be upon him) had left Hazrath Bilal as a picket for fajr prayer.
In fact, there is no compulsion in our religion. It is very easy to establish our worships. Only thing we will do is to be careful and vigilant. Just because of neglect, to miss a prayer shall cost us too expensive. The day we performed the fajr prayer we become more lively and peppy. And the day we did not perform, as there becomes an unwillingness and misfortune even in our worldly deals, so, there occurs unrest in our psychological structure, too. And the responsibility of that issue pertaining to the next world is more piteous.
When going to bad, besides setting the alarm of the clock as a material measure, as a sipiritual measure to recite the surahs (chapter in the Qur’an) such as “Innâ a'daynâ”  and “ayat al-Kursî” and to pray will help us to be able to wake up. Since there are the angels that Allah All-Mighty charged them for that tusk.
As a matter of fact, the main point is to place waking up under the conscious. If we consider that for a small worldly benediction when needed we be unable to sleep and when we want an important dealing to do, we wake up easily. So it is not difficult to think what we would bear for worship in which even its sunnah prayer is “more auspicious than this world and what is in it” (Riyazu’s Salihin, 2: 411). Besides, Our Prophet used that statement only for the sunnah prayer of the fajr salath.
There is one more case concerning fajr salath’s time, it is about what we should do when there is a very little time for the sun set up. In such a situation, if the time is very narrow, one should immediately take ablution. It is not permissible to deal with other things such as going to the toilet ect... For the time of the prayer is about to exit. And again, in order to gain time when taking ablution, only to wash the obligatory parts and to be able to perform the fard (obligatory) prayer, to give up the sunnah prayer is permissible, and is wajip in very narrow times.

15 performing hajj for a married woman

Hajj (pilgrimage) duty must not be neglected. Neglecting it, does not cause Divine Calamity but requires Divine anger and distress. And as a result, sins and debauchery are increased by the Almighty Allah.

A woman can send someone else to Hajj (Pilgrimage) in place of herself, if she has a chance to do so. And also she does not have to get permission from her husband, if she will use her own money for this obligatory rule of Islam. Because, she can spend her own money however she wants without permission of her husband, in the circle of halal (permissible) deeds, especially for a duty such as Hajj. She can send her father as a proxy as well. But there are some conditions that are needed for both bequeather and proxy.

If the proxyship is wanted to be permissible, the obligor person for Hajj must be as impotent as not to be able to perform this Holy duty. Otherwise it is not permissible to send a proxy instead (That is to say, if one person is able enough to perform the Hajj himself, it is not permissible to send someone else as a proxy.).

Excuses such as excessive old-age, continuously illnesses or being confined to bed, death and for women not having someone familiar (mahram) to make a journey with (If a woman intending to perform Hajj duty has no someone familiar (mahram) to go with, she can send someone else as a proxy) etc. are the reasons that makes sending another person permissible in place of him/her self. In that situation, the obligor of Hajj can send someone, whom s/he trusts, as a proxy.     
During the Last Hajj of our Prophet (pbuh), a young lady from Hasam tribe approached to Our Prophet (pbuh) and asked as follows:
“O Messenger of Allah! My dad heard about the command of Hajj, when he was very old. And now he is unable even to sit on a camel. Can I perform the Hajj duty for him as a proxy?”

Our Prophet (pbuh) stated as follows: “Yes, you can perform the Hajj for him as a proxy.” (1)
Ibn-i Abbas states that a woman had intended to perform the Hajj, but her life did not last long enough. Without performing the Hajj she died. Her brother because of this reason went to Prophet (pbuh) and asked him what to do.
Our Prophet (pbuh): “If your sister who died had had some debts behind, would you pay for her?

Her brother replied as: “Yes, O Messenger of Allah!”.  

Our Prophet said him that if so, pay for the debts she has to pay to Allah, too, because He is the most worthy to be paid. (2)

1- Sahih-i Buharî, Hajj, v.6, p. 52; Nesâî, v. 5, p.147
2- Nesâî, Menâsik'ul-Hajj, v. 5, p.146

16 What are the situations that women can encounter during hajj (pilgrimage) and what are they supposed to do in those conditions?
17 Does it necessitate atonement for a woman who normally covers her face with a veil if she uncovers her face while she is in ihram?

It is one of conditions of the Ihram for a woman to uncover her face. Namely, a woman does not cover her face beginning from the time of the Ihram. The Hadith “the Ihram for a woman is on her face” explains it. Namely, there is no condition for a woman in Ihram except uncovering her face. A man cannot wear seamed clothes and a woman cannot cover her face during the Ihram. (see Ikhtiyar, 1/156)
It is clear from the explanation above that it is a right act for your wife not to cover her face during the circumambulation of the Kaaba. However, covering her face without any excuse while she is in Ihram before the circumambulation of the Kaaba is a wrong act. It is necessary, as atonement, for her to sacrifice an animal like a goat or sheep. (see al-Jazari, al-Madhahibu’l-arbaa, 1/675-678)

18 Can you give information about the Kaaba?

The Kaaba is a quadrilateral building which is 13 m high, 12 m long and 11 m wide in the middle of Masjid al-Haram in the city of Makkah.  The Kaaba, which is the reason for hajj and the qiblah of Muslims, is the first holy temple built on the earth. It is also called Baytullah (House of Allah) and Baytul-atiq (Old House). The following is stated in the Quran: "The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka: full of blessing and of guidance for all kinds of beings." (Aal-i Imran, 3/96)

Answering the questions of Abu Dharr, one of the Companions, Hz. Prophet (pbuh) stated that the first mosque built on the Earth was "Masjid al-Haram" and the second one was "Masjid al-Aqsa"; he also said that there was a period of forty years between their constructions. (Bukhari, Anbiya. 10).

The verse and hadith above state clearly that the first mosque built on the earth is the Kaaba.

It is stated in the Quran the people that built the Kaaba were Hz. Ibrahim and his son Ismail.

These two prophets went to the region of Hejaz as follows: While Hz. Ibrahim was fulfilling the duty of prophethood in Palestine, he had to move her second wife Hz. Hagar to another place and settle her there due to the emotional competition and jealousy between her and his first wife. Hz. Ibrahim (pbuh) took his wife, Hagar, and his son, Ismail, who was a baby sucking his mother's milk, to the place where the Zamzam Well is located now. The city of Makkah had not been built then; there was nobody around. When he wanted to return to Palestine by leaving a leather bottle of water and some dates with them, Hagar asked him whether this migration was an order of Allah. When Hz. Ibrahim (pbuh) said he would leave them acting upon the revelation of Allah," Hagar said, "Allah will protect us; you can leave." Thus, this woman and the baby who was still being breastfed were left alone in the middle of the desert where nobody lived.  

Water started to spring from the place where Ismail was as a grace of Allah while Hz. Hagar was going between Safa and Marwa hills. Hz. Hagar tried to form a pond so that the water would not flow out and shouted at the water as "zam, zam (stop, stop)". After a while, the tribe of Jurhumis understood from the flying of the birds that there was water there and changed their route. They arrived there and Hz. Hagar gave them permission to obtain water from there; in return for it, Jurhumis undertook the duty of supplying food for Hagar and her son. Jurhumis became the founders and first people of Makkah. (see az-Zabidi, Tajrid-i Sarih, Trnslt Kamil Miras, Ankara 1984, VI, 13, ff)

Hz. Ibrahim went to Hejaz from time to time and he built the Kaaba with his son when he grew up. This event is narrated as follows in the Quran:

"Behold! We gave the site, to Abraham, of the (Sacred) House (saying): "Associate not any thing (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or stand up or bow or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer)." (al-Hajj, 22/26)

While the Kaaba was being built, Hz. Ismail carried stones to the Kaaba and Hz. Ibrahim put up walls. When the walls became too high to reach from the ground, Hz. Ismail brought the big stone known as "Maqam Ibrahim" today.  Hz. Ibrahim used this stone as a platform. Hajar al-Aswad (the black stone) brought from Mount Abu Qubays, was put in its current place to indicate the place of starting circumambulation. When the walls of the Kaaba became high enough, Hz. Ibrahim and Ismail prayed as follows:

"Our Lord! accept (this service) from us; for thou art the All-Hearing the All-Knowing. Our Lord! Make of us Muslims bowing to Thy (Will) and of our progeny a people Muslim bowing to Thy (Will) and show us our places for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning Most-Merciful. Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom, and purify them; for Thou art the Exalted in Might the Wise." (al-Baqara, 2/127-129)

The prayer of Hz. Ibrahim was accepted and Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) was sent as a prophet from his lineage. It is reported that the Prophet stated the following indicating that dream:  "I am honored by my father, Ibrahim's prayer, my brother Isa's glad tiding and my mother's dream." (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, IV, 127, 128, V, 262)

On the other hand, it is stated in a hadith reported by Ibn Ujra that the ummah of Islam read the prayers of "tahiyyat" and "Allahumma salli-barik" in all prayers and prayed for Hz. Ibrahim and his lineage as a kind of thanking for this old prayer of Hz. Ibrahim. (az-Zabidi, ibid, VI, 18, 19).

It is also reported that the first person to build the Kaaba was Hz. Adam (pbuh) and that Hz. Ibrahim and his son, Ismail built it on the same foundations after the Great Flood at the time of Noah. (az-Zabidi, ibid, VI, 13)

After the construction of the Kaaba ended, Allah ordered Hz. Ibrahim to call all people to the Kaaba for hajj: "And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men: they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways " (al-Hajj, 22/27).

Hz. Ibrahim climbed on Abu Qubays Mount and called out to four directions, telling the people that Allah made it fard (obligatory) for them to visit the Kaaba for hajj. (az-Zabidi, ibid, VI, 20, 21).

After making this announcement, Jibril arrived and showed him "Safa" and "Marwa" and the boundaries of Masjid al-Haram; he also advised him to put up stones as signs. Then, he taught Hz. Ibrahim the necessary information about hajj; they arrived at Mina wearing ihrams and to Arafat by uttering "La ilaha illallah" and "Labbayk" on the way. After staying (waqfa) in Arafat, they went to Muzdalifa and then to Mina; Jibril made him slaughter an animal and showed him how to stone Satan. In short, he taught Hz. Ibrahim all of the rituals of hajj. These rituals of hajj were taught to the ummah by Hz. Ismail who was sent to the people of Hejaz as a prophet. Then, Ishaq arrived in Makkah and performed hajj with his older brother Ismail

After that, visitors from near and distant places started to go to Hejaz and visit the Kaaba. It is reported that Yemenis and some Persian kings visited the Kaaba before Islam and that the two golden deer statues removed while cleaning the Zamzam Well by Abdulmuttalib, the Prophet's father, were religious offerings of the Persians. (az-Zabidi, ibid, VI, 21)

The Kaaba has been repaired several times so far. As a matter of fact, the Kaaba was repaired by Qusay, the Prophet's great-grandfather and it was also repaired by Qurayshis during the youth of the Prophet (pbuh). Meanwhile, when there was a disagreement about who will place Hajar al-Aswad, Hz. Prophet was given the honor of placing it.

The Kaaba was also repaired during the era of Abdullah b. Zubayr, the Umayyad caliph Abdulmalik, the Ottoman sultans Ahmed I and Murad IV. After the Ottoman sultans, the Saudi government has taken care of the maintenance and repairs of the Kaaba. 

During the first years, the duties related to the Kaaba were carried out by Hz. Ismail. After him, they were transferred to his son, then to Jurhumis; after them, they were transferred to many other tribes and finally Qurayshis undertook these duties. Before Qurayshis, it was regarded as disrespect to build houses around the Kaaba. However, after Qurayshis undertook these duties, they started to build houses around the Kaaba at the time of Qusay, who divided the land into plots.  

Thus, during the period of Qusay, one of the ancestors of Hz. Prophet, Makka assumed a civilized state as a city for the first time. There were people around the Kaaba beforehand too but the division of the land into plots and formation of streets took place during the time of Qusay. 

We can list the duties related to the Kaaba in the city state of Makka before Islam as follows:

1. Sidanah: It was the duty of door-keeping, and holding the key of the Kaaba. This duty was regarded as the greatest honor.


2. Siqayah: It was the duty of providing fresh water to hajjis that came to Makkah and taking care of the Zamzam Well.

3. Ridanah: It was the duty of treating meals to the poor hajjis coming to Makkah, to entertain and to accommodate them.

There were also some duties of the emirate of Makkah that were regarded to be connected with the duties related to the Kaaba. They can be listed as follows: 

1. Uqab (Qiyada): It was the duty of carrying the banner during wars; the banner was carried by the person who was appointed to carry it or who was in charge of it.

2. Nadwa: It was a kind of meeting place; important events like wars, peace, wedding ceremonies were negotiated and settled there. Not everybody was allowed to join these meetings. Only the leaders of family groups older than forty were allowed to join. This meeting place was first built by Qusay, who was a Qurayshi. Some part of his house was near the place of circumambulation and was called Dar an-Nadwa. Dar an-Nadwa was the parliament of Makkah. 

3. Safarah: the duty of embassy.

4. The duty of allowing the goods to be carried.

5. The duty of protecting war equipment.

6. The duty of drawing lots with arrows in front of the idols.

7. Cleaning the Zamzam Well and offering it for usage again.

The corner of the Kaaba in the east is called "Rukn Hajar al-Aswad" or "Rukn ash-Sharq"; the corner in the west is called "Rukn ash-Sham, the one in the south "Rukn al-Yaman" and the one in the north "Rukn al-Iraq.

The 1.5 m thick wall, which is 1 m above the ground opposite the northwest wall (the wall between Rukn al-Iraq and Rukn ash-Sham) in the form of a semicircle, is called "Hatim". The area between this wall and the Kaaba is called "Hijr al-Kaaba, Hijr Ismail or Hatira". 

This part was also included in the building of the Kaaba constructed by Hz. Ibrahim.

While the Kaaba was being repaired by the tribe of Quraysh five years before Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) was sent as a prophet, this part was left out of the Kaaba because there were not enough materials. Since Hatim is part of the Kaaba, it is regarded wajib to circumambulate the Kaaba outside this wall. It is reported that Hz. Hagar and her son Hz. Ismail were buried in "Hijr". (see az-Zabidi, ibid, VI, 17-20)

The water spout through which rainwater flows on top of the Kaaba is called "Golden Water Spout" (Mi'zab al-Kaaba).

The door of the Kaaba is two meters higher than the ground in the part between Rukn Hajar al-Aswad and Rukn Iraqi in the north east. The part of the wall between the door and Hajar al-Aswad is called Multazam. The part that surrounds the Kaaba and where prayers are performed is called Masjid al-Haram. The most virtuous mosque in the world is Masjid al-Haram.

19 What is the reason why the noon and afternoon prayers are performed together in Arafat, and the evening and night prayers are performed together in Muzdalifa?

An exception to the rule that each prayer must be performed in its determined time is that when hajjis are in Arafat, they perform the prayers of noon and afternoon together within the time limits of the noon prayer and in Muzdalifa they perform the evening and night prayers together within the time limits of the night prayer.   

Scholars unanimously agree on it because the practices and the words of the Prophet during the Farewell Hajj are strong enough to constrict the relevant verses and hadiths. Abdullah b. Masud (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said, "I have never seen the Messenger of Allah performing a prayer outside its determined time, except for two prayers: he performed the noon and afternoon prayers together in Arafat and the evening and night prayers together in Muzdalifa." (Bukhari, Hajj, 99; Muslim, Hajj, 288; Tecrid-i Sarîh Translation, II, 487, 488, VIII, 374; A. Davudoğlu, Sahih-i Müslim Translation, İstanbul 1977, IV, 136)

During a hajj after the death of Hazrat Prophet, Abdullah b. Masud led the evening and night prayers together and then led the morning prayer at an early time; he said that the Prophet said,  “The usual times of those two prayers, evening and night prayers, were changed in Muzdalifa. People must not come to Muzdalifa before the time for night prayer starts and they must not perform those two prayers at an early time. " (Bukhari, Hajj, 97; Ahmad b. Hanbal, V, 202; Asım Köksal, İslâm Tarihi, İstanbul (n.d.), XVII, 273, 274).

20 Will you give information about Rukn al-Yamani corner of the Kaaba?

The wisdom behind greeting Rukn al-Yamani is that the Prophet (pbuh) did so. Besides, before the Kaaba was ordered to be the qiblah by Allah, the Prophet (pbuh) used to perform prayers by standing in front of Rukn al-Yamani in order to turn toward both the Kaaba and Masjid al-Aqsa.

During the first years of Islam, the Muslims used to turn toward Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) while performing prayers. However, before the Migration, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not leave the Kaaba behind while performing prayers in Makkah; he used to stand between Rukn al-Yamani and Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad so that the Kaaba would be between him and Bayt al-Maqdis . Thus, he turned to both the Kaaba and Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. After the Migration, when the Prophet turned to Masjid al-Aqsa, the Kaaba remained behind him and he felt sad. He wanted the Kaaba to be the qiblah. For, the Kaaba was the qiblah of Hz. Ibrahim, his ancestor.

RUKN AL-YAMANI

It is the corner of the Kaaba in the direction of Yemen.

The Kaaba was built by Hz. Ibrahim and his son, Ismail; the corner of the Kaaba in the direction of the east was called "Rukn ash-Sharqi" or "Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad" because Hajar al-Aswad was there; the corner of the Kaaba in the direction of Iraq was called "Rukn al-Iraqi"; the corner of the Kaaba in the direction of Damascus was called "Rukn ash-Shami" and the corner of the Kaaba in the direction of Yemen was called "Rukn al-Yamani".  The place between Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad and Rukn al-Iraqi is inclined to the north a bit; Maqam al-Ibrahim, Zamzam Well and Banu Shayba Gate are on this side of the Kaaba. The place between Rukn al-Iraqi and Rukn ash-Shami, which forms the north side of the Kaaba, is inclined to the west a bit; Hijr, Golden Water-spout and Maqam al-Hanafi are on this side of the Kaaba. The western side, that is, the place between Rukn ash-Shami and Rukn al-Yamani is inclined to the south a bit. Umrah Gate, Farewell Gate and Ibrahim Gate are on this side. The direction of the sun, that is, the place between Rukn al-Yamani and Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad is inclined to the east a bit; Safa Gate and the other gates in the south are on this side.  (Tajrid, VI,19; M. Esad, Tarîh-i Dîni İslâm, (sad. A. Lütfi Kazancı and others, 324 ff)

In addition, in the Islamic literature the corner of the Kaaba that includes Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad  and the corner that includes Rukn al-Yamani is also called "Ruknayn al-Yamaniyayn"; The other two corners are called "Ruknayn ash-Shamiyayn". According to a narration from Abdullah b. Umar, Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad and Rukn al-Yamani are greeted during circumambulation. According to another narration from the same person, the Prophet greeted Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad and Rukn al-Yamani during circumambulation. (Tajrid, I, 149-150) If it was not possible due to stampede, they continued circumambulation by uttering takbir.

Rukn al-Yamani has an important place after Rukn al-Hajar al-Aswad because the Prophet (pbuh) greeted it during circumambulation.

21 Does a student who is thinking of performing the duty of hajj that is fard need to go to hajj by leaving his school or does he need to attend his school?

Hajj becomes fard for a person when its conditions are present in him. It is necessary for a person for whom hajj is fard to go to hajj that year. If he delays it to the following years, he becomes a sinner. The imams of three madhhabs unanimously agree on it.

However, a person who fulfills this duty when he is alive, he is freed from this sin. If he dies before he performs hajj, he becomes a sinner even if he bequeaths hajj to be performed for him.

It is necessary for a person to have enough time to go to hajj and to return for hajj. Therefore, if hajj prevents a person from attending his school, he can delay his hajj and perform it as soon as his school finishes.

22 In 2015 hajj, my leg was broken after the last jamara and I had to go to hospital with my wife. We could not perform tawaf az-ziyarah. We returned to our hometown. What should we do now?

The hajj of a person who returned to his hometown after throwing stones at Satan at the last jamara and having a haircut but without performing tawaf az-ziyarah due to becoming ill is not regarded complete. For, tawaf az-ziyarah is an essential part of hajj. Hajj is not regarded to have been completed without performing it. Such a person is regarded as muhsar (detained).

Especially according to Hanafis, being unable to complete the duties of ihram after entering ihram due to an illness, being imprisoned, fear of enemy, etc is called ihsar. A person who undergoes such things is called muhsar.  

A person who becomes muhsar has to slaughter an animal within the boundaries of Haram. He cannot exit ihram without slaughtering an animal or having an animal slaughtered. Since he is regarded in ihram before slaughtering an animal, the ihram prohibitions are valid for him. If he does not act in accordance with those prohibitions, some penalties become necessary.

However, if a person becomes muhsar afterthrowing stones at Satan at the last jamara and having a haircut, the first tahallul occurs for him and anything except sexual intercourse with his spouse becomes permissible for him.  It is necessary for him to return to Makkah and perform tawaf az-ziyarah. It is definitely forbidden for such a person to have a sexual intercourse with his wife before he performs tawaf az-ziyarah. (see Ibn Abidin, 2/553, 593;  al-fiqhu ala’l-Madhahibi’l-Arbaa, 1/630; al-Mawsuatu’l-Fikhiyya, 2/199-201)  

The following information is given in Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedisi regarding the issue:

“As for a person who was detained from tawaf which is fard after performing waqfa al-Arafat, according to Hanafis, Malikis and Zaydis, such a person is not regarded as muhsar and has to wait in ihram until he performs tawaf. According to Shafiis, he exits ihram and he does not have to make hajj again. Hanbalis say a person who is detained after waqfa and before throwing stones at Satan can exit ihram; however, if he performed the duty of throwing stones, he needs to wait without exiting ihram and complete hajj when the obstacle is removed. 

Ihsar has two fiqh outcomes as exiting ihram and completing the parts of the hajj that were missed due to ihsar. A person can exit ihram only after completing hajj or umrah. However, muhsar is prevented from it; therefore, according to the majority of fiqh scholars, he slaughters an animal with the intention of exiting ihram; according to some Hanafis, and all Shafiis and Hanbalis, he exits ihram by also having a haircut.  

According to Malikis, the intention to exit ihram is enough; to slaughter an animal is sunnah. A person who enters ihram for umrah or hajj al-ifrad slaughters one animal; a person who makes niyyah for hajj al-qiran slaughters two animals according to Hanafis; but according to the majority of fiqh scholars, he slaughters one animal for ihsar (hady al-ihsar).

23 How should we make use of The Day of Arafah?

Nowadays, the day of Arafah is experienced as a very busy day with worldly affairs since it is one day before eid. In fact, Arafah is one of the most important time periods given to man. These days are days of worshipping and forgiveness.  It is the most valuable time period when hajjis come together in Arafat regardless of their languages, races and skin colors reminding of the Day of Gathering  by saying, "Labbayk (Here I am at your service)" and when servitude is presented to Allah by supplications and talbiyahs. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following:

"The most virtuous prayer is the one said on the day of Arafah." (Muwatta, Hajj 246)

Allah informed the Prophet (pbuh) that prayers are not rejected on some nights. The four holy nights when the doors of mercy are opened are as follows: 

1. The night of (before) eid al-fitr,
2. The night of (before) eid al-adha,
3. The night of Tarwiyah (8th night of Dhul-Hijjah),
4. The night of Arafah. (Isfahani)

It is very virtuous to spend the day and night of Arafah worshipping. It is written in the book Saadet-i Ebediyye that a person who spends the night of Arafah worshipping will be saved from Hell. It was stated by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) that a person who avoids sins on the day of Arafah will be forgiven. 

"On the day of Arafah, a young man who was near the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was thinking about women and looking at the women. The Messenger of Allah turned the man's face away from the women a few times. The young man started to think about them again. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

- My brother's son! Today is such a day that anyone who controls his ears, eyes and tongue is forgiven." (Musnad, 1/329)

The following are advised to do on the day of Arafah:

1. It is necessary to start uttering takbirs of tashrik after the fard of the morning prayer.
2. One should perform fasting on the day of Arafah.
3. One should show respect to the day of Arafah and try not to commit sins.
4. One should pray to Allah and ask for forgiveness a lot on the day of Arafah.
5. It would be a good thing to read the chapter of al-Ikhlas 1000 times on the day of Arafah.

For more information, please click on the following links;

What is the judgement and virtue of fasting on the day of Arafah? How should we make use of the day of Arafa?

Are there any hadiths about reading the chapter of al-Ikhlas one thousand times on the day of arafah (one day before eid al-adha)?

What are Tashriq Takbirs? When are they Uttered?

24 What is the judgement and virtue of fasting on the day of Arafah? How should we make use of the day of Arafa?

What is meant by the verse “and by the Ten Nights” in the chapter of al-Fajr is the last ten days of the month of Ramadan or the first ten days of Muharram according to some resources, but the general opinion is that it refers to the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.

Dhul-Hijjah, which is the twelfth month of the Islamic lunar calendar, is the month in which the worship of hajj is fulfilled. The period of time between the first and tenth day of that holy month is called “layal ashara”, that is, ten holy nights. The tenth day is the first day of the eid al-adha. The Prophet (pbuh) expresses the value of those days as follows:

“There are no better days to worship Allah than the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. One day of fasting performed on those days is equal to the fasting of one year; the prayers performed on each night are equal to the Night of Power.” (Tirmidhi: Sawm, 52; Ibn Majah: Siyam, 39)

Hafsa (r.a) one of the wives of the Prophet (pbuh) says,

"The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not abandon four things: Fasting on the day of Ashura, fasting ten days in Dhul-Hijjah, fasting three days every month and the two-rak'ah sunnah of the morning prayer. (Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Zadu’l-Maad 2/651)

Abu'd-Darda (r.a) expresses the importance of the month of Dhul-Hijjah as follows:  

"It is necessary to perform fasting onthe first nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, give sadaqah a lot, pray and ask for forgiveness. For, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Woe on the people who are deprived of the goodness and abundance of these ten days!"

If a person performs fasting on the first nine days of Dhul-Hijjah, his life will be full of abundance, his property will increase, his children are saved from misfortunes, his sins are forgiven, his good deeds are rewarded many times, he surrenders his spirit easily at the time of death and his grave is enlightened; his rewards outweighs his sins in Mizan (the Scales) and attains high levels in Paradise."

"There are no better days to worship Allah than the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. Say tasbih (Subhanallah), tahmid (Alhamdulillah), tahlil (La ilaha illallah) and takbir (Allahu akbar) a lot on these days!" (Abd b. Humayd, Musnad, 1/257)

The Prophet (pbuh) gives the glad tiding that the good deeds performed on the first ten nights of Dhul-Hijjah, which Allah rendered blessed and which is vowed in the Quran, will be rewarded seven hundred times. These days are days on which we are given the opportunity to repent and to obtain a lot of rewards in very short periods of time. We should follow the Prophet, perform fasting during these days, give sadaqah and mention Allah.

Day of Arafah

Day of Arafah is one day before eid al-adha, the 9th day of the month of Dhul-Hijjah in the hijri calendar. No other day is called Arafah. The Messenger of Allah stated the following:

"The most virtuous day is the day of Arafah. It is like Friday in terms of virtue. It is more virtuous than seventy hajjs except the one performed on Friday. The most virtuous dua (prayer) is the one said on the day of Arafah. The most virtuous sentence said by me and other prophets is 'Lailaha illallah wahdahu la sharika lahu. (There is no go god but Allah; He is one; He has no partners.)" (Muwatta, Hajj 246)

Hazreti Aisha (ra) narrates:

"There is no day when Allah sets free more servants from Hell than the Day of Arafah. He draws near, then praises them to the angels, saying: 'What do they want?'" (Muslim, Hajj 436)

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Show respect to the day of Arafah. Arafah is a day that Allah appreciates."

Thus, he wanted us to show respect to the day that Allah appreciates and to try to live consciously. Respect starts by realizing the boon that is granted and being able to know and see. To spend the day of Arafah by performing fasting, saying prayers, asking for forgiveness without committing sins is an expression of respect and gratitude to Allah, who gave the glad tiding that He would forgive His slaves.  (Daylami)

The following conversation between Hz. Umar and a Jew shows the importance of the day of Arafah:

During the caliphate of Hz. Umar, a Jew said to him,

"O Umar! You read a verse; if it had been sent down to us, we would have celebrated that day as an eid (festival)." It was the third verse of the chapter of al-Maida. God Almighty stated the following:

"This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you."

That verse was sent down in the tenth year of the Migration during the Farewell Hajj on Friday, which was the day of Arafah, in the afternoon when the Prophet (pbuh) was on his camel called "Adba". The camel slumped down due to the heaviness of the revelation. When Hz. Umar heard the verse from the Jew, he said,

"We know that day and the place where that verse was sent down. It was on Friday and Arafah." (Bukhari, Iman, 33, Maghazi, 77, Tafsir, Maida 2; Muslim, Tafsir 3)

Thus, Hz. Umar mentioned the importance of Arafah by stating that it was eid for us. 

The day of Arafah is the day when Hz. Adam and Hawwa (Eve) met. Tawriyah is one day before Arafah.

One gets a lot of rewards when he fasts on the day of Arafah. The fasting performed on that day is equal to supererogatory fasting of one thousand days. Besides, it causes the repentance of the previous year and the next year to be accepted.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Fasting performed on the day of Arafah is equal to supererogatory fasting of one thousand days." (at-Targhib wat-Tarhib Trnsl., 2/460)

“I hope from Allah that fasting performed on the day of Arafah will atone for the sins of the previous year and the next year.” (Tirmidhi, Sawm, 46 (749); Ibn Majah, Siyam, 40)

It is recommended to read the chapter of al-Ikhlas one thousand times by some great personalities. It is stated in hadiths that reading the chapter of al-Ikhlas will be a means of forgiveness for the sins except individual rights.

“If a person reads the chapter of al-Ikhlas on the night of Arafah, Allah will give him whatever he wants.” (Kanzu’l-Ummal, h. No:  2737)

“The Prophet (pbuh) prayed to Allah to forgive his ummah. His prayer was answered as follows:

'I have forgiven them, except for the wrongdoer, with whom I will settle the score in favor of the one whom he wronged.' The Messenger of Allah said,

'O Lord, if You will, then grant Paradise to the one who is wronged, and forgive the wrongdoer.' No response came in Arafat (that evening). The next day at Muzdalifah, he repeated the supplication, and received a response to what he asked for. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) laughed. Thereupon, Hz. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar said to him,

‘May my father and mother be ransomed for you! This is not a time when you usually laugh. What made you laugh?’ The Messenger of Allah  (pbuh),

‘When the enemy of Allah, Iblis, came to know that Allah answered my prayer and forgave my nation, took some dust and started to sprinkle it on his head, uttering cries of woe and doom, and what I saw of his anguish made me laugh.’” (Ibn Majah, Manasik, 56)

It is necessary to show respect to the day of Arafah; we should join the prayers of hajjis who are on Arafat on that day by feeling that we are with them spiritually. We should avoid anything that can cause us to commit a sin on that day.

Nowadays, the day of Arafah is experienced as a very busy day with worldly affairs since it is one day before eid. In fact, Arafah is one of the most important time periods given to man. These days are days of worshipping and forgiveness.  It is the most valuable time period when hajjis come together in Arafat regardless of their languages, races and skin colors reminding of the Day of Gathering  by saying, "Labbayk (Here I am at your service)" and when servitude is presented to Allah by supplications and talbiyahs. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) states the following:

"The most virtuous prayer is the one said on the day of Arafah." (Muwatta, Hajj 246)

Allah informed the Prophet (pbuh) that prayers are not rejected on some nights. The four holy nights when the doors of mercy are opened are as follows: 

1. The night of (before) eid al-fitr,
2. The night of (before) eid al-adha,
3. The night of Tarwiyah (8th night of Dhul-Hijjah),
4. The night of Arafah. (Isfahani)

It is very virtuous to spend the day and night of Arafah worshipping. It is written in the book Saadet-i Ebediyye that a person who spends the night of Arafah worshipping will be saved from Hell. It was stated by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) that a person who avoids sins on the day of Arafah will be forgiven. 

"On the day of Arafah, a young man who was near the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was thinking about women and looking at the women. The Messenger of Allah turned the man's face away from the women a few times. The young man started to think about them again. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

- My brother's son! Today is such a day that anyone who controls his ears, eyes and tongue is forgiven." (Musnad, 1/329)

The following are advised to do on the day of Arafah:

1. It is necessary to start uttering takbirs of tashrik after the fard of the morning prayer.
2. One should perform fasting on the day of Arafah.
3. One should show respect to the day of Arafah and try not to commit sins.
4. One should pray to Allah and ask for forgiveness a lot on the day of Arafah.
5. It would be a good thing to read the chapter of al-Ikhlas 1000 times on the day of Arafah.

25 Will you give information about entering ihram for umrah, regions of miqat and the Mosque of Tan’im?

There are places determined for entering ihram around Makkah. Each of these places is called "miqat". It is not permissible for a person who comes for umrah or hajj from outside miqat boundaries to pass those boundaries without ihram. Accordingly:

a. Candidates for hajj who will go directly to Makkah enter ihram in the airport from which the plane will take off or at home since Jeddah is within the boundaries of miqat and since planes land in Jeddah. If it is necessary, it is possible to enter ihram on the plane too. However, since it is difficult to enter ihram on the plane, one should not prefer to enter ihram on the plane.

b. Candidates for hajj who will go to Madinah before hajj enter ihram in the places where they stay in Madinah or in Dhul-Hulayfa (Abyar Ali), which is on the way to Makkah and 11 km away from Madinah.

We have mentioned that candidates for hajj and umrah cannot pass the boundaries of miqat without ihram. A penalty is necessary for a person who enters ihram after passing a boundary of miqat without ihram. If such a person returns to any boundary of miqat without doing any of the duties related to hajj or umrah, the penalty is removed. 

 

IHRAM

Ihram means (for a person) to render certain things for a certain time haram for oneself in order to perform hajj or umrah or both of them together and to avoid doing those haram deeds; it also means to enter the haram region of Makkah, to a haram region or month, to start to act in accordance with the requirements of a promise or undertaking, to transform something from halal into haram. Ihram takes place by making intention for hajj or umrah in a place called miqat and by uttering talbiyah.  

Talbiyahis to say, “Labbayk, Allahumma labbayk, labbayka la sharika laka labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-ni’mata laka wal-mulk la sharika lak.” Its translation is as follows:  I respond to Your call, O Allah, I respond to Your call. I respond to Your call, You have no partner. I respond to Your call. Indeed, the praise and grace are yours as well as sovereignty. You have no partner". That is the talbiyah reported from Hz. Prophet. (Bukhari, Hajj, 26, 101, Libas, 69; Muslim, Hajj, 19-20, 275; Abu Dawud Manasik, 26; Tirmidhi, Hajj, 13; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, I, 302, 11, 3, 79, 341, 352, 476, VI, 243).

A person who enters ihrama is called "haram" or "muhrim". When a person who comes from outside for hajj or umrah comes to the place called miqat, he makes wudu or ghusl. However, this ghusl is made because the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did it when he entered ihram. The decree for making ghusl for ihram is like making ghusl for Friday prayer. (al-Marghinani, al-Hidaya, Cairo 1965, I, 136) After making ghusl, he wears izar and rida (towels for the lower and upper part of the body). A person who is in ihram cannot wear sewed clothes. He covers his private parts and the lower parts of his body with izar to be protected from heat and cold, and the upper parts with rida. Izar is a piece of towel that covers the parts of the body from the navel to knees. Rida is a piece of towel that covers the neck, shoulders and chest. It is possible to wrap the izar with a belt in order to protect it from falling. A person who is in ihram puts his rida under his right shoulder and places it on his left shoulder in the first tours of circumambulation and sa’y; thus, his right shoulder is left open. (al-Fatawal-Hindiyya, Beirut 1400, l, 222)

Ihram like that is for men. Women enter ihram with their normal clothes. The following is stated in a hadith reported from Jabir: "When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) entered ihram in Dhul-Hulayfa, he would perform a prayer of two rak’ahs and pray as follows: "O Allah! I want to make hajj; this is my intention. Make it easy for me and accept it from me." This is intention for hajj. Those who want intend for umrah, umrah instead of hajj. After that, talbiyah is uttered. 

A person who utters talbiyah without making intention for ihram is not regarded as "muhrim". For, worshipping is based on intention. (Ibnul-Humam, Fathul-Qadir, Beirut 1315, II, 139) A person who makes intention and utters talbiyah becomes a "muhrim". Talbiyah is uttered after prayers, when one walks up to a high place on the way, down a valley or meets a group of people. It is also possible to utter talbiyah aloud at dawn. (al-Maydani, al-Lubab fi Sharhil Kitab, Beirut 1400, I, 183)

The issues that a person who enters ihram need to be careful about:

a) A person who enters ihram avoids everything that Allah prohibited. The following is stated in the Quran: "For Hajj are the months well known. If anyone undertakes that duty therein, Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj." (al-Baqara, 2/197). The word rafath (obscenity) mentioned in the verse means sexual intercourse or vulgar words, fusuq (wickedness) means all kinds of bad deeds and jidal (wrangling) means necessary or unnecessary quarrel with his fellow hajjis.

b) "…But forbidden is the pursuit of land-game;- as long as ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb" (al-Maida, 5/96). As it is mentioned in the verse, it is necessary for a muhrim to avoid hunting any animals on land. For, it is forbidden to hunt when a person is in ihram. (Mulla Khusraw, Durarul Hukkam fi Sharhi Ghuraril-Ahkam, Istanbul 1307, l, 221)

c) A person who is in ihram cannot wear sewed clothes like shirts and trousers; he cannot wear turbans, hats, gowns and khuffs either. (Mulla Khusraw, ibid, I, 221-222). As it was explained before, he wears an izar and rida.

d) A person who is in ihram cannot wear perfume; he cannot shave his head and other parts of his body; he cannot trim his nails; he cannot break off even a small part of his nails. He cannot spread oil and cream on his body. (al-Fatawal-Hindiyya, Beirut 1400, I, 223).

e) He cannot wear clothes with perfume. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) prohibited it.

f) It is forbidden to pick up and break off trees and plants that green and grow on their own, not planted or cultivated by people, and to benefit from those trees and plants in the Haram region.

g) The face and head of a muhrim who dies are covered. For, when he dies, his ihram ends. The following is stated in a hadith: "When man dies, all of his deeds except three deeds end..." (Muslim, Wasiyya, 14; Abu Dawud, Wasaya, 14; Tirmidhi, Ahkam, 36). Since ihram is a deed, it also ends. On the other hand, the Messenger of Allah stated the following for a Companion who fell of his camel, broke his neck and died: "Do not cover his head and face. For, he will come by uttering talbiyah on the Day of Judgment." (Tirmidhi, Hajj, 105). Hanafis hold the view that this practice was peculiar to that Companion only.

Miqats (Places to Enter Ihram):

Miqat means a limited place and time. Terminologically, it means a place of entering ihram for hajj and umrah. (Ibn Abidin, ibid, II, 474)

Hz. Umar stated the following about the places of miqat: "Any one of you who wants to enter ihram for hajj must not enter ihram anywhere except miqat places." The places of miqat that the Prophet showed are as follows: " Dhul-Hulayfa for the people of Madinah and other people who will come from Madinah;  al-Juhfa for the people of Damascus and other people who will come from there;  Qarn al-Manazil for the people of Najd and other people who will come from there; Yalamlam for the people of Yemen and other people who will come from there; Dhat al-Irq for the people of Iraq and other Muslims who will come from there.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "Nobody can pass a miqat place without ihram." (Ibnul-Humam, Fathul-Qadir, Beirut 1315, II, 132) Acting upon this hadith, Hanafi fiqh scholars state the following: "Nobody can pass a miqat place whether he comes for hajj and umrah or with another intention (business, journey). For, the reason for the obligation of ihram is showing respect to that place. It becomes fard for people who come from outside when they arrive in a miqat place shown by the Messenger of Allah to enter ihram." (Imam Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, Beirut (nd), IV, 167)

On the other hand, the believers who live within the boundaries of miqat can go to Makkah without ihram to meet their needs. Those who live in Makkah enter ihram for hajj in the place where they are. However, they enter ihram for umrah outside the haram region of Makkah especially in the place called "Tan'im". A certain amount of land around Makkah is called "Haram region". The region between Haram region and miqat places is called "Hill region" The nearest point of Hill region to Makkah is "Tan'im". The believers living in Hill region can enter ihram in the place where they are or in Makkah. They are given this ease because they come to Makkah a lot. (see al-Marghinani, ibid, I, 146; Ibn Abidin, ibid, II, 474 ff. al-Qasani, Badayius-Sanayi', Beirut 1402/1972, II, 161, ff)

Şâmil İA

 

MIKAT

Miqat location and miqat time are fiqh terms that express the special locations around Makkah for the people who come for hajj from various regions and countries; its plural form is mawaqit. It is not permissible for a person who comes for umrah or hajj to pass a miqat location without ihram. Otherwise, he has to sacrifice an animal or go back to a miqat location.

Ihram locations vary depending on whether a person who wants make hajj or umrah lives in Makkah or in a place between Makkah and a miqat location or in a place outside miqat locations.

Miqat locations in terms of the place of residence: I. Those who live in Makkah: The place of location of ihram for Makkans is Makkah. Hz. Prophet ordered Makkans to enter ihram in Makkah. (az-Zaylai, Nasbur-Raya, 1393/1973, n.p. III, 16). Those who live outside Makkah but inside the haram region enter ihram in the same way. The location of miqat for umrah for Makkans is the nearest place of Hill to the haram region. However, according to Hanafis and Hanbalis, the most virtuous place for ihram for umrah is “Tan’im”, “Jirana” and “Hudaybiya” respectively. Hz. Prophet (pbuh) ordered Abdurrahman b. Abi Bakr to have Hz. Aisha make umrah by entering ihram in Tan’im. (Bukhari, Jihad, 125, Umrah, 6; Muslim, Hajj, 135,136; Tirmidhi, Hajj, 91; Ahmad b. Hanbal, III, 309, 394).

2. Those who live in Hill: The area between the Harem region and the area surrounded by five miqat locations is called “hill”. Miqat (entering ihram) location for hajj or umrah for the people living in Hill is the place where their families live or any region of Hill between those places where their families live and the haram region. The verse ordering to complete hajj and umrah (al-Baqara, 2/196), the view of Hazrat Ali and Abdullah b. Mas'ud are evidence for it.

That is the view that Hanafis adopted. According to Imam Malik, their miqat location is their houses.

3. Afaqis: Those who live in towns and countries outside miqat places are called “afaqi”s. There are miqat locations determined for those who come to Hejaz for umrah or hajj outside miqat locations depending on the region or country that they come from. There are five miqat locations. The following is reported from Ibn Abbas: “The Prophet (pbuh) determined Dhul-Hulayfa for the people of Madinah, Juhfa for the people of Damascus, Qarn al-Manazil for the people of Najd, and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. They are miqat locations for people coming from the stated regions and countries and from those directions." (Bukhari, Hajj, 7, 9, 11, 12, Sayd, 18; Muslim, Hajj, 11, 12; Abu Dawud, 8; Nasai, Manasik, 19, 20-23; Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 238). In another hadith, Dhat al-Irq is added for Iraqis. (Abu Dawud, Manasik, 8).

Miqat locations in terms of the countries people come from: 1. Miqat location for people coming from Turkey, Syria, Egypt, Morocco and people coming from Europe by sea is Juhfa (Rabigh). The distance between Juhfa and Makkah is about 187 km.

2. Miqat location for people coming from Madinah is Dhul-Hulayfa (Abar Ali). It is about 464 km away from Makkah. It is the most distant miqat location. 

3. Miqat location for people coming from Iraq, Iran and other eastern countries is Dhat al-Irq. It is about 94 km away from Makkah. 

4. Miqat location for people coming from the direction of Kuwayt and Najd is Qarn al-Manazil, known as as-Sayl today.

5. Miqat location for people coming from Yemen is Yalamlam, which is in the south of Makkah. It is about 54 km away from Makkah.

If the route of the people coming for hajj or umrah does not pass from those points, it is necessary to enter ihram from the alignment of those points. Those who come to Madinah and then set out for hajj have to enter ihram in Dhul-Hulayfa, called Abar Ali today.
If a person who comes for hajj or umrah from outside passes a miqat location without ihram, he has to sacrifice an animal as a penalty or has to go back to the miqat location and enter ihram there. If a person who does not aim to enter Makkah passes miqat location without ihram, nothing is necessary for him. (For details, see al-Qasani, Badayius-Sanayi', Beirut 1394/1974, II, 163 ff.; Ibnul-Humam, Fathul-Qadir, Egypt 1316/1898, II, 131-134; al-Maydani, al-Lubab, Istanbul, n.d. I, 178 ff.; ash-Shirazi, al-Muhadhdhab, Egypt, n.d.  I, 202-204; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni Cairo 1970, III, 257; az-Zuhayli, al-Fiqhul-Islami wa Edillatuh, Damascus 1405/1985, III, 68 ff.; Hamdi Döndüren, Delilleriyle İslam İlmihali, İstanbul 1991, p. 578 ff.)

Hamdi DÖNDÜREN

26 If a person who has not performed prayers before goes to hajj and starts to perform prayers when he returns, are his previous debts of prayers removed?

If a person who has not performed prayers before goes to hajj and starts to perform prayers fully when he returns, he has to perform his previous missed prayers as qada. His sins related to not performing prayers may be forgiven with the repentance and prayers (duas) in hajj but sins are different from debt.

It is not definite that the sins of every person who goes to hajj will be forgiven; Allah forgives them if He wishes; He might not forgive them if He does not wish.

Prayers that are skipped without any excuse are to be performed as qada but performing them is not enough in order to get rid of the responsibility; it is also necessary to repent.