FAQ in the category of Halals - Harams

1 Is seafood Haram or Halal?

Every fish and animals in the shape of fish are permissible. According to the Hanafi sect, fishes such as turbot, carp, flipper and eel are permissible to eat. However, sea vermins such as crap, mussel, oyster, lobster, crawfish and prawn are not eaten. Also, other water animals which are not in the shape of fish such as walrus, sea pig etc. are not eaten as well. According to other three sects (Shafi, Maliki, Hanbali), all of the sea foods are eaten.

The meaning of the ayahs which are “It is He Who has made the sea subject, that you may eat thereof flesh that is fresh and tender” (1) and “Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food, - for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel” (2) state that seas are a divine benediction storage and man can benefit from them.

With the mentioned ayahs, Allah Almighty informs the permission of all sea animals without exception of a certain kind of them and without putting the condition of slaughtering. In this way; He provides His servants the easiness and wideness. Moreover, He gives man the permission of using anything in order to entrap them, on condition that not causing animals pain.

As it is known, in point of where they live, animals separate into two as land and sea animals. In regard with which animals of land are permissible, it is explained in the fiqh books. As for the sea animals, there are different views between sects.

Complying to the ayahs of which we gave the meanings above, according to Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali sects’ scholars; all of the sea animals, that is to say all of the animals which live only in the sea but not in the land, -it does not matter where they are available, whether they are in the shape of fish or anything else; they are permissible, they can be eaten. Nevertheless according to the same sects, it does not matter whether the name of them different or they are alive or dead or a Muslim cached it or a non Muslim; the judgment does not change.  

While the sect of Maliki does not except any sea animal, Hanbali sect excepts eel as haram and Shafi sect excepts frog, crap and crocodile as haram because they live both on the land and in the sea.

And according to the Hanafi sect, eating the flesh of the animals which are not in the shape of fish is haram. Accordingly, animals which perpetually live in the water can be eaten. Turbot, carp, flipper and eel are in this group. But other water animals are not permissible. Mussel, oyster, lobster and crap are not accepted as permissible, they are accepted as haram. (3)

According to the above explanations, while animals such as mussel, carp may be eaten in the sects of Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali; according to Hanafi sect they are not eaten. The reason why Hanafi sect accepts them as haram is because these kinds of animals are accepted as dirty both in the respect of appearance and the flesh they have. (Mehmet Paksu   Halal- Haram)

(1). The Surah of an- Nahl, 14

(2). The Surah of Maida, 96

(3). al-Mazâhibu’l-Arbaa, 2: 5.

2 Is Smoking Haram?

Islam’s universal halals and harams are stated in the Quran and sunnah, which is the explanation of the Quran. What is meant by “universal halal and haram” is halals and harams which are valid in all times and places. The issue of smoking cigarettes is mentioned neither in the Quran nor in sunnah; because when Quran was sent down, there was not anything like cigarettes. Cigarette emerged after 15th century.

There are some general rules in Islam for making a judgment about something which is not mentioned in the main sources of Islam. One of them is “the rule is the permissibility of things”. That is to say; everything is created for human beings and while some things are stated to be haram, some are not identified as haram or halal, and thus they are halal. Another one is “what is clean and nice is halal and what is filthy and harmful is haram”.

When those two general rules are taken into consideration together, we come up with a conclusion about smoking as follows: as there is nothing stated about smoking in sources, we should determine whether cigarette is filthy and harmful or not. If it has got features which we can describe as filthy and harmful, we should conclude that it is haram; if it has not got such features, we should conclude that it is halal.

Due to this method of deduction, some Islamic scholars in history concluded that smoking cigarettes is halal/mubah, because they said that they did not observe any harm from cigarettes; therefore, they could not say it was haram. However, today science has proved that cigarette includes about 2000 kinds of poison, that it is the reason of many diseases, and that it harms not only those who smoke, but also those who are near smokers though they do not smoke themselves.

Besides, there is another method of deduction according to Hanafi tradition: “It is appropriate to say that things which are haram according to rules but are not mentioned in the Quran and sunnah are tahriman makrooh (strictly abominable) rather than haram. Indeed, what is meant by it is still haram but since it is only Allah’s right to conclude if something is haram or not, it is better to call things, which are discovered to be haram for sure but not mentioned in the Quran, tahriman makrooh. For this reason, Hanafis today have adopted the view that it is tahriman makrooh. Tahriman makrooh is, like decree law, makruh in the decree of haram.

Moreover, one risks his life by smoking. However, Allah says: “Do not risk yourself with your own hands”. For this reason, smoking means risking oneself. Smoking is also a very important personal right; because smokers harm non-smokers and disturb them. Forgiveness of violating a personal right is only possible if the person whose right has been violated forgives the violator. And providing it is very difficult.

Judgment of Smoking

Tobacco entered Islamic countries after 15th century. Since then, Islamic scholars have discussed about judgment of smoking:

a. Some scholars have said that tobacco is mubah. Those, who have adopted this view, have put forward that it is not harmful and is not prohibited by Allah.

However, today it has been discovered definitely that tobacco is harmful. It cannot be said that it is not harmful. It would not also be right to say that it has not been prohibited by Islamic laws. As a matter of fact, all prohibitions are not named one by one. Judgment is made not only through explicit and specific rules but also deduced by judging from the reasons why they have been prohibited, as mentioned in laws. In this sense, it is unobjectionable to make a judgment about something, about which there is not an explicit law, by comparison and deduction.

b. Some have said that smoking is makrooh. They have said so because they hesitated to call something, judgment of which is made by comparison, haram and because they did not have certain information about the harms of tobacco.

c. And some have said that smoking, and especially being a heavy smoker, is haram. Their evidence is that smoking harms the body, causes waste of money and thus causing poverty, which makes it difficult to meet needs of the household.

If one of those three reasons is valid, it is haram to smoke. If none of them is valid, it is makrooh to smoke.

Especially, a decision made by a pious and specialized doctor is of great importance. If such a doctor tells someone to quit smoking definitely, it will be haram for him/her to smoke religiously.

Ahmed Şahin

3 Is it haram (forbidden) to eat squid (calamari)?

It is not permissible to eat squid according to Hanafi sect.

The verse which is translated as “It is He Who has made the sea subject, that ye may eat thereof flesh that is fresh and tender” (1) and the verse which is translated as “Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food,- for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel” (2) indicate that seas are full of boons and people can benefit from them.

In the verses, Allah, the Supreme, states that all sea animals are permissible to eat without any exception and without the obligation of slaughtering like other animals, and He provides His servants with easiness and wideness. Moreover, He gives people the permission to use anything to catch them on condition that one avoids torturing the animal as much as possible.

As it is already known, animals are divided into two as sea animals and land animals depending on where they live. The land animals can be eaten and that cannot be eaten are recorded in Islamic jurisprudence books. However, as for the sea animals, there are different views among sects regarding which ones are permissible to eat and which ones are not.

According to the scholars from Shafii, Maliki and Hanbali sects, who base their judgments on the verses whose interpretations we have given above, all of the sea animals, i.e. animals which cannot live out of sea, are permissible to eat, no matter what species they are and no matter where they are. According to the same sects, that permissibility is not affected by the difference in these animals’ names, whether they are alive or dead, whether they are caught by Muslims or non-Muslims.

While the sect of Maliki does not make any exceptions regarding the sea animals, the sect of Hanbali considers it haram to eat eel because it deems eel pernicious; the sect of Shafii defines eating the animals that live both in the sea and on the land like frogs, crabs and crocodiles as haram.

According to the sect of Hanafi, it is haram to eat the sea animals which are not in the form of fish. In this sense, all kinds of fish which always live in the sea can be eaten. Turbot, carp, dolphin and eel are included. On the other hand, other sea animals are not permissible. Animals such as mussel, shell, lobster and crab are not considered permissible to eat; they are regarded as forbidden. (3)

According to those criteria, while sea animals such as mussel and shell can be eaten according to the sects of Shafii, Maliki and Hanbali, they cannot be eaten according to the sect of Hanafi. The reason why the sect of Hanafi considered them haram is that those animals are not nice both physically and with respect to their edible parts, and they are deemed ugly and filthy.

1. Chapter an-Nahl, 14.
2. Chapter al-Maidah, 96.
3. al-Madhahibu’l-Arbaa, 2:5.

Mehmed Paksu Halal-Haram

4 Can muslim sell pork, alcohol?

Pig is accepted as dirty in all aspects in Islam. It can not be used in any way. If it touches to a clean object, if it falls into a well, or if some water of its mouth pours onto an object, it makes that entire thing dirty. It can not be eaten; its meat or skin can not be used in any way.
Quran states this clearly. In the verse 173 of surah (chapter) of Baqarah (The Cow), verse 3 of surah of Maidah (The Food), verse 145 of surah of Anam (The Cattle), and verse 115 of surah of Nahl (The Bee) pig is stated as dirty and forbidden to eat.
In the surah of Baqarah Allah says:
"He has only forbidden you what dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that over which any other (name) than (that of) Allah has been invoked; but whoever is driven to necessity, not desiring, nor exceeding the limit, no sin shall be upon him; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful."
In the surah of Anam it is stated as:
"Say: I do not find in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden for an eater to eat of except that it be what has died of itself, or blood poured forth, or flesh of swine-- for that surely is unclean-- or that which is a transgression, other than (the name of) Allah having been invoked on it..."
As it is forbidden to eat these things in the Quran, selling them is also forbidden. Muslims are definitely discouraged from these things.
Jabir Ibn Abdullah transmits from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh):
"Rasul (messenger) of Allah said in Mecca in the year of the conquest that:
No doubt that Allah and His messenger forbade the selling of drink, unclean animal, pig and idols." (1)
When commenting on this hadith (saying or tradition of Prophet Muhammad) Imam Nawawi says:
"Filthy animal, wine, and pig are forbidden to sell because they are najis (ritually unclean). Because of this, this rule is valid for all najis objects. Selling of filthy animal, wine, and pig is accepted as forbidden by ijma (consensus of the Muslim community) of Muslims."
So it is forbidden for a Muslim to eat, use or sell products of pig whatever country he is in. The rule of “Haraam (legally forbidden by Islamic law) is haraam everywhere” is an important principle in Islam. Therefore Muslims should provide their needs from halaal (permissible in Islam) means. Halaal means is enough for needs and pleasure, no need to go haraam.
Is it ok to transport pig for money?
We could not find an exact rule for this because in the past there was no transportation like today’s. But there are similar situations.
Let us tell about those similar fatwas (religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an Islamic scholar) on the subject:

If someone hires a person to have wine transported, according to Imam Azam Abu Hanifa it is halaal for the worker to get money in return of this service, but according to Imam Muhammad and Imam Abu Yusuf it is not halaal. And if someone from Ahl al Kitab (followers of the book, the Jews and the Christians) hires a Muslim’s animal or ship to carry wine; the money which the Muslim gets is halaal according to Imam Azam Abu Hanifa, but not halaal according to Imamain.
Though it was not seen in practice, there is a fatwa like this too:
A Muslim may get money for herding pigs. This is Imam Azam Abu Hanifa’s view, but according to Imamain it is not permissible. (2)

And we should consider different aspects of the subject too:
For the Muslims in a non-Muslim country it is important to care for their behaviors, because non-Muslims may get affected from them positively and can reach to the true message of Allah. Thus they are responsible for a correct representation of Islam.

Islamic scholars who consider a non-Muslim country as Dar al-Harb (house of war) state various views on the relationships between the Muslims and non-Muslims living in a non-Muslim country.

Imam Azam Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad states that it is ok for a Muslim living in a non-Muslim country to get interest from non-Muslims, to sell drink and pork to non-Muslims and even to gamble with them if it is certain to win; since these acts are legal for the non-Muslims, and Muslims’ benefiting from these acts can be considered as some kind of ganimah (treasure won in war). But according to Imam Shafi, Imam Malik, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Awzai, Ishaq, and many scholars from Hanifi school including Abu Yusuf, these kind of acts are not permissible in any way because Muslims are bound to Islamic rules not only in Muslim countries but everywhere!

And most reasonable and proper view is this majority’s one.
Besides today there is an accepted global peace between the countries. Muslims can go and live in peace in the non-Muslim countries. And there is not a war situation. Therefore the circumstances which Imam Azam Abu Hanifa take into account in his fatwa are not present. When there is no war, no ganimah is in question!

Actually Quran and sunnah (acts and deeds of Prophet Muhammad) does not permit haraams except for a vital necessity. When there is not a necessity haraam is haraam everywhere.

So if we summarize we can say that: A Muslim is responsible for living Islamic morals and laws wherever he/she is. If a trade is forbidden between two Muslims, it should not be considered permissible between a Muslim and a non-Muslim either.

So Muslims living in non-Muslim countries should not take interest, sell drink, pork or anything Islam forbids. Most of the scholars express this.

Even though earning money from the transportation of drink and pork is permissible according to Imam Azam Abu Hanifa, it not permissible too according to other scholars.
So Muslims should not work in these kinds of jobs unless it is a vital necessity.

References:

1. Bukhari, Buyu: 102; Muslim, Musaqat: 71; Tirmidhi, Buyu: 60; Ibn Maja, Tijara: 11.
2. al-Fatwa al-Hindiyya, 4:449-450.
3- Mehmed Paksu, Meseleler ve Çözümleri 1, Nesil yayınları, İstanbul, p. 135-138; Süleyman Kösemene, (Günümüz Meselelerine Çözümler), Yeni Asya Yayınları.

 

5 Is every drink or food in which alcohol present haram (forbidden)?

We cannot call every drink or food in which alcohol is present as haram (forbidden).

For instance, ethyl alcohol is present in fruit and vegetables naturally. As fruit and vegetables ripen, certain amounts of ethyl alcohol appears during fermentation as by-products. Most of the natural aromas used in the food and drink industry, ethyl alcohol that has formed naturally is present. In the food regulations all over the world, the existence of certain amounts of ethyl alcohol is regarded as natural.    

The amount of ethyl alcohol present in food and drinks must not exceed a certain amount. That decree is present in the fruit juice regulation. The reason why that decree is present is that alcohol forms naturally in the food that contains carbohydrates after a certain time. It is because of the nature of the food. The reason why the limit of 5 grams is present in the food regulation is explained as follows: alcohol less than that amount can be present in products due to forming spontaneously.  

It is known that most of the natural aromas that are used in the production of food and drinks contain natural alcohol originating from the fruit and vegetables. That is the reason why the final product, fizzy drink, contains alcohol at a rate of 5 in ten thousand. If the analyses that were carried out for fizzy drinks had been carried out for bread, ayran (diluted yoghurt), yoghurt, fruit, vegetables, boza (thick, slightly fermented millet drink), kefir and many other foods, the same results would have appeared. Therefore, it is not right to say that every drink that contains alcohol is haram.   

However, there is another aspect of the issue that is not known: what is added as solvent into drinks.

Flavoring or aromatic essences are used in all fizzy drinks. Those essences are oily and they do not dissolve in water. In order to make them dissolve in water it is necessary to use intermediary solvents that can dissolve in water and oil. The most common, cheapest and readily available intermediary solvent is ethyl alcohol. Therefore, ethyl alcohol is present in the composition of fizzy drinks. Its chemical explanation is as follows: In chemistry, there is a rule: similar substances dissolve in one another. Since the most important and the most widely used solvent is water, all of the solvents except water are divided into two as hydrophilic and hydrophobic. The substances that contain hydrophiles in their molecules may produce a clear solution by forming a hydrophilic association with water.

Are there not any intermediary solvents other than ethyl alcohol that do not intoxicate and are not harmful for health? There are but they are more expensive than ethyl alcohol and if the producer does not have any concern about using them, he may not use anything other than ethyl alcohol.

Does ethyl alcohol, which is used to dissolve flavoring and aromatic oily substances in water, not undergo a chemical change in fizzy drinks?

Ethyl alcohol enables oily substances to dissolve in water through hydrophilic and hydrophobic associations. It is called salvation in chemistry and it is a physical happening. The original content of the substances that undergo a physical change does not generally change. If there is a change, it takes place in an extraordinarily small rate.   

Under the light of the explanations above:

1- The alcohol that forms as a result of fermentation in food and drinks without exceeding a certain rate is not haram; for instance kefir.

2- The food and drinks that naturally contain alcohol are not haram; for instance fruit.

3- It is religiously objectionable to eat or drink the food and drinks into which alcohol is added except for the ones used as medicine or for treatment. The alcohol that is added as solvent does not undergo any change; therefore, it is not permissible to have that drink. If a halal solvent other than alcohol is used, it will be permissible to drink it.

In conclusion:

The main rule for the food and drinks is that they are regarded halal until they are proved to be haram. Therefore, they become haram when it becomes certain that they are haram. It is always better to avoid doubtful things.

In order to examine the composition of any drink, it is necessary to determine whether alcohol has been added as solvent into it. Some fizzy drink producers use ethyl alcohol in order to make it possible for the essence they put into the fizzy drink to dissolve in water because other substances are expensive or are difficult to find. The religious decision regarding the issue varies from fizzy drink to fizzy drink and depends on the religious sensitivity of the producer. It is necessary to have enough knowledge about the issues mentioned above for the decision to be made.

6 What is the punishment for the Muslims who drink alcohol?

In Noble Qur’an and in the hadiths drinking alcohol is declared as haram hence it is prohibited and for the violators Hadd punishment is ordered as a punishment in this world. However a there is no clear type and measure of punishment for the afterlife is indicated since the punishment in the afterlife will vary from individual to individual.  

We understand that the reason why in the Noble Qur’an has no prescribed certain punishment for drinking alcohol and gambling is because these are personal sins which does not involve any invasion of other people’s rights. That is why the punishments in the Noble Qur’an should be perceived based on this principle. From this perspective we can also consider and interpret this as: The Noble Qur’an has not prescribed any certain punishment for those who abandons the basic requirements of Islam faith such as praying, fasting, alms, and hajj. Allah says “It is for sure that they will return to us. It will be our job to deal with their accounts accordingly.”(Surat al Gasiya: 25-26) which it means every human being will be judged accordingly for their doings in this world.     

In some hadiths the type of punishment in the afterlife is told. Sunen patrons tell the story where Mohammed (sallallahu aleyhu vesellem) said: Who drinks alcohol will have his prayers lacking for forty (40) days. If he repents and ask for forgiveness Allah will forgive him. If he keeps doing it after his fourth repentance then Allah will make him to drink the essence of a deadly poison, he surely will deserve that. Then they asked him: O’ Mohammad (sallallahu aleyhu vesellem) what is the essence of the deadly poison? He replied: It is the poison that is in the body of the occupiers of hell. Who would drink alcohol since very young age without considering what is halal what haram is, then Allah will make him drink the poison which is from the body of the hell’s occupiers, and he would deserve that. ( Et-Tac, C.3, sh.126-130)

Mohammad (sallallahu aleyhu vesellem) has damned the one who makes alcohol, who orders it, who drinks it, who carries it, who orders it to be delivered to him, who distributes it, who sells it, who spends the money that is earned from it, who buys it and who orders it to be bought for himself.

In Taberani’s story it is said that “In the afterlife Allah will make wine haram to those of you who among my community will die drinking wine. ” (Mecmau’z-Zevaid, 5/146)

Drinking alcohol is definitely prohibited in Surat al Maida verse 90. However the punishment is set through Mohammad’s (sallallahu aleyhu vesellem) application and hadith. Mohammad (sallallahu aleyhu vesellem) and Ebû Bekir (radı-yallahu anh) has punished the violators with 40 times beating with a stick. During the time of  Omar (radı-yallahu anh) when alcohol drinkers were getting more and more he consulted his friends and decided to punish the violators with 80 beatings with a stick which is the lightest form of Hadd punishment. (Dârimî, Hudûd,10; A. b. Hanbel, IV, 389).

A man who drank alcohol was brought to Mohammad’s (sallallahu aleyhu vesellem) presence, Mohammad (sallallahu aleyhu vesellem) beat him, they brought him again, he beat him again, they brought him again and he beat him again. (Ebû Dâvûd, Hudûd 35-37)

7 Is it permissible for a Muslim to kiss others lips before marriage?

Standing alone and touching each other’s hands is haram for a man and a woman if they are not married.

Since looking at a namahram woman is haram, touching her or shaking hands with her is definitely haram. Women who presented their obedience to the Prophet (PBUH) said: “O Allah’s Messenger! You did not hold our hands at the time of obeying you.” The Prophet (PBUH) said: “I never hold women’s hands nor shake hand swith them.” (Ahmad bin Hanbal, Nasâî and Ibn Majah). Hazrat Aisha says about obeying: “I swear by Allah that hands of Allah’s Messenger did not touch the hands of any women. He (PBUH) accepted their obedience only by words.” (Muslim).

In one of his Hadiths, the Prophet (PBUH) says: “Being poked with a needle in the head is more favorable than touching a namahram woman for any of you.” Islam does not underestimate women by the prohibition of shaking her hands, contrarily, it protects her honor, and prevents her from evil minded people touching her. (Halil GÜNENÇ, Islamic religious laws on today’s matters II. 112)

As all we know, considering a marriage with a girl and engaging to be married does not mean getting married. Therefore, going out or being alone with one’ fiancée is absolutely haram and a grievous mistake. The Prophet (PBUH) says: “When someone becomes alone with a woman, assuredly, the third one of them is devil.” When many engaged people become alone with their fiancées, some unwanted and illicit results occur, also their relations can be broken for some reasons, at the end. What is left after these relations, is sins and wrongdoings. Thus, people who take care of their religion, worldly lives and honor must be careful on such things.

Editor's Selected Link;

What are the Significant Points in the Relations Between Man and Woman?

8 Is share market business allowed in Islam?

As it is known, the stocks which are issued by different trade and industry institutions and bought or sold over their daily value at the free market and stock exchange market are described as a partnership with a company which makes production, does business or a service and which is known by the buyer. Those who have these commercial shares become partners of the related company for its profit and loss in accordance with the value of the shares.  
Stock exchange markets are the markets where stocks are bought and sold. The criterion of buying a stock is related to the property-holding of the company the buyer represents.    
Accordingly, whether it is national or international; there is no drawback in our religion; -as long as the dealings of the company are not prohibited by religion- in buying the stocks of a company which makes production and does business lawfully and most of its capital is halal in terms of Islam and offers the stocks for sale and distributes the share bonus to their owners at the end of determined periods.   In our religion, the dealings which include interest or contain buying and selling forbidden things have been declared haram. Besides, it is expressed by experts that stock exchange operations are open to manipulation.

9 burnt food

To have burnt food is not haram. Because it is unhealthy, it has not been approved.

10 Is playing the guitar permissible in Islam?

Playing the guitar is religiously permissible. Islam permits having fun and playing instruments in accordance with the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) because people sometimes need such things. Religious music is like food for the spirit. Religious hymns and carols are of this kind. A publicly known expression “music is the food for the spirit” is correct in a sense if it is considered in legal bounds.

However, to what extent is music acceptable? What are the general rules for this? We can list the general rules that Islam introduces regarding this issue as follows.

- Any kind of instrument that stimulates lust and immorality

- Playing instruments with men and women together

- Letting women on the stage and let them sing

-Any sort of fun and instrument which damages the concepts of industriousness, worship and consideration and which leads people to frivolousness and to wasting time is forbidden. 

The following kinds of music and instruments are permissible:

- Relaxing music; spirit-feeding and religious music,

-Any songs or instruments which remind people of Allah, the hereafter or which stimulate the love for the country and nation and which engrain the spirit of heroism.

-Women’s singing songs or playing instruments among themselves within the bounds of morality,

-Men’s arranging such acceptable entertainment within the same bounds is acceptable unless they hinder worshipping and working.

For this reason, the interpreters of Islamic jurisprudence set this decree in a general sense: 

Songs or poems are acceptable unless they are immoral, exceed divine bounds and lead the lust to illegal ways. However, if they praise alcohol, women or similar things, they are makrooh (abominable). (al-Muhit - Radiyuddin Sarakhsi)

Playing tambourine or goblet drum or similar instruments on weddings:

These instruments are permissible to be played on weddings or meetings. Likewise, it is recorded in various narrations that women used to gather around and play such instruments on festivals at the time of the Prophet (pbuh). Even one day, while some women gathered and were having fun playing tambourine in the house of Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her), the Prophet entered the house without saying anything to them; he wanted have a rest in the house. Meanwhile, Abu-Bakr Siddiq entered the house and became sad hearing the voice of the instrument and scolded them; he warned them saying “Is it suitable to play instruments when the Prophet is present?” So, the Prophet removed the covering over his face and stated this was not excessiveness, saying to Abu-Bakr “O, Abu-Bakr! Everybody has their own festivals and they have fun right then. Give up, let them enjoy their festivals”. 

While the Prophet entered Medina after emigrating from Mecca, he was greeted with a rapturous cheer and there were girls and women who were reciting poems aloud, among that crowd. The Prophet did not regard it odd for that day. Afterwards, he forbade women to sing songs among men.

Playing instrument and dancing excessively is considered to be makrooh. Imam Abu Yusuf thinks that way. (Al-Muhit – Radiyuddin Sarakhsi)

In the work titled Hizanatu’l Muftin, the following is stated: “It is not religiously wrong to play tambourine or similar instruments on festivals or similar days.”

11 why muslims don't eat bacon?

Why is the pork haram (forbidden, impermissible)?

It depends on Allah’s command what is permissible (halal) or what is not. If Allah says permissible for something, it becomes permissible; if He says that it is not permissible, it becomes unpermissible. That is to say, religion is an examination, it is an offer for people.
Allah Almighty tests humanbeing in order to make them appropriate to Paradise. For this reason, He set some commands and prohibitions. And what is important is to comply with these commands and prohibitions.
These principles have lots of benefits for both a person’s private life and his social life. Therefore these principles are providing us to be able to comply with these decrees and prohibitions consciously.
One of the cases that our religion prohibited is Pork. There are lots of wisdoms of this prohibition. We are going to try to point only a few of them.
- Pork contains so much fat. When it is consumed, this fat transmits to the blood. So, blood gets full by fat partides. This excess quantity of fat in blood causes to atherosclerosis of artery (a disease that affecting arterial blood vessels), hypertension and heart attack.
- Also, there are toxic matters in the lard called stoksin. In order to throw out these toxic matters entered to body, adenoid needs to work so much. This situation shows itself especially in children, as inflammation and swelling of lymph nodes. Ill child’s throat area swells abnormally, virtually resembles a pig. For this reason this disease is called “pig disease” (scrophulous). In the case of growing worse, all the lymph nodes swell with suppurating. His/her fever goes up, pain reappears and a dangerous situation occurs.

 

- The copiously myxoid connective tissue found in the pork is sulphur-rich. By this means, so much sulphur is given to the body. And this excessiveness, by staying in cartilage, muscle and nerves leads to various diseases such as inflammation, arthritis and herniated disc in articulars. If the pork is continually eaten, the hard cartilage matter in the body leavea its place to the myxoid connective tissue transmitted from the pig. As a result of this, the cartilage becomes soft; it is crushed because it can not endure the body weight. So, in articulars there becomes destruction. Those whom eat port, their hands become flabby, and layers of fat occur. For example if the one who eats is a sportsman; he usually feels tired, lazy and little active.

 

- In pig, there is so much growth hormon. When the piglet bears, its weight is around one or two hundred grams, but when it is six-month old reaches one hundred kilograms. This is because of having excessively growth hormon. Excess quantity of growth hormon taken with port causes tissue puffiness and inflammations in the body. It causes abnormal growth of nose, chin, hands and feet and leads to lipoidosis of the body. The biggest effect of the growth hormon is to lead up to the progress of illness. And so those who work in abattoir and cut pig say that “ Boars exactly become cancer after a certain age.”
- The matters found in the port what is called histamin and imtidazol causes a feeling as if there is a pruritus on the skin. And this leads up to urethritis skin diseases such as eczema, dermatitis, neurodermatitis. These matters also, increase the possibility of catching the illnesses such as carbuncle, appendicitis, biliary tract diseases and inflammation of vein. That’s why, doctors urge cardiopaths not to eat port.
German doctor Prof. Reckeweg in his book named “Port and Human Health” tells one of his memories as follows:
“ With the purpose of treatment, I had gone to a farm of a farmer family. Father was chronic antroz (degenerative articular illness) and was suffering from the illness of hip joint inflammation. Also he was ill with his liver. On mother’s leg there was a varicosis and eczema which making people so much itch. Their daughters were complaint with cardiac insufficiency and rheumatic. Even seeming the most healthy, their sons, too; after having angina, they were complaint with heart failure and inflamed sore. Other daughter of the house was suffering from bronchitis. One of their sons was come down with pig hirsutism and pleuritis and was always complaining about fistula excretion.
As I mentioned above about the illness of this family in detail, additionally I witnessed a strange thing occured in the farm. I saw that there was a pig behind them scratching its back to a tree’s branch.
And I turned to the patients and said; “Can you see the pig behind you.You are eating its flesh with the matters that causing it to scratch and inflammation. And this matters are the  only reason of your illnesses.” After a while when I told the memory I mentioned above to another family living in the Black Forest area, immediately they gave up consuming port and they recovered from many of their illnesses. Now, in the grasslands around that farms there are small folds spreading around like as in Islam countries.
- One of the dangerous diseases that infects by eating port is trichina disease. Pigs get this illness by eating trichinous mouse or trichinous pig. But trichina is not effective so much in pigs. However in humans, it causes a very dangerous and fatal disease.
Trichina worms, taken by having port, pass to blood by the way of stomach-bowel. In this way, they spread to the whole body. Trichina worms place in the tissues of muscle especially in chin, tongue, neck, pharynx and chest-area. They cause apoplexies in the muscles of mastication, speaking and deglutition. Also they lead to occlusion, meningitis and encephalitis in the blood vessels. Some heavy situations end up with death. The worst aspect of this illness is there is no exact treatment.

 

Trichina disease is especially common in Europe countries. Although firm veterinary measures are taken, trichina epidemic is still seen in Sweden, England and Poland.

 

As for our country, except native Christians, in no Muslim trichina disease has been seen. That is because, in our country except Christians, no one eats port. Animals and humans are affected by what they consume in some degree. For example, it is known that animals like cat, dog, lion etc... because having flesh, they are tearer and animals such as sheep, goat, camel etc... because of having grass, they are obedient.
This situation is the same in humans as well. It is confirmed that those who eat vegetable foods are to be usually docile mannered; and those who consume meat are to be more rude mannered.
- Pig is an animal that does not envy its female. In people who eat port it is observed that their feeling of jealousy becomes lost or blunt.
Among French philosophers Savorin giving so much importance to feeding, about disposition sasys that Tell me what you eat, I tell you what kind of a person you are.
Allah Almighty created countless foods for us to consume. Besides, He prohibited some harmful things to be consumed. Because He is the One who has plenty of mercy. He did not place on His creature a burden that would not be beared. His decrees and prohibitions can easily be complied.

 

I wonder what they lose if they do not drink alcohol and eat port. 
An engineer of a machine demonstrates how the machine works and in which conditions it does not work. For example in its catalog, it writes that machine works with 220 volts. And if you ignore this catalog and put to work the machine with 500 volts thinking that it will work better, it is known what will happen.
As you see, human too, is a wonderful motor and a perfect machine that Allah Almighty has created. Certainly He knows how this machine works best. Since Allah made the port forbidden, in that case consuming it is inconvenient.
                                                                                    Selahattin Salimoğlu (Prof. Dr.)

12 Why is Interest Forbidden?

There is nobody who does not know that interest is forbidden in Islam. The reason why interest is forbidden by divine order is obvious: It is forbidden because Allah forbade it. Just as fasting or giving alms is fard because of “divine order”, so too is interest forbidden for the same reason. It is the only reason why we worship. Besides, there are some other reasons following the divine order. It is quite normal because, the One who ordered it knows very well the true nature and disposition of everything and how everything is supposed to be.

For instance, we know that fasting and alms, which we perform because Allah ordered us to do, have got many personal and social benefits. However, we never fast in order to lose weight or never give alms in order to balance social income distribution. As a matter of fact, a person who pays tax as a civic responsibility is not considered to have given alms; and a person who finds out the physical benefits of prayer yet does aerobics instead is not considered to have performed prayers. Similarly, if the starting point of worship is “benefits” instead of “order”, one who cannot see benefits although he has seen the order does not have any reasons to worship. 
However, benefits in question can be a source of trust for a person who worships because of Allah’s order. And in this sense, it can be said that benefits are necessary because each order has got, though not necessarily, some specific benefits and reasons. Therefore, we fast because Allah ordered us to do so and fasting has got some benefits. And similarly, interest is forbidden because Allah forbade it. When we think that each order Allah gives us is a “means of disciplining” according to the explanations we have made in length so far, we can turn back to our question: Why is interest forbidden?

Our answer is ready: It is forbidden because Allah forbade it. If we continue with this answer, our service to Allah will be harmed in case we do not obey the prohibition of interest. That is to say; our service to Allah will decrease in value. When either one of the union of Servant-and-Lord decreases, the other one will increase. When one quits serving Allah, the delusion of being Lord fills its place (He unconsciously feels himself godly). When the delusion of being Lord disappears, the consciousness of serving Allah will fill its place. It is obvious that avoiding giving and taking interest is a requirement of serving Allah. Similarly, it can be said that disobeying this order includes a claim of being a Lord. We can understand it this way in terms of “order”, that is, in terms of the notion of “obedience-disobedience.” For this reason, interest is forbidden in Islam. However, it is possible for us to see why it is also forbidden in terms of “belief” as well as it is in terms of “Islam” when we reveal the wisdom behind this prohibition. In this sense, let us remember of what interest is as a process again:

It is lending an amount of money to private person or incorporation, as capital sum. However, it is not an innocent way of lending money. The one who lends the money determines a list of conditions. A certain amount of money will be added to the amount of the money that is lent after a certain time. The one, who lends money, demands “something” and what he demands is “met”. He is sure of it. In short, the one who lends money, the moneylender, takes it for granted. On the other hand, there is someone who lives by planting wheat on his field or by selling his products in the market; and this person cannot determine any conditions for his income.  Neither when he will make profit nor the amount he will earn is guaranteed. For this reason, he often prays. When he starts earning, he gives thanks to the Creator. He always remembers the One who endows him with these blessings and boons. He does his best, as much as the causes let; however, he knows that these causes are not enough to make his products grow and be ready for harvest as he wants or to sell his products as well as he hopes. For this reason, he considers his efforts a cause inadequate yet necessary to earn his living. He is not so confident of himself. There is a significant difference between these two scenes. In the former one, the causes are strong and thick; he determines his income, not the boons and blessings endowed on him (rizq). (Determinism)

Interest makes the one who lends it alienate from service to Allah. As a matter of fact, this results in the thickening of the wall of causes and those who lean on this wall start to feel themselves godly because of the stupor caused by being able to do anything they like. In other words, interest manages to make people heedless, which makes them believe that everything is created by causes. This state prevents one from getting into the state of service to Allah. A person who is somewhere between fear and hope, life and death, and fullness and hunger is a believer as much as he is aware of this state. Interest prevents one from being aware of this state. And we think this is one of the wisdoms behind why interest is forbidden. It is doubtless that the prohibition of interest has got a different importance in Islam. The importance of this issue stems from the fact that interest, which is forbidden in the Quran and hadiths strongly, is one of the key points in the economy of our day (which is non-Islamic). Besides, it would not be exaggeration to say that modern economy is accorded with interest policies and facilities today.

The significant size of the money and capital markets today is known to everyone. On the other hand, it is really difficult to see a company or an entrepreneur which counts on their own capital in order to start up a new business or which continues their business with their own economic potential. It is known that interest is strictly forbidden in our religion with the strictest rules although it plays a vital important role in modern business and macro economy. Eventually, it causes all Muslims both in Turkey and all over the world a dilemma and makes them passive in business and social life, in which cooperation with financial foundations is almost an obligation today. It results from the fact that the issue of interest is not explained widely and comprehensively in Islamic literature and sources and so religious people who cannot obtain adequate information on the issue prefer to refrain from financial foundations and facilities fearing that they will make mistakes and commit sins. The aim of this article is to contribute modestly to the enlightenment of our people, who are quite critical of interest, on the issue;.

Definition of Interest

According to the economists, interest, which has got an important function on free market economy, determines the distribution between utilization and consumption of sources. Utilization of sources is directed to more productive fields via interest mechanism. When there is a shortage of sources, relatively less productive investments are suggested. According to a wide-spread definition, interest is the price deserved in return for the money rented. In a limited sense, it is the price that a lender charges a borrower for the use of the lender's money. In this sense, it is shaped according to the supply and demand in fund markets. It is also called “interest expense”.
Interest is an impersonal income independent of the possessor of the money. It shows that the limit of interest is generally determined according to the market conditions and that the lender does not play any role in it. As a matter of fact, the personal relationship between customers and financial foundations is disappearing gradually and millions of people do not know at all the owners or the managers of banks to which they entrust their money. That is to say; personal relationship between foundations and people has almost disappeared. In another sense, interest is the price charged in return for postponement or the proponing of utilization of property or service. It enables the link between today and the future.

Interest is the price determined according to the period of time in which the lender is deprived of the money he lent and in accordance with a certain rate, in debts which are only about paying a certain amount of money back. This definition, which evaluates the matter from the point of law, puts forward two elements - time and interest rate - which enable the emergence of interest. In many definitions, we see that interest is the price charged in return for the utilization of money. It is not exactly true; because it is not necessary for the borrower to utilize the money so that the lender will have the right to obtain interest. What is necessary and enough for the emergence of interest is the fact that the lender has been deprived of the money he lent for a while. It is necessary for earning interest from the lent money that the money has been received by the borrower on condition that it will be paid back after a certain time. And according to a popular and widely accepted definition, interest is a means of income for the lender and an expense for the borrower. In Islamic terminology, interest is explained with the concept “riba”. Riba means redundancy, abundance and increase. Therefore, extra money or property charged in return for anything lent is included in the scope of prohibition. Riba also means haram (unlawful) earning. According to another definition in Islamic Law, “Interest is the redundancy conditioned in trade.”
Kinds of Interest

There are many kinds of interest in theory and practice and they are classified under some certain categories. We find it appropriate to talk about the issue long enough to help to comprehend the matter of interest better. Normally, interest is paid together with the capital money at the end of the allowed time. It is called ordinary interest; it is easy to calculate and it is not complicated at all. There is no difference between the interest rate declared and agreed upon and the one in practice. What is meant by “interest on paper” is ordinary interest; yet it is not so in practice. It is the “compound interest” which increases interest and capital wildly and misleads the borrower. And in short, it means charging interest on interest. For instance, interest is collected four times in a year before the debt is paid back in the allowed time, in commercial loans, which are for one year. For this reason, interest rate which is declared to the customer as 60% on paper becomes 75% in practice. Compound interest increases even more in credit card debts in which the capital and interest are divided into monthly installments. No banks or financial foundations tell their customers the compound interest rate. However, interestingly, the very same banks especially inform their customers about it and emphasize compound interest in the income return which they provide their customers with. Compound interest may bear very dangerous results for borrowers. It may sometimes make borrowers deal with a very swollen debt even before they realize; just like a small snowball becomes an avalanche.

Discount Interest: A unique loan situation where an interest rate is determined, and then that percentage is removed from the loan amount, and the borrower is given the remainder of the loan. This kind of interest is usually deceptive for the borrower. For instance, the rate of a discount interest, the allowed time of which is 6 months, which is said to be 40% by a bank, a factoring company or any lender becomes 56% for a year in practice.

Default Interest: The higher interest that a borrower must pay after default. If a borrower defaults on a loan, he/she must pay default interest in order to compensate a lender for the added risk of extending credit to him/her. It is based on the assumption that borrowers are always ill-mannered and do not pay their debts deliberately. It is not searched if a borrower has got any defaults. Lenders do not have to prove their loss in order to have right to charge borrowers with default interest and borrowers cannot get rid of default interest by proving their faultlessness.

Compensatory Interest: Interest which is charged as the compensation for the assumed loss of the lender who is not paid back in due time. The lender does not have to prove his loss; the delay in payment of the debt is enough as the reason.

Penal Interest: It is punitive interest charged by a lender to a borrower if installments are not paid according to the loan terms. It can be for any kind of debts in addition to debts in money lending.

Legal Interest: The amount of interest that is allowed or required to be charged by law; independent of parties’ agreement. Even if the parties do not record an interest condition on contract, the one who does not pay his debt is charged with interest by law.

Conventional Interest: A kind of interest that is not underwritten by a government agency. The interest rate can be determined and recorded on the contract by the mutual agreement of the parties.

Interest throughout History

Interest emerged due to lending in ancient times. Excavations carried out in Turkey have shown that Assyrian merchants sold tin and wheat to Anatolians on an interest rate of 100% with borrowed golden and silver coins, in 2000’s B.C. Interest, which is almost as old as the history of humankind, has always been a focus of attraction for philosophers and ecclesiastics. It has always been subject to governmental intervention in all religions and all law systems. It has always been seen disadvantageous both morally and socially because it provides lender with dishonored income and causes borrowers financial hardship as an amount of money which results from lending agreements or other kinds of contracts is added to the debt. Since ancient times, interest has been evaluated as a doctrine, a matter of justice and morality.

Aristotle, the well-known Greek philosopher, states the following in his famous book named “Politics”: “The most hated sort (of wealth getting) and with the greatest reason, is usury, which makes a gain out of money itself and not from the natural object of it. Money was intended to be used in exchange but not to increase at interest. … Amongst all modes of getting wealth, it is the most unnatural.”
Thomas d’Aquin states: “It is impossible to sell money and the use of money separately. As it is impossible to separate the use of something from the thing itself and to sell it in this way, it is unfair, it is even theft to charge interest on the use of something because it would be selling the same thing twice (the use of the thing and the thing itself). If interest is a price for time, nobody can demand it; because time is common to everyone and it only belongs to God. Therefore, charging interest is both theft and also a crime committed against God who gives time freely to people.”
Both in Roman law and ancient Greek law, interest was restricted and even banned, with different approaches though.

In original Judaism, interest was prohibited. Later, this prohibition was distorted on behalf of relations amongst Israelites and it was concluded that this prohibition was valid only amongst Israelites and it was permissible to charge non-Jews with interest. Attitude against interest in Christianity went through various stages. Prophet Jesus indirectly rejected the utilization of interest and suggested his apostles to perform good deeds by donating and helping others without expecting any return. Though the Church persisted on the prohibition of interest for a long time, it happened to accept interest gradually because of the oppression by social and financial life and especially due to the emergence of capitalism. Jean Calvin permitted the utilization of interest as he considered it not only a means of consumption but also production.
According to mercantilists, interest is the rent of the capital. Considering interest the same as the lease of land and the rent of real estates, Mercantilists said, “Interest is the rent of the capital”. And according to physiocrats, interest on an amount of lent money cannot be less than the income return which a land bought with that amount of money would provide. Classical economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo considered interest as the return the borrower pays to the lender in relation to the profit the borrower will make from the money he borrowed. In classical economy, which is based on the view of financer-entrepreneur, interest and profit are evaluated and mixed together. The industrialization process the classical economists were going through proved that assumption right. Karl Marx, who is known to have read the Quran, characterized interest as unnatural and immoral. Keynes, unlike other classical economists, defended that interest is not essential for investments. According to him, interest does not encourage investments; contrarily, interest hinders it.

Prohibition of Interest in Islam

Interest was prohibited gradually in the Quran and it was stated in various verses. 279th verse of the chapter al-Baqarah is short yet comprehensive: “…if ye repent, ye shall have your capital sums; deal not unjustly and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly” Moreover, the Prophet said in his Farewell Sermon: “God has forbidden you to take usury (riba), therefore all riba obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity.” The message of the verses and the hadith is, in short, as follows: One cannot take back more than he lent. The lender has got the right to collect the whole capital he has lent. According to the primary and direct meaning here, lending process is not made for making profit out of it. When considered together with other hadiths, we understand that the extra return does not have to be of the same kind with the lent item. That is to say; for instance, if the lent item is of A kind, interest on it is still prohibited even if it is of B kind. The other meaning in the verses and the hadith is that the lender has got the right to collect the whole capital he has lent. Although it seems quite natural, it is not always possible to collect the whole capital as exact. For instance, money on deposit in European banks is reduced because it is saved and protected by the bank; let alone increasing. In Former Soviet Union countries including Turkic republics and today’s Russian Federation, money deposited in a bank is paid back to the owner after reducing it by 10-15%. Although this treatment to the depositor may based on mutual agreement, it is not so indeed. As a matter of fact, it is indisputable that banks – which are both respected and awed – have got an influential power which persuades their customers to accept their conditions. Another business field of the investment banks, which are the giant foundations of the West civilization, is the management of the wealthy people’s personal funds and the accumulation of the interest. However, in times of economic depression, those banks return less than the money they receive, declaring losses. It is known that investment funds, which are wide-spread in Turkey, sometimes cause harm to investors, who count on them. However, in Islam, investors, depositors and lenders are protected by the right of them to collect their capital as exact. In this sense, one who does not pay his debt back in due time is regarded to have oppressed. According to the interpreters of the Quran, a lender/depositor/investor cannot be forced to take his money back incomplete in amount. Besides, there are interpretations which state that a lender/depositor/investor can ask for the compensation of his loss in addition to the capital when he is not paid back in due time, on condition that it is recorded in agreement at the beginning.
Reasons why Interest was Forbidden
The secondary vital meaning of the verses and the hadith recorded above is that interest (riba) results in unfairness. It is indisputable that either the lender or the borrower will be treated unfairly when interest is charged on lending. Financial life both in our country and all over the world is full of examples which prove the issue right. As a matter of fact, banks are defined as “foundations which put umbrellas over their customers on sunny days and take it back when it starts to rain” in the West, where they were invented. Our recent history is full of lots of dramatic cases in which both lenders and borrowers infringed the rights of each other and eventually the rights of many innocent people were infringed. Bankers who appeared out of nowhere with a fake certificate bought cheap and a small office in the eighties collected a large amount of money from people promising them interest. Retirement pensions and salaries were deposited to those bankers with the hope of gaining interest return. Some people even sold the houses they had been living in and started to live in rented apartments in order to deposit the money to the bankers to make profit out of it. In the end, it went so far due to the infinite trickery of those bankers and to the naivety (and also greediness) of depositors that interest was charged on money deposited even for one day in order to lengthen this so-called “chain of happiness”. And finally, the bankers disappeared with the whole money they collected. Some of them were caught yet nothing could be taken back from them. Yet some of them were killed and most of them were sentenced to prison. Public was robbed before the eyes of government during these events which were recorded as a disaster of bankers in history of economics. We know that many tradesmen and merchants went bankrupt because of their debts owed to usurers in all cities of our country including especially Istanbul. And sometimes we hear of the ones who kill the usurer they owe to as a last option to get rid of the debts. The murder of Nesim Malki which occurred in the year of 1996 is another significant case which shows that the borrowers are not always innocent. When the economic crisis of 1994 started, banks sent a short written note to their customers saying that they would charge an interest of 700% on credit accounts the very next morning. Lots of factories and businesses had to close down a few days later. The guarantee of unlimited deposits started headfirst by the government turned out to be a shield protecting those earning interest from the ones who did not have money deposited in banks. In the economic depression of November 2000 and February 2001, interest rates on credits were increased to 3000% all of a sudden. Innumerable companies went bankrupt and ended their financial life. On the other hand, some businessmen transferred the credits they received from the banks to their personal accounts instead of using them in business. Even the bank owners did not see anything wrong with siphoning their own banks. Eventually, 22 banks went bankrupt; their owners were imprisoned and were dishonored in front of everyone. All of the loss of the crisis was put on the public. In short, the wisdom behind the prohibition of interest is that either lenders or borrowers, or both of them as mentioned above will be wronged and eventually the rest of the public will also be harmed although they are not involved in the case. We come across interest hidden behind different masks in every economic issue due to the abundance and variety of financial instruments and foundations today. In our opinion, when concluding, if any financial process is included in the scope of prohibition of interest today, our criterion must be whether the financial processes in question can cause any unfairness or harm to the borrower or the lender, or the public.
Sami USLU

13 Is taking photos allowed and do they (photos) prevent someone from praying?

A photo in a bag does not impact on prayers.

Photos need to be considered in two classes: those which belong to animate beings and those which belong to non animate beings. Photos which belong to animate beings are either full body pictures which could live or half pictures which couldn’t. If they are half pictures or too small to be distinguished when looked at, it could be said that there is no danger. However, full body pictures and photos are not allowed without necessity. Pictures of inanimate beings i.e. panorama it is certainly allowed. Flower, lake and forest views can be photographed and hung in certain places in the house to watch the Divine Power with appreciation. Hanging Full body pictures (of humans, animals and other living beings) on the walls of a room and making it fully visible when looked at means to make the room unfit reprehensible to pray in. Therefore it is reprehensible to pray in a room where there are full body pictures of animate beings. If the pictures are in the direction of the Holy Ka’ba the level of reprehensibility increases if it’s on the side it’s less and if it’s behind it’s less. Such pictures should either be taken down or they should be covered before praying. There is no harm in keeping full body pictures in a closed place and disclosing when necessary. Pictures on banknotes or passport photos in ID cards are also allowed.   These if they were to become alive would not live because they are too small or cut in half. There is also permission for some necessary full body photos taken to recognise certain people. These are necessary pictures. Thieves or other criminals can only be caught by powers of justice in this way.  Pictures taken today-non obscene ones- can be discounted from the category of pictures made for worship.

Can you give detailed information on pictures and photos?

The religion of Islam is a heavenly religion which was revealed to develop man’s world and afterlife. It is not possible for the rules that it brought to be convenient for minds and tastes of everyone. Just like faces do not resemble one another so don’t the minds and characters. Allah Almighty who has given mind and reason to humans knows better which rules are better and which regulations are more suitable for humans and descends them. Therefore even if we cannot fully understand some of the Divine laws and regulations about orders, prohibitions, licit (halal) and illicit (haraam); we should accept and believe in them and research the instances of wisdom behind them. Denying without such a research could lead to loss of faith. Thus saying “Why should this or that be illicit? It doesn’t suit my understanding” has serious consequences. A lot of people do not like when it is mentioned that sculptures or pictures are prohibited. Furthermore they say “Sculptures are works of art. Why should they be prohibited?” and deny this ruling of Islam without hesitation. When a research is done on the sculptures in museums it is found out that in the times of “Jahiliyyah”(Ignorance-period before the religion of Islam was revealed) -especially during the eras of Roman and Byzantine States- most people showed utmost respect to sculptures and pictures to the level of worshipping them and were caught in the whirl of idol-worshipping. In order to rescue him from worship of sculptures and pictures he made with his own hands, Allah Almighty who has appointed man as a caliph on Earth has prohibited all sorts of pictures and sculptures of animate beings. Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) visited me after returning from a journey, and I had a shelf with a thin cloth curtain hanging over it and on which there were portraits. When he saw it, the colour of his face changed (because of anger) and he said, "O `Aishah! The most grievous torment from Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be for those who imitate (Allah) in the act of His creation.'' `Aishah said: We tore it into pieces and made a cushion or two cushions out of that. This hadith points out that pictures which are prohibited when they are hung on the walls can be used when they are used on cushions on the floor. Ibn Hajar summarises this matter as follows: Taking this hadith as evidence scholars have reached the following ruling pictures without shadows are allowed however they should be used in such a way that they do not receive respect. They have to be used on items thrown on the floor and stepped on such as cushions. Nawawi says this is the ruling of the majority, most of the Companions of the prophet and their followers have reached this opinion, and mujtahid imams such as Sufyan Assawry, Imam Malik, Imam A’zam Abu Hanifa and Imam Shafii have accepted this view. However if they are hung on a wall, drawn on garments or turban it has been commented that pictures are prohibited regardless of them being with or without shadow. The reason is that in these conditions respect is meant. Imam Nawawi says further on this matter: “This hadith points out that pictures of animate beings is prohibited but making pictures of trees and other beings without spirits and making a living out of this isn’t prohibited.” Tahawi says on this matter: “The reason that our prophet (PBUH) prohibited all sorts of idols and pictures in the first years of Islam is because idol worshipping was not a long time ago. In order for people not to turn to idols or similar things for worship, idols and any pictures leading to them were prohibited. Later when Islam spread and its fundamentals were understood the prohibition on idols and similar things continued but pictures on linen, paper or similar things were not criticized in one sense they were allowed. The reason was that no one would show respect to such pictures anymore. When it comes to the pictures taken nowadays with special instruments, they existed neither at the time of our prophet nor at the time of mujtahid imams. Therefore the ruling relate mainly to 3 dimension pictures and sculptures. However ruling for pictures of our present time has been given with comparison (qiyas). The ones made with intention to worship or glorify and obscene ones are definitely prohibited. According to this explanation it can be concluded that drawings which are not against Islam from the moral or religious aspect are not prohibited. We think the ones drawn on computers or with another technical method can be regarded similarly. It is possible to say that the prohibition on pictures are for 3 dimension or embossed ones or for those which are against Islam.

Praying in a room where there are pictures:

In the Islamic jurisdiction book (Ilm ul-Hal) prepared by Department of Religious Affairs the following assessment has been recorded: In our religion it is prohibited to take photos or make pictures or sculptures with intention to worship or to glorify. Muslim scholars have deemed it permissible to make pictures of inanimate beings such as landscape, trees or stones which do not contradict Islamic morals. Muslim scholars have also deemed it permissible to make pictures of animate beings where there is no intention to worship or glorify and where it is not against general morals. In the classical literature, the rulings on sculptures and pictures usually refer to pictures (surat). Therefore we would like to explain the matter of pictures and sculptures with the analysis of the term “surat”. The word “surat” in Arabic is mainly used to mean shape, form, appearance and picture. The word “timsal” is close to “surat” in terms of meaning. Some have deemed the word “surat” a synonym of “timsal”. At times in some hadith (saying of the prophet) surat has been used as a synonym of timsal. Nevertheless linguists usually categorize surat in two: first as the ones with shadow (timsal/sculptures) and second as the ones drawn. For example one of the commentaries on the verse:  “It is We Who created you and gave you shape” Sura 7:11   states an interpretation as “First we created your spirits and then gave shape to your bodies”. In some hadith the word surat is used to mean man’s outer appearance and shape (see Ibn Ma’ce Dream, 2; Musnad, 2, 118 for hadith where surat is used in this meaning). It is also mentioned that the word surat encompasses everything both those which have spirits and those which don’t; whereas timsal is only used for beings which have spirits. Therefore it would be more accurate to understand the word surat as something (sculpture or picture) shaped. In some verses (Aal-i Imran 3/6; el-A‘raf 7/11; el-Mu’min 40/64; et-Teghabun 64/3) the word taswir (sawwara) is used to mean “to give shape” and in certain commentaries as “to give spiritual qualities” apart from physical shape. Therefore it wouldn’t be right to think of the word taswir which is the verb form of the word surat simply as “draw” or “paint” which is the meaning it refers to in current texts. A more accurate meaning would be draw/paint as well as to give shape and form to a matter. Similarly the word tasawir derived from the root usually means picture but also refers to sculpture. The fact that Allah has described himself as Al-Musawwir in the Holy Qur’an (Al Hashr 59/24) and some commentators have interpreted this as “creator” gives strength to the thesis above. The word surat is mentioned  in 3 places in the Holy Qur’an once single twice plural and is usually interpreted as man’s form and shape. In Qur’an the word “timsal” is mentioned twice in its plural form “temasil”. The meaning of one of these verses if as follows:  Behold! he (Ibrahim) said to his father and his people, "What are these images, to which ye are (so assiduously) devoted?" (Al-Anbiya 21:52) In the other verse it mentions that temasil were made for Suleiman (Saba 34:13). One of the interpretations made on the meaning of temasil in this second verse is that these were sculptures (or pictures) of angels, prophets and pious people. Another interpretation says that they were pictures of birds such as peacock and hawk depicted on Suleiman’s throne and on its steps. The verb “sawwara” is mentioned in many verses and interpreted as “created” and there doesn’t seem to be any direct relevance between this and making pictures. Nevertheless in some hadith it is narrated that people who make pictures of human appearance are accepted as Allah’s imitators (having a desire to claim godhood) and they will be punished for this deed. This has led to an understanding that the prohibition of pictures originates from the Holy Qur’an. In fact this relation doesn’t seem to be strong enough to claim that this prohibition on making pictures originates form the Holy Qur’an. For if this interpretation is taken out of its context and generalised then we will have to accept that the making and use of the robots used in the technology today which could be named “techno-slaves” is also prohibited. Therefore it seems to be more accurate to base this prohibition of pictures on Sunnah (practices of the prophet) and explain the reasons of prohibition with reasons other than the above.  We can list the narrations on the prohibition of pictures as follows: a)      Narrated 'Aisha:  I never used to leave in the Prophet house anything carrying images or crosses but he obliterated it.  (Bukhari, Libas) b)      Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar : Allah's Apostle said, "Those who make these pictures will be punished on the Day of Resurrection, and it will be said to them. 'Make alive what you have created.'" (Bukhari, Libas) c)      Narrated 'Aisha : I purchased a cushion with pictures on it. The Prophet (came and) stood at the door but did not enter. I said (to him), "I repent to Allah for what (the guilt) I have done." He said, "What is this cushion?" I said, "It is for you to sit on and recline on." He said, "The makers of these pictures will be punished on the Day of Resurrection and it will be said to them, 'Make alive what you have created.' Moreover, the angels do not enter a house where there are pictures.'" (Bukhari, Libas; for explanation of the hadith see Ibn Hajar, Fath-ul Bari) d)      Narrated Abu Talha : The Prophet said, "Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or there are pictures." (Bukhari, Libas) e)       "Angels (of mercy) do not enter a house where there are pictures except a design in a garment'?" (Bukhari, Libas) f)        Narrated 'Aisha: Allah's Apostle returned from a journey when I had placed a curtain of mine having pictures over (the door of) a chamber of mine. When Allah's Apostle saw it, he tore it and said, "The people who will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection will be those who try to make the like of Allah's creations." So we turned it (i.e., the curtain) into one or two cushions. (Bukhari, Libas) g)      Narrated Anas: Aisha had a thick curtain (having pictures on it) and she screened the side of her house with it. The Prophet said to her, "Remove it from my sight, for its pictures are still coming to my mind in my prayers." (Bukhari, Libas) Neither in Bukhari nor in Nesai’s narration is there a record that the Prophet (PBUH) repeated his prayers due to the aforementioned pictures. Therefore it is concluded that having pictures at home is only makrooh (reprehensible) and doesn’t harm the validity of the prayers. What can be understood form this hadith in the first instance is that a curtain on which there is a picture is disapproved because it disturbs tranquillity at prayers. h)      A'isha reported: We had a curtain with us which had portraits of birds upon it. Whenever a visitor came, he found them in front of him. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to me: Change them, for whenever I enter the room) I see them and it brings to my mind (the pleasures) of worldly life.  (Muslim, Libas) i)        It is reported that Aisha (RA) had a toys in the form of dolls and winged horses, the Prophet (ASM) saw these and smiled (Abu Dawood, Adab). j)        According to a narration a person came to Ibn 'Abbas and said: I am the person who paints pictures; give me a religious verdict about them. He (Ibn 'Abbas) said to him: Come near me (still further). He came near him so much so that he placed his hand upon his head and said: I am going to narrate to you what I heard from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him). I heard him say: All the painters who make pictures would be in the fire of Hell. The soul will be breathed in every picture prepared by him and it shall punish him in the Hell, and he (Ibn 'Abbas) said: If you have to do it at all, then paint the pictures of trees and lifeless things; and Nasr b. 'Ali confirmed it. (Bukhari, Magic; Muslim, Libas) As evidence for this ruling of Ibn Abbas (RA) the following narration from Abu Huraira is quoted: Once Jibreel (GAbriel) asked for permission from the Prophet to enter and although he was permitted he didn’t enter and said “How can I enter a house in which there is a curtain with pictures of horses and humans. Either cut the heads of those pictures or lay the curtain on the floor” (Tahawi, Meani’l Asar, IV, 287 ) Tahawi, who was a great muhaddith (scholar of hadith) and a leading Hanafi fakih, has made the following comments after narrating this hadith: from the apparent hadith it is understood that pictures of beings with spirits are allowed if their heads are separated. According to this, making pictures of beings without spirits is allowed and those beings which are not possible to have a spirit due to their appearance are also outside the boundaries of the prohibition. (Tahawi, Meani’l Asar, IV, 287 ) Based on the narrations about prohibition of pictures Ibn-Al Arabi, from Maliki scholars, has summarised the matter as follows: if the images made are in the form of sculptures there is consensus among scholars that it is prohibited. However if it is a design or pattern on a cloth there are four different views on this. According to the first of these they are allowed based on the statement in the hadith “except for design on a cloth”. The second view says it is prohibited based on the content of other hadith. The third view which brings limitations on pictures states that if the picture is complete in form and appearance it is prohibited. If the picture’s completeness is interrupted (e.g. cut) then it is allowed. According to the final view the picture is prohibited when it’s hung on the wall or a high place and allowed only when it is used on the floor or used on things which do not receive respect. (Ibn-ul Arabi Arizatu-l Ahzevi VII, 253) Nawawi of Shafi scholars has said on the issue of pictures that based on the severe punishment mentioned in the hadith and it has a meaning of imitating Allah’s creation, regardless of what it was made with and what it was made on (e.g. cloth, money, container, wall etc.) he said it was prohibited and one of the major sins to make pictures of animate beings (human and animal) and and further commented that making pictures of things like trees, mountains or camel saddle wasn’t prohibited. Using things which have pictures of animate beings depends on where and how these things are used. If they are to be used in a situation where they cannot be regarded as insignificant (such as hanging on walls or wearing on a dress), it is prohibited. However if it is used on a rug or a cushion which is laid on the floor, it is not prohibited (whether or not it will prevent angels of mercy from entry is still a matter of dispute). Nawawi continues to say that this ruling is valid for both pictures with shadow and those without. As he states, some scholars of early times (Salaf) have argued that the prohibition mentioned in the hadith is only for pictures with shadows and making pictures without shadows isn’t prohibited. (Nawawi, Sharh-ul Sahih Muslim, XIV, 81-82). When scholars say that it was allowed to make pictures of other beings, except for animate ones like humans or animals, and make a living out of this they referred to a statement in the hadith which says “Come on and give life to what you made” and the aforementioned ruling given by Ibn Abbas. Nevertheless when we examine the evidences on this matter we can conclude that the threats in the hadith is about those who make pictures or sculpture in order to worship or to compete with Allah in creating things. For it would be too harsh for innocent pictures not made with such intentions. Moreover the chronology of the relevant hadith shows that the threats decrease gradually. Majority of scholars have said children’s toys are exceptions to the prohibition. On the other hand scholars explained that in Sulaiman’s (AS) religion making pictures and sculptures were allowed but in Islam it was forbidden. For example Zamahsheri commented that making pictures and sculpture isn’t essentially bad (unlike oppression and adultery) and its ruling can differ from one religious law to another. As a reason of prohibition of pictures in Islam, competing with Allah in creating things- as pointed out in the hadith…. Although this reason is not false, there seems to be a more accurate explanation narrated by Ibn-ul Arabi: the Arabs during the time of Jahiliyya (Ignorance-period before Islam) used to worship idols; they first made them with their own hands and then worshipped them. Islam has shown care to protect the faith system of unity of Allah (tawheed) by forbidding things which lead to worshipping idols (Ibn-ul Arabi, Ahkam-ul Qur’an, IV, 1599-1602). In addition to this the position of the crucifix in Christians’ lives at that time has to be considered. With these in mind it could be said that the main reason for the prohibition of pictures and sculpture is the worry that people would worship them. Islam is a religion of tawheed (Unity of Allah). Arabs used to worship idols and pictures they made with their own hands. The prophet (PBUH), with the worry that they would go back to their former habits, has found it appropriate to prohibit pictures which reminded of those habits. Moreover there is a similar practice after the prohibition of wine. Although there wasn’t normally harm in using them, the Messenger of Allah has also prohibited the use of wine containers with special names such as “dubbah” and “nakeer”. With this method the Prophet (PBUH) has forbidden things which would remind Arabs of their old practices. It is possible to view prohibition of pictures and sculpture from this perspective and this way it was aimed to cleanse the belief in tawheed from the filth of shirk (associating partners to Allah) of any kind. Comments of some scholars that the prohibition of pictures with harsh threats was in the early stages of Islam and they became lighter later on also support the opinion that the reason for prohibition was the aforementioned worries. To conclude scholars have said it is permissible to make and use pictures of trees, mountains or rocks as well as pictures which don’t depict complete human body. Some scholars like Nawawi said cloths with pictures of animate beings can be used as rugs or table cloths, and some others like Teebee said these are all permissible without exceptions. Taking these into consideration we will not be saying something new if we say “As long as making pictures or using them doesn’t lead to a situation contradicting belief in tawheed they do not enter the boundaries of the prohibition in the early stages and therefore they are not prohibited”. Using an object with a picture on it   Scholars of the school of Hanefi have said that praying on a cloth or rug with pictures of animals and of humans is not prohibited because laying such cloths with pictures under feet means that they do not receive respect. However it was advised not to prostrate on pictures because it could seem as if worshipping those pictures. Again praying when these pictures are hung above the head, on the same level as a person or in front of someone is said to be reprehensible. When the pictures are behind the person or under his feet, praying isn’t reprehensible but keeping pictures in the house is. The reason for keeping pictures to be reprehensible is because Gabriel said “I do not enter a house where there are dogs or pictures”. Wearing a garment with pictures is deemed reprehensible but the praying in such clothes isn’t. However for caution it is advisable to pray again (Marginani, Al-Hidayah, I, 362-364). Hanbalis have also said wearing a garment with pictures is not prohibited but is reprehensible (Ibn Kudamah, El Mughney, I, 590). Keeping or using pictures which are too small to draw attention in the first look is not prohibited. Moreover it is narrated that Abu Musa had a ring with picture of two mosquitoes and Ibn Abbas had an oven decorated with small pictures. Abdurrazzak narrates Ibn Abbas (RA) deemed it reprehensible to pray in a church where there are pictures and when Omar (RA) the Caliph went to Damascus, a leader of the Christians prepared a dinner for him and invited him there. To this invitation Omar (RA) replied “We don’t enter your churches because there are images there”. The narrator said he meant timsal (image) when he used the word surat (shape, form) (Bukhari, Salat, 54).

Trading an item with pictures

Majority of scholars have said it is allowed to buy and sell an item with pictures with evidence from a hadith where Aisha (RA) bought a cushion with pictures on it and the Prophet didn’t ask her to return it and allowed her to use it for something else by changing its shape and position. Ibn Hazm, famous scholar of Zahiri school, said it is prohibited to buy and sell any images apart from children’s toys (Ibn Hazm, Al-Muhalla, IX, 25). However if we consider that Ibn Hazm said it was allowed to sell cloth with pictures, we can understand they meant sculpture with the word “image”. To conclude, Arabs in the pre-Islamic period believed in one creator called Allah but thought they could reach him only through using means in between. Therefore they accepted pictures and sculpture (idols) -most of which were in the shape of humans- as intermediary-gods. These pictures and sculpture which at first seem like products of human aesthetics, creative thinking and imagination gradually grew out of being simple physical appearances and started representing powers beyond matter even to such a degree of divinity to fulfil man’s need for worship-especially for people who had difficulty in understanding the notion of an immaterial deity.  Because Islam was revealed in this era when this error was widespread and focussed on tawheed- the fact that no other god other than Allah exists-, as a matter of course it was very meticulous against any dangerous idea which could distance from the belief in tawheed and lead to polytheism.  That is why the Prophet (ASM) was very sensitive towards pictures and sculpture. However there was a gradual decrease in the threats and prohibitions against pictures and sculpture in the later stages of Islamic era, in parallel to the increasing distance of Muslims from this primitive error and decreasing possibility of falling in the danger of polytheism by these means. Accordingly Muslim scholars started behaving more tolerantly towards pictures. Stricter treatment against sculpture is an outcome of this principle. Therefore what was forbidden wasn’t the picture or the sculpture itself but the possibility of them leading people to associating partners to Allah and becoming holy objects of worship. Furthermore this is what is meant by “what causes something to be allowed or prohibited in religion is not the object but the deed”. Therefore we can conclude that as long as the aforementioned worries and dangers exist the verdict of prohibition will exist and when this ceases to exist and it becomes more like a need or expression of aesthetics such deeds should be considered in their original ruling which is permissible.    On the other hand some scholars have deemed making pictures and sculpture as imitating the Creator and trying to shadow his Creatorship even in the ideological aspect and therefore disapproved of it. In fact it is a great mistake for people with the ability of giving shapes to things, the power of discovery and art to feel pride and arrogance. It will be accurate to see this skill as bounty of Allah. When the reason for prohibition (explained above) is subject to such an explanation, photos, cameras, videos and other images reflected to the screen with similar technological devices should be accepted as exceptions to the tasweer (making pictures or sculpture) in the classical religious references. The reason is that these are not given shape by using the imagination of a being on the contrary they are reappearances of present creatures recorded with technological devices. These could even be considered in the category of reflections of human shape and other living forms on water or mirror. As a result what should be emphasised more is that the themes and the images in photos and films should not violate rules of religion and morality; they shouldn’t cause sexual arousal or mischief. Obviously these are more to do with how and with what intention photos or films are used rather than whether they themselves are permissible or not.

14 What is the sin of watching haram (forbidden) things? Will you give detailed information about looking at haram?

God Almighty says, "Nor come nigh to adultery!" in verse 32 of Chapter al-Isra. Acting upon the phrase ‘nor come nigh (near)’, Islamic scholars stated that all of the acts that could lead a person to adultery were forbidden. Looking at obscene pictures or videos can be regarded in this category. Therefore, it is not permissible to look at those kinds of pictures.
As one of our scholars says all of the sins and moral deteriorations start with the look at obscene things; it develops with the insistence on the looks and then it turns into actual sin. Besides, the eyes take the pictures of the things they look at and store them in the archives of images. No matter where he goes and where he is, those pictures are in front of his eyes in the realm of the imaginations.

“Moreover, the Qur'an compassionately commands women to wear a veil of modesty, so that they will be treated with respect and those mines of compassion will not be abased beneath the feet of low desires, and will not become like worthless goods for the excitement of lust. However, civilization has drawn women out of their homes, rent their veils, and corrupted mankind.”1

One of the reasons that cause the corruption of the society is, as it is expressed above, the women’s going out of their homes and being incorporated in the community immoderately and becoming unimportant things although they are beings deserving respect. Thus, the women lost their self-respect and caused the members of the community to corrupt.

The duty of the Muslim becomes heavier and he needs to act more meticulously in order to preserve his belief in a time when obscenity prevails and when modesty and chastity are not given any importance. In our community, there is almost no place that women have not entered today. They are abundant in the shops, markets, ships, state offices, etc. Under these circumstances, a Muslim cannot leave the community and live in seclusion. However, he has to obey some principles due to his belief.

The relationship of a man with a non-mahram woman and the relationship of a woman with a non-mahram man are limited and subject to certain criteria. Our Lord commands believing men and women as follows:

“Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: and Allah is well acquainted with all that they do. And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty...”2

In those verses, believing men are definitely ordered not to look at non-mahram women and believing women are ordered not to look at non-mahram men.

What is the limit and content of that forbidden look? The phrase “lower their gaze” in the verse does not mean to shut their eyes, bend their heads and walk like that. Besides, it is not possible to walk like that. A person naturally sees a man and a woman and looks at him or her. However, what is meant here is to look at the opposite sex with lust and having sexual feelings. The criterion for the look of lust is to look continuously, several times.

We find out about that criterion from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). He said the following to Hazrat Ali regarding the issue:

“O Ali! Do not turn round to look! The first look is all right but you have no right for the second look.”3

When one sees someone from the opposite sex, one does not look at continuously but turn his/her head. Thus, one does not approach the limit of the look of lust.

Generally, the door to fornication is opened through looks. Then, the other doors open one another. Thus, by preventing the looks, the door to fornication can be closed.

Fahruddin Razi, reports the following sentence from the Torah:

“The look at haram sows the seed of lust in the heart. And lust causes deep sorrow in man.”

Each seed of sin that falls into the heart endangers the spiritual life of man if it finds an appropriate ground and germinates. As Zunnun Misri, a great spiritualist (sufist) says, “To close the eyes to sins is the best way of protection.”

Our Prophet explains the state of a Muslim who tries to protect himself from haram as follows:
“If the beauty of a woman catches the eyes of a Muslim and he turns his eyes away from her, God Almighty grants that Muslim a kind of worshipping whose pleasure he will feel in his heart.”4

As it is known, the parts of the body of a man that is haram (forbidden) to show to other men and non-mahram women are the parts between his navel and knees according to the opinion of the most of the scholars. The parts of the body of a woman that is haram to show non-mahram men are all of her body except her hands and face.

So, it is permissible for a woman to look at the parts of the body of a man except the parts between his navel and knees without lust and repetition. It is also permissible for a man to look at the hands and face of a woman without lust. However, if a man or woman looks at the above-mentioned parts with sexual pleasure, then it becomes forbidden.

A man can look at non-mahram woman in business life and in some obligatory situations. Fahruddin Razi, the writer of at-Tafseer al-Kabir, lists those obligatory situations as follows in the interpretation of above-mentioned verse:

* A man can look at the face and hands of a woman he wants to marry. Once, a man went to the Prophet and said he wanted to marry an Ansar woman, while Abu Hurayra was with the Prophet. Our Prophet asked him, “Did you look at that woman? The man said, “No.” Then, our Prophet said, “Go and look at her because there is something in the eyes of Ansar.”
In this regard, it is also mentioned that even a look of lust is permissible.

* In the court, it is permissible for the judge and the witnesses to look at a woman in order to identify and recognize her. Here, to do away with an injustice and to realize justice is in question.6
The following sentences are present in al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya:
“It is permissible to look at the hands and face of a woman if a man feels free from sedition and lust. ”7
In the book al-Muhazzab, the following is stated: “If it is obligatory, a tradesman can look at the open face of a woman. If he does not have a bad intention, he will not be responsible before Allah.”8

1. Sözler, (Words) p. 381.

2. Chapter an-Noor, 30-31.

3. Abu Dawud, Nikah: 43; Tirmizi, Adab: 28.

4. Musnad, 5: 264.

5. Muslim, Nikah: 74.

6. at-Tafseer al-Kabir, 23: 203.

7. al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, 5: 329.

8. al-Muhazzab, 2: 34.

Mehmed Paksu Helal – Haram

15 Is it permissible to work in a place where alcoholic drinks are served and sold?

Is it permissible to work in a place where alcoholic drinks are served and sold?

It is not permissible to work in a place like a pub or saloon where all of the income comes from alcoholic drinks. However, the state of places like restaurants and supermarkets where permissible goods are sold along with alcoholic drinks is different.
It is haram (forbidden) to buy, sell, carry and service alcoholic drinks. Therefore, it is not permissible to work in those departments of supermarkets and restaurants. However, it is permissible to work in the other parts like the kitchen in a restaurant. It is better to work in places where all of the income comes from halal (permissible) goods and services.
The religion of Islam did not prefer the way of abruptly eliminating certain bad characters and habits that were common in the community but used a method beginning from the minimum level that directed the affected people towards evolution in a certain way. For instance, the prohibition of interest is one of the latest decrees of Islam. That wound in the commercial life was cured after people reached a certain level through the method of the Quran. Gradualism was accepted as a basis. One of the issues that gradualism was observed was the prohibition of alcoholic drinks. Alcohol was not prohibited at once; it was prohibited after three successive verses that were sent down at certain intervals by making people ready for the prohibition. So much so that, as soon as Muslims heard that alcohol was prohibited, they overturned all of the wine jars and poured them into the streets. 1
The prohibition was not limited to drinking alcohol only; Buying and selling, that is, the trade of alcohol was also prohibited. Our Prophet (PBUH) stated that alcoholic drinks were damned in ten aspects and said the following in a hadith:  «Alcoholic drinks were damned in ten aspects: the drink itself, the producer, he who wants to produce it, seller, customer, carrier, he who makes others carry it, he who makes a living by the money earned from alcohol, he who drinks it and he who makes others drink it. » 2
A person who owns or runs a restaurant, club or a similar place that serves alcoholic drinks is one of the people that are damned. He is in the state of a seller and a person who makes a living by the money earned from alcohol. Therefore, it is not possible to approve of such a way of making a living.
There is no difference between being in a Muslim country and non-Muslim country regarding this issue. Although there is a fatwa (legal opinion, an answer to a question) by Imam Azam Abu Hanifa that it is permissible to sell alcoholic drinks to non-Muslims in a non-Muslim country, his student Imam Abu Yusuf states that a Muslim cannot sell alcoholic drinks even in a non-Muslim country and says: «Being a Muslim means to have accepted all of the decrees of Islam no matter where one is. A Muslim cannot do anything contrary to Islam. »3  Fatwa regarding this issue is in accordance with what Imam Abu Yusuf says. A Muslim cannot buy and sell something that Allah made haram (prohibited) no matter where he is. The decree is the same in Shafi sect too. Something haram is haram anywhere in the world. 
1. Muslim, Musakat: 67.
2. Ibn Majah, Ashriba : 6.
3. Ibn Abidin, Raddu'l-Muhtar, 3 :247.
Mehmed PAKSU (HALAL – HARAM)

Please click on the link given below;

Can a Muslim sell pork and alcohol in a non-muslim country?

16 What is an "Oath" and If you vow to do something and you don't, then how do you compensate for it?

Yamin (oath) is a fiqh term that means right hand, power, favorable location, wounding, swearing an oath or taking a vow to confirm a piece of news or to strengthen a will or claim about doing something or not by using the name of Allah or by promising to divorce one’s wife or to free a slave.

Swearing an oath is usually used for the vows in which one of the names or the essential attributes of Allah mentioned. It is disputable whether the vows in which the words divorce or freeing a slave is uttered are oaths or not (Kasani, Badaiu's-Sanai,III, 2).

Although there are some nuances between the words qasam and khilf, and yamin they are used as synonyms (Kasani, ibid; Lisanu'l Arab, XIII, 462).

The relationship between the concept and the meaning of the word is that the oath strengthens the word and those who take vows hit their right hands of each other (Mawsili, al-Ikhtiyar, IV, 45).

Swearing an oath is legitimate in contracts and disputes. Its legitimacy is definite in the Quran and Sunnah. Many chapters of the Quran start with oaths on different objects. The chapters of at-Tin, ash Shams and al-Fajr are examples of it. In the 225th verse of al-Baqara and 89th verse of al-Maeda, Allah states that He will not call His slaves to account for yamin al-laghw (unintentional oaths). It is also stated in the 89th verse of Chapter al-Maeda that what Allah will call His slaves to account for is yamin al-munaqida (deliberate oaths); keeping vows are ordered and how to compensate for breaking vows is explained in the same verse. In addition, the following verses are evidence that swearing an oath is legitimate; an-Nahl (16) 38, 92, 94; Aal-e-Imran (3) 77; al-Maeda (5) 53, 108; al-Anam (6) 109; at-Tawba (9) 12,13; an-Nur (24) 53; al-Fatir (35) 42; al-Mujadala (58) 16; al-Munafiqun (63) 2.

In a hadith, Hazrat Prophet ordered his umma (community) not to swear oaths using the names of their fathers and idols and to use the name of Allah if they had to swear an oath, otherwise not to swear an oath. (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, II, 7; Tirmidhi, Nuzur, 8).

The Messenger of Allah himself swore oaths. One of the phrases that he used the most while swearing an oath was: "I swear by Allah, Who has my soul or the soul of Muhammad in His hand (For examples, see Ibn Majah, Kaffarah 1; Ahmad b. Hanbal, ibid, IV, 16).

Kinds of Oath

Oaths are divided into two as oaths sworn by Allah and oaths sworn by any other beings except Allah. Oaths sworn by Allah are also divided into parts.

Oaths sworn by Allah:

Oaths sworn by Allah in the form of qasam are uttered by using one of the letters: "ba, wa, ta" before "Allah" or before His attributes like "Iizah, jalal, azamah" (Mawsili, ibid, IV, 49, 50; Shirbini, Mughni'l-Muhtaj, IV, 320, 312). The most widely used words of oaths among Muslims are: "wallahi, billahi and tallahi".

No oaths can be taken using anything other than the names and essential attributes of Allah. According to Hanafis, it is not permissible to swear oaths using the names of beings that are regarded as holy by Muslims like, Nabi, the Quran, the Kaaba (Kasani ibid, III, 5-10; Marghinani, al-Hidaya," II, 72; Mawsili ; IV, 51).

According to Imam Shafii, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal, the oaths sworn by the Quran, the verses of the Quran and the Mushaf are valid. If they are broken, kaffarah (paying poor people a certain amount of money for atonement) is necessary (Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, XI,194,195). According to Hanbalis, it is not permissible to swear oaths by the Kaaba and other beings but it is permissible to swear oaths by the name of the Prophet. (Ibn Qudama, ibid, XI, 210)

It is not necessary to utter the oath in Arabic to be valid. Oaths can be sworn in other languages too. Resources point out that oaths can be sworn by some Persian phrases.  (See Marghinani, ibid, II, 74; Fatawa'l-Kadihan, II, 7; al-Fatawa'l-Hindiyya, II, 57).

Accordingly, the phrases like “I swear, I make a vow, I take a vow” are regarded as oaths. However, phrases like “by my holy things, by my honor” should not be regarded as oaths because they are not taken by the name of Allah or His attributes. Marghinani says it depends on the customs and tradition as to which words can be used as oaths. (Marghinani, ibid) Although those words have become known as oaths in some places, it is not possible to regard them as a widespread custom.

Along with the oaths mentioned above, if a person makes something permissible haram for himself or if he takes a vow that he will become a Jew or a Christian, etc  if he does or does not do something, they are all regarded as oaths. (Marghinani, ibid, II, 74; Mawsili, ibid, IV, 52, 53).

According to a view reported from Imam Shafii, Imam Malik and Ahmad b. Hanbal, those kinds of words are not regarded as oaths and kaffarah is not necessary if they are broken. (Ibn Qudama, ibid, XI, 199, 200; Shirbini, Mughni'l-Muhtaj, IV, 324; Wahba az-Zuhayli, al-Fiqhu'l-Islami wa Adillatuhu, III, 344).

Oaths sworn by mentioning the name of Allah are divided into three: ghamus, laghw and munaqida;

Yamin ghamus:

Yamin ghamus is committing perjury deliberately about something in the past or present. For instance, if a person says that he has paid his debt although he knows that he has not or if he says that he has no money on him although he has and swears an oath, it is yamin ghamus. Such an oath is a grave sin. Allah says the following in the 77th verse of Chapter Aal-e-Imran; " As for those who sell the faith they owe to Allah and their own solemn plighted word for a small price, they shall have no portion in the Hereafter: nor will Allah (deign to) speak to them or look at them on the Day of Judgment, nor will He cleanse them (of sin); they shall have a grievous penalty ". According to what Ash’as bin Qays reports,  that verse was sent down when his cousin claimed that he had rights over a well belonging to him and if Ash’as did not produce evidence he would swear an oath (commit perjury) (Abu Dawud, Sunan, Ayman, 1; Ibn Qudama, ibid, XII, 122). Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) states in many hadiths that to commit perjury in order to obtain others’ goods is a grave sin like associating partners with Allah, killing a person, disobeying and that those kinds of people will be deprived of paradise and deserve hell and therefore they should get ready for their places in Hell. (See Bukhari, Ayman, 16, 18, al-Murtaddin, 1; Muslim, Eeman, 220, 221; Abu Dawud, Ayman, 1 ; Tirmidhi, Buyu, 42; Ibn Majah, Ahkam, 7; Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 379, 442, V. 211, 212; Zaylai, Nasbu'r-Raya, III, 292, 293).

According to Hanafis, Hanbalis and Malikis, there is no kaffarah for yamin ghamus. Such a person has to ask forgiveness from Allah and repent because such an oath is a great boldness against Allah and disdaining Him; it is not possible to eliminate such a sin with kaffarah. Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) said in hadith that there was no kaffarah for five things and he listed the oath that a person had to keep among them. (Shawkani, Naylu'l-Awtar, VIII, 264). What is meant by there is no kaffarah means that kaffarah cannot eliminate the sin of that oath. Kasani (d 587/1191) says repenting and asking for forgiveness are kaffarah for yamin ghamus (Kasani, ibid, III,15). According to Shafiis, kaffarah is necessary for that oath. (Marghinani, ibid, II, 72; Ibn Qudama, XI, 178; Shirbini, ibid, IV; 325).

Yamin laghw:

According to Hanafis, yamin laghw is an oath taken by mistake, that is, an oath that the person who takes it thinks that what he says is true but it is not true. That oath can be related to the past or the present. For instance, the oath that a person takes saying he has paid his debt thinking that he has paid it but actually he has not or the oath that a person takes saying he has no money on him thinking that he has no money but he actually has is yamin laghw. (Kasani, ibid" III, 17; Marghinani, ibid, II, 72; Mawsili, ibid, IV, 46). That view of Hanafis was reported from many sahaba and tabi’in. (See Zaylai, Nasbu'r-Raya, III, 293).

According to Shafiis, yamin laghw is the words like “no, wallahi (by Allah), yes wallahi” a person says by mistake while talking (Shirbini, ibid, IV, 324, 325). That explanation of yamin laghw was reported by Hazrat Aisha from Hazrat Prophet (Bukhari, Ayman,15; Abu Dawud, Ayman, 6).

Some other explanations were reported from Hazrat Prophet for yamin laghw. For instance, in a hadith, the following is stated: "the oath of archers is laghw; no kaffarah is necessary for it. (Haythami, Majmau'z-Zawaid, IV, 185).

Scholars agree that a person is not regarded to have committed a sin due to yamin laghw and that no kaffarah is necessary because Allah has stated that He will not call His slaves to account for yamin al-laghw. (al-Maeda, 5/89).

Shafiis do not include that oath, which is called yamin laghw by Hanafis in that group and they are of the opinion that kaffarah is necessary for the oaths that are sworn unintentionally (by mistake).

Yamin munaqida:

Yamin munaqida is an oath that is sworn to do or not to do something. That oath is related to the future. If a person swears an oath that he shall go somewhere or he shall not speak to someone again, it is called yamin munaqida.

Yamin munaqida is divided into three as: mursal, muwaqqat and  fawr.

1- Yamin mursal: It is an oath that is sworn to do or not to do something without stating time. A person who swears an oath that he shall do something but does not say when, it is called yamin mursal. He can do it before the time of his death and be freed from it. His oath is not regarded to have been broken with the passing of a certain period of time. 

That oath is also called “yamin mutlaq” (absolute oath)

2- Yamin muwakkat: It is an oath that is sworn stating a period of time. That oath is based on the time that is stated. When that period of time ends, the obligation of that oath ends too. For instance, if a person swears an oath that he shall not eat fruit for three days, he will not be regarded as having broken his oath if he eats fruit after three days pass. 

If a person who swears an oath that he shall do something within a certain period of time does it during that period, he is regarded to have kept his oath. If he does not do it during that period and does it later, he is regarded to have broken his oath and kaffarah becomes necessary for him. If a person dies before the certain period of time passes, he is not regarded to have broken his oath according to Abu Hanifa and Muhammad. He is regarded to have broken his oath according to Abu Yusuf.

That oath is also called “yamin muqayyad (conditioned oath)

3- Yamin fawr: It is an oath connected with a reason. In other words, it is an oath that implies the presents not the future. An oath sworn while answering a question is like that. For instance, when someone comes to a place and meets some people eating and when they invite him to eat, he says, “Wallahi I shall not eat”; it is yamin fawr. It is not related to the future but to the present. Therefore, if that person eats something later, that eating does not break his oath. (Tahanawi, Kashshafu Istilahati'l-Funun, II, 1549, 1550; Muhammed Rawas Qal'aji, Hamid Sadık Qunaybi, Mu'jamu Lughati'l-Fuqaha, 514).

In yamin munaqida, doing what the oath necessitates is called barr, not doing what is necessary is called bârr, breaking the oath is called hins, and the person who breaks his oath is called hanis. A person who does what the oath necessitates is freed of the oath. A person who breaks his oath needs kaffarah. What is necessary in an oath is to act accordingly (be loyal). However, it may change depending on the religious decree of the thing sworn. Therefore, scholars divide being loyal to the oath into five:

1- Oaths that are wajib to do what it necessitates: To perform a fard worship, to save an innocent person from death, to act in accordance with orders that are given in order to abandon a haram. Hazrat Prophet said (pbuh) "A person who takes an oath to obey Allah should obey Him. A person who does not do what an oath like that necessitates becomes a sinner; he needs to repent and ask for forgiveness; in addition, he has to pay kaffarah for yamin.

2- Oaths that are haram to take but wajib not to carry out: 

To swear an oath in order to abandon a fard or to commit a haram act is a haram oath; it is fard to break it. Therefore, for instance, a person who swears an oath that he shall not talk to his parents must talk to his parents, that is, he must break his oath and pay kaffarah. In addition, he should repent because he swore an oath for something haram. Hazrat Prophet said: if someone swears an oath for something and if he sees that something else is better, he should pay kaffarah for his yamin and then do that better thing. (Nasai, Ayman, 41; Abu Dawud, Ayman, 12).

In another hadith, the following is stated: "there is no swearing oath or vow in disobedience to Allah, abandoning visiting one’s relatives, and in the things that you do not own.” (Abu Davud Ayman, 12; Nasai, Ayman, 17; Ibn Majah Kaffarah, 8; Ahmad b. Hanbal, II, 185, 202).

According to Sha’bi, a person who swears an oath that he shall commit a haram must break his oath, that is, he must not commit that haram. There is no need for him to pay kaffarah because Hazrat Prophet said that not committing haram by a person was kaffarah for the oath of that person (Abu Dawud, Ayman, 12).

Hanafis base their views on the apparent meaning of the verse stating that the slaves would be called to account for yamin munaqida. (al-Maeda, 89).

3- Yamins that are mandoob (recommended) to keep: They are oaths that are related to a good thing.

It is mandoob to keep an oath that is sworn to do a mandoob act. To break such an oath is makrooh (abominable); kaffarah is necessary.

4- Yamins that are mubah (permissible; neither obligatory nor forbidden):

It is mubah to do or not to do something mubah or to swear an oath for a piece of news that is true. It is better to break such an oath. If it is broken, kaffarah is necessary. 

5- Yamins that are makrooh:

It is makrooh to swear an oath to commit something makrooh or to abandon something mandoob. It is makrooh to swear an oath while buying or selling something. It is better to break such an oath and pay kaffarah. It is makrooh to be loyal to the oath. (Kasani, ibid, III, 17, 18; Ibn Qudama, al Mughnî, II, 167; Necati Yeniel-Hüseyin Kayapınar, Süneni Abu Davud Terceme ve Şerhi, XII, 236).

According to Hanafis and Malikis, the oaths that are sworn by forgetting, by mistake, by force or unintentionally are valid because the verse mentioned above is definite. There is no mention whether the oath can be intentional or unintentional. In addition, Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) said in a hadith that both joking and being serious in the issues of swearing an oath, divorce and marriage are regarded as serious. (Abu Dawud, Talaq; 9; Tirmidhi, Talaq, 9; Ibn Majah, Talaq, 13; Kasani, ibid, III,18; Wahba az-Zuhayli, al-Fiqhu'l-Islami wa Adillatuhu, III, 367).

According to Shafiis and Hanbalis, a person who breaks his oath forgetting about it is not regarded as hanis. Therefore, kaffarah is not necessary. Their evidence is the verse stating that there is no blame on people if they make a mistake (al-Ahzab, 5) and the hadith stating Muslims will not be held responsible for the deeds that they did by mistake, forgetting and by force (Ibn Majah, Talaq, 16).

According to Abu Hanifa and Malik, a person who breaks his oath by force pays kaffarah; according to Ahmad b. Hanbal he does not pay kaffarah. Two different views were reported from Imam Shafii regarding the issue. (Ibn Qudama, ibid, XI, 177, 178).

If the phrase “insha-Allah” (if Allah wills) is uttered just after the oath, no kaffarah is necessary if the oath is broken because Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) said "A person who swears an oath and says insha-Allah can abandon that oath without breaking it." (Abu Dawud, Ayman, 9; Nasai, Ayman,18; Ahmad b. Hanbal, II, 6, 49). However, that rule becomes valid if nothing is spoken or if a period of silence long enough to speak passes between the oath and saying insha-Aallah.

According to what Ibn Qudama states, four madhhabs agree that kaffarah is not necessary if the phrase “insha-Allah” is uttered (Ibn Qudama, ibid, XI, 227).

Kaffarah of Yamin

Kaffarah is necessary when yamin munaqida is broken no matter what kind it is. Normally, kaffarah is paid after the oath is broken. There is no controversy among the scholars that the kaffarah paid after the oath is broken is valid. However, it is controversial whether kaffarah that is paid before the oath is broken is valid or not. According to Hanafis, kaffarah must definitely be paid after the oath is broken no matter if it is paid by goods or by fasting. It is not permissible to pay kaffarah before the oath is broken. According to Shafiis, if kaffarah is to be paid by goods, it can be paid before the oath is broken. According to Hanbalis and Malikis, it is permissible to pay kaffarah before the oath is broken no matter if it is paid by goods or by fasting.  

If kaffarah is paid before swearing an oath and if the oath is broken later, kaffarah is not valid. There is no controversy about it. (Kasani, ibid, III,18; Ibn Qudama, ibid, XI, 223-226; Shawkani, Naylu'l-Awtar VIII, 268, 269; Necati Yeniel-Hüseyin Kayapınar, ibid, XII, 237, 138).

Kaffarah of Yamin for a person is to free a slave if he can afford, to feed ten poor people in the morning and in the evening, or to buy normal clothes for ten poor people. The person who has broken his oath can prefer any of them. However, if he cannot afford any of them, he should fast three days on end. The three days cannot be interrupted by any reason including menstruation period; if it is interrupted, the person should start fasting for three days on end again. It is certain by the Quran that kaffarah of yamin is necessary and that it should be paid like that. The verse is quite clear. (See al-Maeda, 5/89). There is no controversy about the issue.

2. Oaths sworn by mentioning the name of beings other than Allah

Oaths sworn by mentioning the name of beings other than Allah are divided into two:

a- Oaths sworn by mentioning the name of beings other than Allah like fathers, mothers, angels, etc: We have mentioned above that it is not permissible to swear oaths like that and that Hazrat Prophet prohibited swearing oaths like that. Since it is not permissible to swear oaths using those words, it is not right to call them as oaths. 

b- Oaths sworn by stating a condition: Those oaths can be dealt with in two groups:

ba- Oaths that are connected with kinds of worship: For instance if someone says, “I will fast for three days if I do this and that”, it is an oath because he has uttered those words in order to prevent his soul from doing it. In another aspect, it is a vow because he has laid it as a condition to perform a kind of worship. It is more appropriate to regard such an utterance as a vow. (Kasani, III, 21).

bb- Oaths that are not connected with kinds of worship but with divorce or freeing slaves: If someone says that when something happens he will divorce his wife or free his slave, he is regarded to have sworn an oath concerning freeing a slave or divorcing his wife. Such kinds of oaths are called conditioned divorce. The reason why such words are regarded as an oath is that they strengthen a person to encourage to do something or to prevent him from doing something. (Ö. Nasuhi Bilmen, Hukukî İslâmiyye ve İstıhâhâtı Fıkhıyye Kamusu, II, 232).

When the mentioned thing happens, if the man’s intention is to divorce his wife or to free a slave but to encourage himself to do something or to prevent him from doing something, his wife becomes divorced and his slave becomes free. There is no disagreement among the scholars relating the issue because it is not an oath but to lay something as a condition for divorce. However, if the man’s intention is not to divorce his wife but to force himself to do or not to do something, what is the judgment? There are different views relating the issue. Let us explain it by an example: “If an alcoholic says, If I drink again, let my wife be divorced” in order to give up drinking or to force his soul to give up drinking and if he breaks his oath, that is, if he drinks again, what will happen? There are three views about the issue:

1- That sentence is invalid; it is neither a divorce nor an oath because it is neither a divorce nor an oath in accordance with the form that Allah demands. Then, someone who utters such a sentence and then does that thing, is not regarded to have divorced his wife and kaffarah is not necessary for him. That view is attributed to Hazrat Ali. Zahiris and some Malikis are of that opinion.

2- A person who has uttered such a sentence has sworn an oath and has broken his oath because his intention is not to divorce his wife but to give up drinking. Therefore, kaffarah is necessary since he has broken his oath; his wife does not become divorced. Ibn Taymiya and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya of Hanbali madhhab are of that opinion. (Ibn Taymiya al-Fatawa'l-Kubra, 1-5, Beirut, II, 110; Ibn Qayyim al-Cawziyya, Ilamu'l-Muwaqqin, IV, 17 et al.).

3- If divorce or freeing a slave has been associated with a condition and if that condition takes place, the woman becomes divorced or the slave becomes free. In the example above, when the man drinks, his wife becomes divorced. The views of four madhhabs regarding the issue are similar. (Kasani, ibid, III, 21 et al; Marghinani, ibid, II, 250 et al; Mawsili, ibid, III,140 et al; Ibn Qudama, ibid, VIII, 335, 336; Ö. Nasuhî Bilmen, ibid, II, 232; et al.; Zühaylî, ibid, III, 388 et al.).

The Effect of Yamin on the Decision of the Judge

If the plaintiff cannot prove his claim in the court, he has the right of offering swearing oaths to the defendant. The oath can be about his own deed or another person’s deed in the positive or negative way; such as saying, “I swear by Allah that I have not sold it or bought it, or I have sold it or bought it. A person knows his own situation and deeds better than others do. Therefore, his oath is regarded as evidence to end the dispute.

According to a narration from Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) offered swearing an oath to a person and said to him, “Say, ‘I swear by Allah, there are no gods but Him, the plaintiff has no rights on me’” The following was reported from Ash'as b. Qays. He said: A person from Kinda and someone from Hadramut argued and accused each other for some land in Yemen in the presence of Hazrat Prophet. The one from Hadramut claimed that the father of the person from Kinda captured his land and that the person from Kinda still had his land. Hazrat Prophet asked the plaintiff about his evidence. He said, “I have no evidence but I swear that he does not know that my land was captured by his father. Thereupon, the person from Kinda was offered to swear an oath. (Abu Dawud narrated).

Islamic scholars state that there needs to be seven conditions in an oath. They can be listed as follows:

1- The person swearing an oath must be at least at the age of puberty, must have the power to discriminate between the good and the bad and must be free;

2- The defendant must deny his right;

3- The plaintiff must demand  swearing an oath from the judge and the judge must offer the defendant to swear an oath;

4- The oath depends on the person himself; no deputy or representative is accepted for the oath. Since the oath is related to the trust and religion of the person to swear, a guardian or deputy cannot use that right.

5- It must not be related to the rights of Allah.

6- It must be related with the rights that are permissible. In the hadiths, the following is stated: “The evidence is to be provided by the plaintiff and the oath by the defendant. The oath is not valid for goods that are not permissible. 

7- There must not be any evidence or the evidence must be insufficient.

The kinds of oaths in the court:

1- The oath of the witness: It is the oath sworn by the witness be fore witnessing. It is a method that is used instead of the acquittal of the witness. Malikis, Zaydiyya, Ibn Abi Layla and Ibnu'l-Qayyim found that oath permissible because the time became corrupt and religious feelings weakened. Most of the Islamic scholars oppose the oath of the witness. (Wahba az-Zuhayli, al-Fiqhu'l-Islami wa Adillatuhu, VI, 600):

2- The oath of the plaintiff: According to the majority of the scholars except Hanafis, the plaintiff can swear an oath in order to save himself from the accusation. That oath can be sworn in order to prove his right or to reject the oath against him.

Although most of the Islamic scholars say that a judgment can be made by one witness and by the evidences of oath presented to the court, Hanafis adopt the view that two witnesses are required by the verses and if there are not two witnesses, the defendant is to be offered to swear an oath as it is definitely stated by the hadith. (Ibn Rushd, Bidayatu'l-Mujtahid, III, 456, 459).

The oath becomes valid only in the presence of the judge and with his offer. Swearing an oath or abstinence from an oath outside the court is reliable because the oath is in question to end dispute. The oath is sworn upon the demand of the plaintiff. However, in five places, the judge offers swearing an oath on his own motion:

1- If a person claims that he has rights on an inheritance or some goods and proves it, the judge offers the plaintiff to swear an oath that there took place no transaction that annulled that right through other legal ways.

2- If a person claims that some goods belong to him and proves it, the judge offers him to swear an oath that no other transaction that ended his right on it took place.

3- If a customer returns some goods due to its fault, the judge offers him to swear an oath that he is not satisfied with the goods due to the fault.

4- The judge offers the holder of the pre-emptive right to swear an oath that he did not lose that right before.

5- When the judge decides that a woman whose husband is lost be paid alimony, the judge offers the woman to swear an oath that the marriage continues, that she has no allowance and that her husband did not leave any goods with her.

The person to whom swearing an oath is offered, wins the lawsuit. If he abstains from swearing an oath, he loses the lawsuit.

17 Is Apple Vinegar Haram or not?

Apple vinegar is not haram. “Vinegar” can be produced from apples or grapes depending on the conditions of the formation of vinegar.
It is mentioned in the hadith resources that our Prophet ate vinegar and said “vinegar is a nice food” while mentioning it. (Muslim, Ashriba 166; Abu Dawud, Atima 40; Nasai, Ayman 21)
Vinegar is clean and it is praised in the hadith; if something which is not clean is transformed it becomes clean. For instance, if wine is transformed into vinegar due to a chemical added to it, it becomes clean because its nature has changed.

18 Can you list the animals whose meats are Helal to eat?

* The animals whose flesh is halal (permissible) to be eaten are the following:

a. If the domestic animals which are not naturally ugly, disgusting and bad are slaughtered in conformity with the practices of the Shari’a (the Islamic Laws), their flesh is religiously halal, they can be eaten. Sheep, goats, cows, buffalos, camels, deer, chickens, turkeys, goose, ducks, ostriches, quails, pigeons, partridges and other animals which we know that they are hunted are belong to that category. 
b. The meats of all of the animals living in water which are from the class of fish are also halal and they can be eaten. Turbots, carps and eels are also from that class . Since the blood of the animals which are among the fish class is not fluid, the process of slaughtering cannot be performed. If those animals have died in the sea on their own, their flesh can not be eaten. If they have died because of external effects (storm, warmth, coldness, etc.), their flesh is halal and they can be eaten.   

* The animals whose flesh is not halal to be eaten are as follows: 

1.The flesh of the wild and predatory animals which catch their hunt by their molar teeth and paws and tear them into pieces and fight are haram (prohibited) and cannot be eaten; such as wolves, bears, lions, tigers, hyenas, leopards, martens, squirrels, elephants, monkeys, foxes, weasels, cats and dogs, etc… 
2. The flesh of the birds which catch and hunt their preys by their claws and regarded as naturally detestable is also haram or tahriman makrooh (strictly abominable). They are animals such as kites, ravens, eagles, vultures, bats, sparrow hawks, falcons and jays.
3. The flesh of the animals which are naturally malignant and disgusting cannot be eaten, either. Mice, moles, hedgehogs, lizards, scorpions, snakes, frogs, tortoises, snails, worms, bees, flies, caterpillars, insects, etc.   
4. The flesh of the animals such as chickens, sheep, cows which have eaten unclean things cannot be eaten either before a period of time for cleaning passes. For that reason, the animals which have eaten those kinds of dirty things are detained in a place and they are nourished by clean nutriments. That period of confinement is three days for chickens, ten days for cows and camels and four days for sheep. The flesh of the animals which are fed by pig milk are halal.
5. Since horses are animals suitable for wars, eating their flesh is makrooh according to Imam A’zam. However, they can be eaten according to Imam Shafi’i and Ahmad bin Hanbal.
Mehmet Dikmen

19 What does Islam says about "chatting"? Is chatting with the opposite sex haram or not?

The shaitan (evil) can deceive people anytime so we should be alert...

Is chatting on the web permissible, what are its harms?

A Muslim’s talking and communicating whether mutually or virtually with one of his/her Muslim brother or sister is a good deed. But this is valid for the same group of gender. A man’s talking with a woman necessitates some points which should be taken into consideration in some aspects

For example, it is certainly not true to gossip, to lie and to talk about love, passion and things which turn on the carnal feelings. It makes no difference whether she/he is married or not for such a subject, but the sin of a married person is much more.   

But if the conversation reminds us about sacred subjects, Allah, death, afterlife and religious life; of course it is not prohibited besides is a good deed. Your criterion should be this. If you act in accordance with such rules then we can say that you are not committing sins and you are able to protect yourself. Also we recommend you to act in accordance with your conscience. If you feel a pang of conscience, immediately give up it.

For the couple thinking of marrying going somewhere alone and talking to each other is permissible and even sunnah with the condition that there must be one of their relative with them. But relations such as flirt are not permissible even if one of their relative is with them. As our religion prohibits and forbids adultery, it also prohibits and blocks off the ways which lead people to adultery.

Similarly, chatting and having small talks with the person you met on the internet is not permissible. But if the aim is to convey and to endear Islam, this is out of matter. Otherwise talking on a different way which brings minds wrong thoughts and feelings is not permissible, since such things astray people to wrong results.
Also, the essence of a family should base on a sure ground to be able to start and constitute a strong family. Therefore, as Islam advices parts to an arranged marriage, it considers their seeing each other as an essence as well.

From this point of view we can say that, the parts, who met with each other just on the internet but don’t have any idea about each other and whose families don’t have any contact with each other before, may not hold such a marriage, since such a marriage can end up disappointedly. As far as we are concerned, you or any other people should not try a marriage with such a method.

20 Is life insurance haram?

Insurance is a system of protection from some risks and harms; and in Turkey, it is divided into two as “Social Insurances” (state-owned) and “Private Insurances”. Social Insurances have three units called Retirement Fund (for civil servants and officers), Workers’ Insurance, and Shopkeepers and Businessmen Insurance; and it is an official enterprise. It does not have an aim of making profit; it ensures social solidarity in its ideal form and aims to decrease the social risks by distributing the losses to as many people as possible.  In Islam, there is no need for such a system but since it has the idea of solidarity and mutual assistance, many contemporary Islamic scholars regard it permissible. 

The private insurances like private life insurance, fire insurance and car insurance that are asked in the question are not permissible if they contain haram (forbidden) elements. For instance, if those insurances contain ‘gharar’ (deceiving and loss for one party), gambling, interest, seizing others’ goods without paying any money, rendering what is unnecessary necessary, selling debt in return for debt, pari-mutual betting, etc, the transaction of insurance becomes haram. (See. Dr. Muhammad Biltaji, Uqudut-Ta`min min Wijhati`l-Fiqhil1-Islami, 150)

If those mentioned above and other haram methods are not contained, then, the insurance becomes permissible. We can say that especially, the insurance system that is established with the aim of mutual assistance is permissible.

Today, especially in Turkey, insurance systems are primarily divided into three: compulsory or social security system, private commercial insurance system and private solidarity system (mutual insurance).

The third one is permissible since it is completely an organization of mutual assistance and solidarity; and there are not any people who think differently about it.

The first one is not actually different from the third one, and the aim of those kinds of insurances is to share the risks of life by ensuring the mutual solidarity of the citizens. The only difference of this kind is the fact that it is compulsory. 
The kind of insurance that is subject to discussion is the second type, that is, private commercial insurances. This kind of insurance, which is not actually very different from the others in terms of operation, has two negative aspects. The first one is: they are generally subsidiary companies of banks because of the necessity of depositing the money in a bank and they get interest from that money. The second one: some life insurance systems carry out an interest based system. Apart from those differences, the only difference is that one is organized by the state and the other is organized by a commercial company. It does not change the judgment. The first one of the two negative aspects is out of the contract and it does not invalidate the contract. It can be resembled to the grocer that I buy things from; for instance he commits haram with the money he earns. Such kind of buying is not haram but it is not free of objection since it can be regarded as indirect support to evil.  Allah says: “Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancor.” Then, if there are alternatives of those kinds of insurances that do not contain the negative aspects, one should do business with them not with the others. However, if there are no other alternatives, then one can do business with them. 

The second negative aspect is the direct interest transaction and that contract itself is haram. The insured person deposits his money for a certain period and at the end of that period, he gets his money together with the interest. It is definitely interest. In our opinion, if those two negative aspects are eliminated, it can be said that private insurances are also permissible. (See Faruk Beşer, Sosyal Riskler Sigorta ve İslam)

21 Is it permissible to play national lottery?

As it is considered one of the ways of gambling then it is religiously haram.

22 Why is committing suicide a sin in Islam?

Committing suicide is a grave sin which is forbidden by Islam. A Muslim’s killing himself/herself is a bigger murder and sin than killing another person. Thus, Islamic scholars have disputed whether the funeral prayer of a person who has committed suicide is performed or not. This discussion is not made for a murderer who killed someone. A murderer’s funeral prayer is performed.

A person who has a slightest degree of Iman (belief) in his/her heart does not accept to perform such a grave sin and want a bad end. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) stated in his hadiths that committing suicide is a grave sin. In one of the hadiths is the following is stated:

The Prophet said,

He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the Hell Fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-Fire. (Bukhari, Janaiz 84)

It is clear that a Muslim should not attempt to perform such a grave sin when he/she comes across with a difficult worldly event that he/she cannot bear. It is because even the biggest and worst event of world is not considered important and terrifying for a believer when compared with an event of the hereafter. This world is transitory and mortal.

Events that force man to commit suicide at the moment may turn out to be among the things that are not worthy of becoming sad some time in the future. They will be forgotten and new issues will come into existence instead of them.

That is why, patience should be shown at the very start when a trouble comes.
Believing people are not overwhelmed by such transitory and permanent things by considering them as things which are troubles and sorrows that do not stop. They show patience by saying This too shall passand try to get the thawab (reward) of patience. By doing this, they let that trouble turn to an opportunity of mercy by Allah (SWT).

The janazah prayer of a person who commits suicide is performed because exiting belief is not in question. Being unable to bear the pressure of the events due to the weakness of belief is in question. Therefore, the janazah prayer of a person who commits suicide is performed. However, that person can be liable to enter Paradise after he is punished for the sin of committing suicide. 

One of the reasons why committing suicide is a grave sin is the fact that man is not authorized to kill himself. The body of man is a structure of Allah. The one who built it can demolish it. Man cannot own his body and soul.

23 Is it permissible for Muslims to eat meat slaughtered by Non-Muslims?

The world is going to be like a village. A Muslim may not only stay in the border of his/her country, but also may live in a non-Muslim country as a worker, student and businessman as well, like his/her own country. And also s/he may want to have a life suitable to Islam there. However, s/he may face with some difficulties on some matters.

The subject of buying meat from butchers includes one of these difficulties. Some says that meat is not bought from Christian butchers, so they trend to special slaughter houses. Yet, everybody may not have such a chance. Maybe, they may not lean towards such a place. For this reason, families fall into difficulties on providing meat due to such situations. So they ask their question like that:

 -Cannot Muslims who live in foreign countries buy meat from Christian and Jewish butchers?

-If they buy, cannot they eat? Is the meat slaughtered at such places judgmentally forbidden (haram) for Muslims?

-Or else, is there a solution, a way for explanation? Can Islam be lived easily at such places as well?

When having looked at the information given in the fiqh books (Islamic Jurisprudence), in regards with that matter, we do not see any judgment about leaving Muslims in a difficult situation. There is no prohibition about “they cannot buy meat from the butchers of which country they live”. The basic judgment we see is this:

-What the People of the Books slaughtered is eaten.

With the term of “the People of the Books”, we understand the Christians who believe Gospel and the Jewish who believe Torah among the Books that Allah sent.

Accordingly, there must not be any conception such as ‘meat cannot be bought from a Christian or Jewish butcher; if it is bought, it cannot be eaten’.

As a matter of fact, not the seller of the meat, but the faith of the slaughter man is important. If the slaughter man believes the divine Book; that is to say, if he is among the People of the Book (generally what comes mind is in a Christian country, a person among the People of the Book slaughters the animal), both can meat be bought from that butcher and the meal be eaten which is prepared by a person among the People of the Book.

So, Muslims who are in Christian countries do not stick in a difficult situation. Because there is no hesitation about the meat slaughtered by a Christian or a Jewish who is among the People of the Book. As for the matter of citing the name of Allah:

If one forgets to cite the name of Allah, the meat slaughtered can be eaten. Not the one who ignores, but the meat slaughtered by the one who deny Allah is not eaten. As it is known, such a person who deny, cannot be said that s/he is among the People of the Book as well.

-How will we know that who did slaughter the meat in the butcher? If we do not know, what shall we do? Besides, generally we do not know.

As long as there is no information, it is thought the meat has been slaughtered by a person who is suitable to religion (That is to say, when there is no information, we think that the slaughter man is among the People of the Book.). Because the hesitation and its being forbidden are not certain, by listening to the hearsays we cannot say ‘it is haram and cannot be eaten”. So this is, too, a solvent situation.

Another hesitation subject: It is not unfavorable to calm the animal with an arrow or shock in order to slaughter it easily before slaughtering. What is important thing here is “it’s being slaughtered”. Whether slaughtered with an arrow or shock is not important. If the animal dies with an arrow or shock before slaughtering, the meat of that animal is not eaten.

After stating these easiness’s, there may be ones who approach the matter with the perception of Taqwa (fearing of Allah). They may be more attentive and careful. So, they do not have to buy meat from the butchers they hesitate. Those are not criticized, on the contrary they are praised. But, the same thing should not be wanted everyone. Taqwa is preferred by those who want it voluntarily.

In fact, the most important subject that must be attended is pork. Because the pork is in no way permissible, it cannot be bought, sold and eaten however it is slaughtered and whichever material it is cleaned with.

24 "islamic" dating site lawfull or unlawfull?
25 Is it haram for a father to change his newborn baby's diaper?

Very little kids do not have private parts. It is until the age of four. It is permitted to look at or to touch the bodies of male or female kids below that age. After that age, until the age when sexual desire may be felt towards them, only their genitals are accepted as private parts and need to be covered. However, under necessary conditions it is permitted to look at children's private parts. And then until they become adolescent, until the age of ten, only the front and the hind organs and their vicinity and thighs are accepted as private parts. The private parts of children after the age of ten, whether male or female, both inside and outside of prayers, are accepted the same as adults. (Ibni Abidin, Raddu'l-Mukhtar, Egypt (n.d), I, 378)
According to Shafiis, a little girl's private parts are subject to the same rules as older women, whether inside or outside of prayers. According to Malikis, the private parts of a male kid at the age of seven in prayer are front and hind organs and thighs, groins and buttocks. It is mandub (religiously desirable) for such a kid to cover those parts as adults do. The private parts of a little girl who is commanded to perform prayers are between the belly and the knees. However, it is mandub for that female kid to cover herself as adult females do. And outside of prayers, there is no private parts for kids below the age of eight. (az-Zuhayli al-Fiqhu'l-Islami wa Adillatuh, 2. Edition, Damascus 1405/1985, I, 596)
It is not forbidden for men to look at female children's genitals and for women to look at male children's genitals. However, it is recommended that they be cautious in such matters and that they should not look at them unless they have to.
The same thing is valid for a father in terms looking at his female child's genitals. However, it is never permitted for a father to look at the genitals of his daughter whose lustful desires have developed.(Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen, Hukuku İslamiye, II. 93) Until that age, it is not forbidden to look. In this respect, it is permitted for a father to change the diaper of his female child and to bathe her when she is naked. However, the fact that it is permissible to look does not mean that he should not be cautious. It is better not to look and to behave cautiously as much as possible.

26 Gas N2O

For the answer please click on the link given below.

halal/haram food

27 Are pets ok?

What does our religion say about raising domestic animals (cat, bird, fish...) at home?

We live in a beautiful world. It has every beauty from the birds gliding in the skies, to the fishes swimming under the deep seas; from the beautiful flowers smiling with their colors and smell, to the butterflies flying around; from the mountains reaching to the skies and containing beautiful trees inside, to the burbling streams, all together.

What does Quran tell about the birds of these beauties and boons? 

“Do they not look at the birds, held poised in the midst of (the air and) the sky? Nothing holds them up but (the power of) Allah. Verily in this are signs for those who believe.”1
“Do you not see that Allah is He Whom do glorify all those who are in the heavens and the earth, and the (very) birds with expanded wings? He knows the prayer of each one and its glorification, and Allah is Cognizant of what they do.”2

Quran wants us to pay attention to the power holding the birds in the sky and commanding them. It tells that their movements and voices are not meaningless and uncontrolled and they all have a worship of their own style. Shortly each one of the billions of birds is a divine letter declaring the existence and uniqueness of Allah. The person who looks to the universe and the beauties within it with this eye reaches to the Creator who is Al-Lateef (The Subtly Kind) and Al-Jamil (The One who is beautiful).
Yes birds are a boon. A boon introducing us our Creator. A boon crying their dhikr (mentioning Allah) by their warbles. A boon presenting us views one more beautiful from the other with their colorful feathers, flights, and postures.
People who can’t make use of these boons much especially for the style of the urban life are having some birds like canary, nightingale, lovebird and parrot at their homes for their voices and appearances. There is not a torture here for these kinds of birds. Besides these birds have a structure which is suitable to live in a cage. They are not harmed because they are fed and looked after seriously.
Also an incident takes place lighting up this issue on the time of our prophet. Little brother of Anas Ibn Malik used to have a little bird. Once when Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) saw this little kid he asked him “What happened to the birdie?” 3. We understand from this that it is ok to have a bird.
But there is a point here we should pay attention to. Such that: love, curiosity or hobby of bird should not take the most of our day, it should not keep us away from our primary tasks, and it should not waste our time.
Same things apply to the aquarium. Watching each more beautiful from the other fishes’ swimming can remind us many divine meanings. Other sea animals apply to this category too.
Raising cat at home is permitted. Besides in some situations it may be a necessity too.  Some scholars like Bediuzzaman say that their murmurs are a prayer like “O Rahim, O Rahim” (Most Merciful).
1 Surah (Chapter) of Nahl (The Bee), 79.
2 Surah of Nur (The Light), 41.
3 Ibn Maja, Adab: 2.
Mehmed Paksu, Aileye Özel Fetvalar (Juridical Decisions for Family)

 

Is there a drawback in raising dog? Can we raise dog in the garden?

There are some hadith (word of prophet Muhammad) stating that “angels of God’s mercy and grace do not enter the house with a dog in it, some rewards of that home owner that he won for his good deeds decrease everyday, but it is permissible raising a dog for the purpose of hunting, for the sheep, and as a guard”. Also it has a possibility to harm our health and worship (which requires cleanness) because dog saliva and hair may spread around. Therefore if there is not a necessity it is not proper to have a dog inside the house. Raising a dog at home when there is no necessity is not haram (forbidden) but slightly makruh (disliked or abominable acts). In the Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) this is called “tanzehan makruh” (not close to haram (illicit) like tahreman makruh but better if avoided).

In addition to this we can live and worship in a house having dog. It is enough for the floor that we perform salah on, to be clean.
Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) says: “Some rewards of a dog raising person that he won for his good deeds decrease everyday except that it is for hunting, for the sheep, or as a guard for gardens or fields.” (Bukhari, Zabaih, 6; Muslim, Musakhat, 46,50,56-58)
And when the hadith that declaring angels not entering a home with a dog in it taken into consideration,  raising dog at home without a necessity like protection or hunting is banned in Islam, because:
a) Poor and lonely people deserve the maintenance and spending of the people who can raise dog more.
b) According to definite medical information there are many contagious diseases passing from dogs to humans.
c) A dog may scare or disturb people near home or coming home. (Günlük Hayatımızda Helaller ve Haramlar (Halals and Harams in Our Daily Life), Hayreddin Karaman, İz Yayıncılık)

28 What is the criterion of listening to music in our religion?

Our general criterion regarding music should be as follows:

“Some voices have been defined as halal (permissible) and some as haram (forbidden) by our religion. Yes, voices reminding lofty sorrows and divine love are halal. Those that excite depressing sorrows and lustful desires are haram. Those that have not been defined by our religion are evaluated based on the effects that they have on your spirit and conscience.” (İşaratü’l-İ’câz, p. 78; Sözler, p. 382, 687-688)

Two kinds of voices are used in music: human voice and the voice of instruments. When a piece of music is conducted, either only human voice or music instruments are used; mostly both of them are used. In all three cases, a measured voice in a certain mode that is liked and desired by humans and that affects humans is produced. Those voices are evaluated based on their nature, topic and effect. Either music affects the spirit of man and brings about lofty, religious and heroic feelings in him, or a piece of music that man listens to addresses his soul and brings about mean feelings, causing the lofty feelings to disappear. As it is seen clearly in the statements above, the voice that is permissible to listen should remind man the lofty sorrows, that is, the ephemera of the world that death could occur any time an that man could turn to dust one day; it should also remind the fear of Allah, the divine love, the love of Allah and the manifestations of the great names and attributes of Allah in the beautiful works of art. It is permissible to listen to all kinds of voices that excite those feelings. However, it is not permissible to listen to the voices that remind depressing sorrows, that cause hopelessness in man, that remind the agony of being separated from bounties, that lead man to pessimism, that address the lustful feelings of man, that address the lustful desires of man that make the soul enjoy it.  

There are some voices that are not included in either group, and that change from person to person. For instance, while one of the two people listening to the same piece of music has a carnal feeling, the other person can have a lofty feeling.  For instance, one of the two people listening to this song: “Tiny snowflakes fall, fly saying alif, alif/ My mad heart has gone crazy, wanders saying alif alif” accompanied by music remembers Allah and thinks of divine love; the other is interested in its outward meaning and remembers a woman when he hears the word “alif” and thinks of love of a woman.  

Another example: The following poem of Yunus Emre is sung as both a hymn and a folk song: “Your love has taken me out of me/ I need you, only you/I am in fire of love day and night/I need you, only you/ let me drink the wine of love/Let me become Majnun and go to the mountain/I am worried about you day and night/I need you, only you”. While one person thinks of “divine love” when he hears “love”, another person remembers love of a woman.

Imam Ghazali examines music under three headings as haram (forbidden), makrooh (abominable) and mubah (permissible) (Ihya, 2: 279-81) and says the following:

The voices that excite only the desire of the world and feelings of lust in people full of those feelings and desires are haram for those people. 

It is makrooh to listen to them for people who spend most of their time listening and who are used to listening to them as a habit.  

It is mustahab (preferable) for a person who is full of love for Allah to listen to music if that voice excites the nice attributes in him.

Imam Ghazali later says that what makes music haram is not the music itself but the things that are added to it later, and classifies them as follows:

If a woman sings and if a man listening to her is afraid that her voice will excite her, then it is haram to listen to her. Here, what makes it haram is not the music but the voice of the woman.

If the lyrics of the song are harmful and contrary to the belief and ethics of Islam, it is haram to listen to it whether accompanied by music or without music.

If a person who is the slave of carnal feelings due to his/her youth indulges himself/herself in music too much and spends most of his/her time listening to music, he/she becomes debauched.

Mehmed Paksu Helal – Haram

29 Is it permissible to work in banks and insurance companies?

Two of the top bad habits and evils that Islam has struggled against and tried to eliminate are alcoholic drinks and prostitution since the beginning of Islam; and the third one is definitely interest. 

They were part of the life of the Jahiliyya (Ignorance) Arabs that were united with them and were part of their bodies. As a matter of fact, the term interest did not use to be heard in Islamic countries and communities for a long time. However, when the Jahiliyya beliefs and traditions started to rise again, they all came together. Alcoholic drinks, prostitution, gambling obscenity and interest are some of those evils.

For instance, when everything was imported from Europe, the economic life was largely arranged based on the system of interest. Thus, interest institutions emerged almost everywhere. Since the people who were going to work in the banks could not be imported, the people of our country had to work there. In the end, all of the vacancies were filled from directors, to officials, from workers to caretakers.

It is possible to evaluate the people who work in the institutions that operate based on interest in two forms: first; those who knew that the institution operated based on interest and that working there would make them responsible but started to work there due to the attractiveness of the financial benefits; second: those who started to work there in the past and did not heed whether it was haram or not to work there at that time and who did not even think that it could be wrong to work there.

It is a known reality that Islam has banned interest completely, that it has always struggled against it, that it has established various solidarity institutions that will block the ways leading to interest and that it has associated the peace and tranquility of the society with the elimination of interest. 

Since this is the case, will Islam approve the interest-based institutions that try to contaminate all of the commercial and industrial transactions including the savings of people with interest, that appall the feeling of solidarity and that eliminate the custom of borrowing and landing that ease the businessmen? There is no doubt that it will not.

Badiuzzaman says the following regarding the issue: « Profiting from banks, the doors of usury and interest, is for the infidels, who are the worst of mankind, and for the most tyrannous of the former, and for the most base of the latter. They are the cause of absolute harm for the World of Islam.» (1)

It has been forbidden and declared haram to deal with interest and transactions with interest both in verses and hadiths. The verse regarding the issue is as follows:

« Those who devour usury will not stand except as stands one whom the Evil One by his touch hath driven to madness. That is because they say: "Trade is like usury, but Allah hath permitted trade and forbidden usury.» (2)

Those who are involved in haram through interest are described as follows in a hadith: 

«Allah keeps anyone who devours interest, gives interest, who writes it and who witnesses in the dealing away from His mercy.» (3)

Although only those who devour interest are mentioned in the verse, he who devours, gives, writes and witnesses it are listed in the hadith, and they are all stated to be away from the mercy of Allah. 

Since this is the case, although those who work in interest-based institutions do not directly devour or give interest, they carry out the transactions of interest, calculate them, write them and manage those transactions. No matter if one is an official or a director, he is included in the notion of “writing” mentioned in the hadith. 

It is not something advisable for a person who knows those things to work in interest-based institutions. It is not possible to regard the excuses like, “I have not been able to find any other jobs”, “I must work there; it is an absolute necessity” as excuses that will justify a person and that will eliminate his responsibility. The sphere of what is halal and legitimate is wide enough to meet the needs of a person. 

The job he has found in a halal place may have a lower salary in comparison to the job in the interest-based institution but the salary will not be doubtful and shady. Besides, it is very difficult to regard working in an interest-based institution as necessity.

We hear statements like, “What is the difference between working in other government offices as officials and in an interest-based institution? The salaries paid to the officials are largely related to interest." First of all, not all of the officials are involved in carrying out interest transactions. That is, officials and workers are not directly involved in interest transactions. However, those who work in interest-based institutions are involved in interest calculations, contracts and transactions all day.

On the other hand, the revenues of the state are not collected only from interest transactions. Most of them are obtained from taxes collected from people and other similar resources. An official regards the salary he gets as the money collected from those resources. What is more, when a worker works in a legitimate business - for instance: building - of a person who makes money through illegitimate ways like gambling, trade of alcohol, etc, the wages that he receives from that person is licit and halal. Similarly, it is permissible for a Muslim to collect the money that a non-Muslim owes him from the money that the non-Muslim earns from wine. (4)

Although that money is obtained from a way that is religiously illegitimate, the situation is different for the person who is the creditor because he receives the money that the person owes him. That the money is obtained through illegitimate ways lays no responsibility on the creditor. The responsibility belongs to the debtor. The situation of the official is no different from that case because the official does something legitimate and he deserves to receive money. That money is paid by the state. Therefore, those who work in interest-based institutions cannot compare themselves with government officials.

Those who started to work in interest-based institutions a long time ago but later found out that it was haram to work there are not advised to go on working there if they find somewhere else to work. They must try to find a legitimate place to work.

In the meantime, they should try to carry out their spiritual and Islamic duties better and gain thawabs (rewards) because good deeds eliminate and purify bad deeds and sins.

It is necessary to state that one cannot say that all of the earnings of those who have businesses that are involved in haram and businesses that are involved in halal and do legitimate things there and earn money from those businesses are haram, and the situation is relieved a bit. It is not regarded haram to work in the legitimate and useful branches of those businesses like constructing roads, conveying water, doing electric works, etc. 

If there are interest-free insurance companies, it is permissible to work there.

1. Mektubat, p. 450

2. al-Baqara, 275.

3. Muslim, Musaqat: 105.

4. Durar, l: 318.

Mehmed Paksu, Helal Haram, Nesil Yayınları, 5. Baskı, İstanbul, 1998, pp. 25-29.

30 is one aloud to have prawn fish

Every fish and animals in the shape of fish are permissible. According to the Hanafi sect, fishes such as turbot, carp, flipper and eel are permissible to eat. However, sea vermins such as crap, mussel, oyster, lobster, crawfish and prawn are not eaten. Also, other water animals which are not in the shape of fish such as walrus, sea pig etc. are not eaten as well. According to other three sects (Shafi, Maliki, Hanbali), all of the sea foods are eaten.

The meaning of the ayahs which are “It is He Who has made the sea subject, that you may eat thereof flesh that is fresh and tender” (1) and “Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food, - for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel” (2) state that seas are a divine benediction storage and man can benefit from them.

With the mentioned ayahs, Allah Almighty informs the permission of all sea animals without exception of a certain kind of them and without putting the condition of slaughtering. In this way; He provides His servants the easiness and wideness. Moreover, He gives man the permission of using anything in order to entrap them, on condition that not causing animals pain.

As it is known, in point of where they live, animals separate into two as land and sea animals. In regard with which animals of land are permissible, it is explained in the fiqh books. As for the sea animals, there are different views between sects.

Complying to the ayahs of which we gave the meanings above, according to Shafi, Maliki and Hanbali sects’ scholars; all of the sea animals, that is to say all of the animals which live only in the sea but not in the land, -it does not matter where they are available, whether they are in the shape of fish or anything else; they are permissible, they can be eaten. Nevertheless according to the same sects, it does not matter whether the name of them different or they are alive or dead or a Muslim cached it or a non Muslim; the judgment does not change.  

While the sect of Maliki does not except any sea animal, Hanbali sect excepts eel as haram and Shafi sect excepts frog, crap and crocodile as haram because they live both on the land and in the sea.

And according to the Hanafi sect, eating the flesh of the animals which are not in the shape of fish is haram. Accordingly, animals which perpetually live in the water can be eaten. Turbot, carp, flipper and eel are in this group. But other water animals are not permissible. Mussel, oyster, lobster and crap are not accepted as permissible, they are accepted as haram. (3)

According to the above explanations, while animals such as mussel, carp may be eaten in the sects of Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali; according to Hanafi sect they are not eaten. The reason why Hanafi sect accepts them as haram is because these kinds of animals are accepted as dirty both in the respect of appearance and the flesh they have. (Mehmet Paksu   Halal- Haram)

(1). The Surah of an- Nahl, 14

(2). The Surah of Maida, 96

(3). al-Mazâhibu’l-Arbaa, 2: 5.

 

31 Future and Options Trading

Our religion permits trade (buying and selling) but forbids ways of illicit profit. Thus, the trade is ensured to be done based on sound and fair criteria and the spiritual responsibility of a person is removed. That is, if a person obeys the orders of the religion in all of his life, he will be at ease both in the world and in the hereafter.
Trade is licit and permissible as long as it is carried out within the bounds of legitimacy whether it is in advance or on credit. There is also religious encouragement regarding the issue. The verse meaning «And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah» advises a believer to lead his business life and worshipping life together.
What is essential in buying and selling is trading and making profit; but this transaction is also a kind of service to humanity because it serves people. Besides, all kinds of activities are regarded as worshipping as long as they remain within the bounds of legitimacy. Therefore, they have spiritual rewards too.
In Islamic law, there is no profit limit in general; the profit limit is determined by the market and the conscience of the dealers, which gives great responsibility to dealers. Telling lies, selling things at exorbitant prices through tricks and cheating are not justified in any kind of trade.
During buying and selling, one the one hand, the rights of the dealer are taken into account and some binding criteria are introduced so that the dealer can continue his trade life. On the other hand, the state of the customer is taken into account and it is not approved when he is cheated due to his ignorance about the characteristics of the thing he buys.
The dealer is shown the way to have a determined different price for credit sale compared to cash so that he will preserve his capital and continue his trade life safely.
In the Quran, the following is stated: «Allah hath permitted trade and forbidden usury.» (al-Baqara, 275) That verse declares that trade is permissible whether cash or on credit and shows the base for the permissible trade. However, our Prophet says in a hadith that two sales in one sale is not permissible. The scholars who explained that hadith had different interpretations. Some scholars explained that a different price for the deferred payment sale compared to cash sale would not be permissible; others stated that the difference in the price was not interest therefore it was not forbidden by that hadith.
Imam Tirmizi states the following opinion while explaining the hadith: «According to some scholars two sales in one sale is saying, 'I will sell this dress for ten dirhams in cash and 20 dirhams on deferred payment' and leaving without deciding on either of the alternatives.» (Tirmizi, Buyu, 18)
According to most of the scholars, the hadith above states that it is not permissible to lay something down as a condition within a sale and that when the thaman, that is the price of the product, is not certain. For instance, if Ahmad says to Ali «If you sell your car to me for three hundred thousand lira, I will sell my house to you for two million», then the «two contracts in one contract» mentioned in the hadith occurs. It is not permissible. However, when the contracts are made differently and the two contracts are not connected with such a condition, there is no drawback to it. What is forbidden according to the hadith is the other type of contract, in which the price of the product is not certain. For instance, it is not permissible to say, «I sold this product for one thousand in cash and for two thousand on deferred payment. » It is because the contract is not certain. There is no agreement on one of the alternatives. However, if both parties agree on one of the alternatives, then the contract becomes permissible. It will have no connection with interest.
It is stated in the famous book of Imam Sarahsi ‘al-Mabsut’, that if both parties agree on a single definite price and leave, whether in cash or deferred payment, the contracts with a deferred payment sale that contain a difference compared to cash price are permissible; the following is stated in the book:
«When the buyer and the seller does the transaction of sale, if the seller says to the buyer ‘if you buy this product on credit you will pay such and such amount and if you buy it in cash you will pay such and such amount or if you pay for it one month later, you will pay such and such amount, if you pay for it two months later, you will pay such and such amount’, and if they finish the transaction and leave without agreeing on one of the alternatives, a sale like that is not permissible. It is because no parties agreed on one of the prices.» (al-Mabsut, 13/8)
Today, the general practice in the market is like that. For instance, the seller tells the customer beforehand the cash and deferred payment prices by saying «This is the cash price and that is the deferred payment price.»  The customer chooses one of the alternatives and they make a contract. What is important here is the agreement on one of the prices and making the contract accordingly.
Then, if a person says for something he is selling, «This is the cash price and that is the deferred payment price», that is, he mentions both the cash price and the deferred payment price and then they make an agreement on one of the prices, then, that contract is permissible. There is no religious drawback.
What needs to be paid attention here is that a definite contract has to be made agreeing on one of the cash or deferred payment prices. However, it must be known that the sales that contain terms as follows are not permissible: «If you pay for it within …… months, you will pay this price; if you pay for it later, you will pay that price.» It is because the buyer and seller do not agree on one definite price. The interest mentioned in hadiths becomes obvious in that kind of sales.
Some official enterprises add late charge when they sell things on deferred payment. This payment is called late payment interest officially but actually it is not regarded as interest. That is, the customer is free to choose it. If he buys it in cash, they do not charge any extra money but if he buys it on credit, they charge some extra money. That extra money is regarded as late charge (late interest) and it is permissible.
However, it is necessary to state that the judgments that fiqh scholars give about the permissibility of late payment interest do not recommend charging late payment interest. It is a judgment originating from the necessities of trade life. As a matter of fact, it is a permission. That is, a Muslim can sell his goods on deferred payment adding an extra amount to the price. However, if he sells goods to poor customers on deferred payment without adding an extra amount, it is definitely a praiseworthy act.  It can even be said that with such a sale, he gets reward as if he lent money to his customer without interest (qard hasan). The reward of it is mentioned several times both in the Quran and in the hadiths; and Muslims are advised to do it. Therefore, it is a good and praiseworthy act for Muslims to help each other with the feelings of mutual love, affection and fraternity whenever possible and for the rich to help the poor as much as they can.

 

32 Is it a sin to kill the mosquitoes or other animals in our house?

1- We should try to find ways of sending the living things out of the house without killing them. We should try to protect the lives of living things.

2- However, if we cannot prevent them and if they harm us, it is permissible to kill them; it is not haram.

3- It is not appropriate to kill the animals that do not harm us outside the house. It is makruh (abominable).

God Almighty created the creatures for three essential purposes. They are as follows:

1- To be mirrors for the names of Allah and to show Allah’s jamal (beauty) and kamal (perfection).

2- To serve as a means for the contemplation of humans, angels and jinn, who have consciousness.

3- To meet the needs of human beings, to continue their lives and to worship.

The loftiest and holiest reason of the creation of the creatures and beings is to manifest Allah’s beauty, perfection and grandeur, which is the first purpose. Even if there existed no man, or any conscious being that could understand it or a creature that could eat them, the main purpose of creation would be realized.    

In addition, the second cause of the creation, the understanding of the conscious beings, is very important because Allah regards it important that all of the conscious beings, especially human beings, in the universe contemplate and look at the beings on behalf of Allah. He created the beings in the perfect form so that the contemplation would take place. When it is realized, the beings are regarded to have fulfilled their duties.

The third purpose has two aspects. They are as follows:

a- to fulfill the duty of worshipping and glorifying Allah in a way that is suitable for that creature; every creature fulfills this duty properly.

b- To meet the needs of human beings; in this case, Allah’s name of all-generous can be uttered. That is, Allah, who creates more than human beings needs and who grants them bounties. It is necessary to utter various names and attributes in each case, not only one name and attribute.

The verse regarding the mosquito:

In the Quran, man is called to search the nature and see the “signs” created there because all of the living and non-living beings in the universe are full of signs showing that they are beings that were created; and they exist in order to show the power, knowledge and art of the One that created them. Allah informed us about these miraculous signs in the Quran, which He sent down centuries ago as a guide. Man is responsible for using his mind, seeing those signs and knowing Allah.

All of the living things are like that, but there are some living things that Allah attracts attention to. The mosquito is one of them. Allah states the issue as follows in the Quran:

“Allah disdains not to use the similitude of things lowest as well as highest. Those who believe know that it is truth from their Lord; but those who reject Faith say: "What means Allah by this similitude?" By it He causes many to stray and many He leads into the right path but He causes not to stray, except those who forsake (the path).” (al-Baqara, 26)

According to the verse, even a mosquito that seems like a worthless and ordinary living thing is an animal that needs to be paid attention to, studied and contemplated since it has the signs of Allah on it. Therefore, Allah does not disdain to give the “mosquito” or something superior to it as an example.    

What is generally known about the mosquito is that it is a blood-sucking animal and that it feeds on blood. However, it is not quite correct. Only the female mosquito, not all of them, sucks blood. Besides, the reason why the female mosquito sucks blood is not the need of feeding. The food of both the female and male mosquito is essential oil. The reason why the female sucks blood is the fact that it needs proteins so that the eggs it carries will mature. In other words, the female mosquito sucks blood in order to continue its species. Before starting to suck blood, the mosquito injects the special liquid that it secretes into the hole it opens in the vein of the living being it stings. That liquid neutralizes the enzyme that enables coagulation. Thus, the mosquito can reach its food without facing the problem of coagulation. What causes itching and swelling in the place where the mosquito stings is this liquid, which prevents coagulation.    

When the systems like feeding, reproduction, respiratory, circulatory systems are taken into consideration, the infinity of Allah’s signs are understood better. The perfect design and conscious acts observed in this living thing that Allah attracts attention to show us clearly the truth that mosquitoes cannot form coincidentally. It is Allah, who created all of the living things and who is the Lord of the skies, the earth and those between them, who created the mosquito with such a superior and wonderful system.

We are including the writing of Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, one of the scholars of the last century, about flies. Please read it carefully. It is like a lesson of wisdom.

A Small Point Concerning an Important Verse

It was autumn and approaching the time when flies are discharged from their duties, and because of their minor annoyance, selfish humans were employing chemicals in my prison cell in order to eliminate them. It aroused a sharp pity in me. There was a washing-line in my cell. However, in order to thwart the humans the flies multiplied even more. In the evening those miniature birds would be lined up in most orderly fashion on the line. When he wanted to hang up the washing, I said to Rüshtü: “Don’t disturb those little birds; hang it somewhere else.” To which he replied, completely seriously: “We need the line; let the flies find somewhere else for themselves.”

Anyhow... In the early morning a discussion started in connection with this exchange about the very numerous small creatures like flies and ants. I said the following to him:

The species whose copies are thus numerous have important duties and great value, like the copies of a book are multiplied in relation to the book’s importance. That is to say, the species of flies have important duties and great value so that the All-Wise Creator has greatly multiplied those tiny missives of Divine Determining and copies of the words of Divine power. The All-Wise Qur’an states:

O men! Here is a parable set forth; listen to it! Those on whom you call besides God cannot create [even] a fly, if they all met together for the purpose! And if the fly should snatch away anything from them, they would have no power to release it from the fly. Feeble are those who petition and those whom they petition!2

That is to say, if those things claimed to be gods by the people of misguidance were to gather together all causes and false gods apart from God Almighty, they would be unable to create even a fly. That is, the creation of a fly is such a dominical miracle and clear sign to the act of creation that even if all causes were to assemble they would be unable to make anything like it or to duplicate it, and would be unable to dispute that dominical sign.

Flies, which form an important subject in the above verse, defeated Nimrod, and when Moses (Upon whom be peace) complained about their bothering him, saying: “O my Sustainer! Why have You so greatly increased the numbers of these irritating creatures?”, the following answer came to him through inspiration:

“You have objected about the flies once while the flies have asked many times: ‘O our Sustainer! This man has a huge head, yet he praises You with only one tongue. And sometimes he neglects to do that. If you had created us out of only his head, there would have been creatures like us praising You with thousands of tongues!’”

Moreover the flies, which thus defended the wisdom in their creation against Moses’ complaint with sufficent power to withstand a thousand such objections, also pursue great cleanliness. These insects continually wash their faces, eyes, and wings as though taking ablutions, and have important duties. The common view is short-sighted; it is still unable to comprehend those duties.

Indeed, Almighty God has created a most orderly group of carniverous beings which are sorts of public health officials; they cleanse the seas by gathering up the corpses of other sea-creatures3 that die every day in their millions, and prevent the sea from becoming polluted and disgusting with their corpses. If those public health officals of the sea did not carry out their extremely regular duties, the sea would not sparkle like a mirror; it would rather display a sad and touching turbidity.

Also, Almighty God has created carniverous and carrion-eating birds, and wild animals to be like cleansing and public health officials which collect the corpses of wild animals and birds that die every day in their millions, cleanse the face of the earth of those putrid remains, and save other animate beings from such sad and touching sights. Some, like eagles for example, through a Divine impulse, wonderfully perceive the location of a corpse from a distance of five or six hours, though hidden and distant, and go and remove it. If these health officals of the land were not extremely efficient and orderly in carrying out their official duties, the face of the earth would take on a form fit to make all weep.

The licit food of carniverous animals is the flesh of dead animals. The flesh of living animals is unlawful for them. If they eat it, they receive punishment. The Hadith which states that: “Retaliation shall be made for the hornless sheep on the horned on Resurrection Day” points out that although their bodies perish, among animals whose spirits are immortal there is reward and punishment in a manner appropriate for them in an eternal realm. As a consequence of this it may be said that the flesh of live animals is unlawful for wild animals.

Furthermore, ants are employed as cleansing officials to collect the corpses of tiny creatures and small particles and fragments of bounty. And they are given duties as public health officals to preserve tiny particles of Divine bounty from waste, being trodden underfoot, contempt and futility, and to gather up the corpses of other small creatures.

And in just the same way, flies are charged with duties of cleaning away poisonous substances and microbes which breed disease and are invisible to the human eye. They do not transmit microbes, on the contrary, through sucking up and imbibing harmful microbes they destroy them and cause them to be transformed into a different state; they prevent the spread of many contagious diseases. A sign that they are both health workers and cleansing officials and chemists and that they exhibit extensive wisdom is the fact that they are extremely numerous. For valuable and beneficial things are multiplied.4

O you self-centred human being! Apart from the thousands of instances of wisdom in the creation of flies, consider the following small benefit that concerns you and leave off your hostility towards them. For just as they offer you some familiarity in your exile, solitude and loneliness, so do they also warn you against sliding into heedlessness and your thought wandering. You see flies that through their delicate manner and their washing their faces and eyes as though taking ablutions are giving you a lesson and reminding you of human duties like action and cleanliness.

Moreover, bees, which may be thought of as a sort of fly, give you honey to eat, which is the sweetest and most delicate of bounties. And since, as is stated by the Qur’an of Miraculous Exposition, they have been distinguished by receiving Divine inspiration, to be hostile towards them while they should be loved, rather to be hostile towards creatures that suffer all sorts of difficulties in always hastening in friendship to assist man is wrongful and unjust. We may combat harmful creatures only to repel their harm. We fight wolves to protect sheep from their attack, for example.

Mosquitoes and fleas fall upon the turbid blood flowing in the veins polluted by harmful substances, indeed they are charged with consuming the polluted blood, so in hot weather when there is blood surplus to the body’s needs, why should they not be natural cuppers? It is possible...

Glory be to Him at Whose art the mind is bewildered!

At one time when I was struggling with my evil-commanding soul, imagining the bounties which it saw in itself to be its own property, my soul became conceited, proud and boastful. I said to it: “This property is not yours; it is in trust.” So then the soul gave up its conceit and pride but became lazy, it said: “Why should I bother about someone who is not mine? Let him perish, what is it to me?” Suddenly I saw that a fly had alighted on my hand and had started to thoroughly clean its eyes, face, and wings, which were its trust from God. The fly was washing itself just like a soldier cleans his rifle and uniform thoroughly, which belong to the state. I said to my soul: “You look at that!” It looked and learned a good lesson. As for the fly, it became my conceited and lazy soul’s teacher and instructor.

Fly excretion is not harmful medically; in fact, sometimes it is sweet syrup. For it is not distant from dominical wisdom, it is indeed a function of that wisdom, that while flies contain thousands of different harmful substances, microbes, and poisons through what they have eaten, they are like tiny transforming and purifying machines. Apart from bees, there are other species of flying insects5 that eat various putrid substances and then continuously excrete droplets of syrup in place of the filth. Transforming those rotten, poisonous substances into a sweet and healing syrup like a confection of Divine power that rains onto the leaves of trees, they prove that they are machines for transmuting one substance into another. They demonstrate before the eyes what a mighty nation and group are these tiny individuals. Through the tongues of their beings they say: “Do not look at our smallness, consider the vastness of our species, and declare, ‘All Glory be to God!’”

____________________

1. Süleyman Rüshtü Çakin, 1899-1974. He was born in Isparta, where he was the Director of the Tax Assessment Office. He became one of Bediuzzaman’s close students, and was imprisoned together with him in Eskishehir and Denizli.

2. Qur’an, 22:73.

3. One fish produces thousands of eggs and thousands of young. Therefore, so that the equilibrium with the seas is maintained, sometimes from the number of young fish hatching from a roe consisting of a million eggs those that survive will equal the fish that die. Furthermore, it is a manifestation of Divine compassion that because of the great difference in size between the mother fish and her young, she is unable to superintend them; she cannot enter the places they hide. And so, the All-Wise and Compassionate One promotes from among the young one to be their supervisor, and employs that tiny creature in the duties of the mother.

4. How beautifully and subtly the following lines by the celebrated Yunus Emre allude to the wonderful works of dominical art that are the fly’s wings and body: “I loaded a single fly’s wing onto forty ox carts; Forty of them could not haul it; it remainded thus decreed.”

5. At the end of spring there is one species of small fly which is created in the form of a black mass that becomes stuck to the branches of almond and wild apricot trees, and remains there. In place of waste matter, droplets continously flow from the flies. These drops are like honey and other species of flies gather round them suck them up.

Yet another species are employed in the pollination of the flowers of plants and some trees, like the fig. Just as the fire-fly, which is a sort of fly that flashes, sparkles, and is luminous, is worthy of observation, so do other species that are gilded and glisten like gold deserve notice. Also, we must not forget flies armed with lances, and wild bees, which are like brigands. If the All-Merciful Creator had not pulled in their reins, if they attacked human beings like fleas, in the same way that those armed species killed Nimrod, so would have they also assailed the human race and expounded the implicit meaning of the verse, And if the fly should snatch away anything from them. Thus, the hundred famous species of flies like these bearing special qualities are of great importance so that this mighty verse makes them its subject:

O men! Here is a parable set forth; listen to it! Those on whom you call besides God cannot create [even] a fly, if they all met together for the purpose! And if the fly should snatch away anything from them, they would have no power to release it from the fly. Feeble are those who petition and those whom they petition!

33 Mortgages, halal or haram?

Is it religiously allowed to buy a house with the mortgage system?

Mortgage is essentially used to mean immovable financing system. Financing company buys an immovable property that the customer demands on behalf of the customer for cash and transfers the ownership to the customer. But the property is mortgaged to the financing company for the customer’s debt to the company.  The customer pays the debt in monthly payments according to a payment plan until the due date.

If the system that a country or company use is that, it is okay and religiously allowed. But if it lets credit be used and uses interest it is not allowed.

34 Some people invest premiums in banks and earn a right for second retirement. Is that permitted in Islam?

On condition that individual retirement systems bear the quality of profit share and are accepted not as interest but as partnership or as share from profit, then there is no drawback in that. However, individual retirement appears completely to be interest. For if somebody gives his/her money to the state or to someone else with the intention to obtain interest, and then receives it more in amount, as is known it is accepted as interest. And those who take interest are held responsible in the religion.

In permanent life insurance and individual retirement system, the premiums paid by the participants in periods of at least 10 years but generally of 30-35 years are made use of in various funds. In return, the participants who have fulfilled a certain time period (at least 25 years) are assigned a salary. Here medical care and other social facilities as in public insurance agencies are not in question. The funds that are financed with the premiums taken from the participants usually invest that money in local or foreign interest-related instruments. The participants are charged with very high amounts of money under the names of entrance fees and administration expense. That those companies attain huge profits and large growth is a proof of the fact that they look after themselves at least as much as they think about their members. The considerable part of the huge funds known as international finance capital comes from retirement funds. Under the light of these explanations, it is a normal action for a Muslim careful about the subject of interest to stay away from private retirement companies.

35 Is it haram to pierce your eyebrows, lips and nose?

It is not appropriate in terms of creation to pierce the nose. It is permissible and appropriate to pierce the ears of small girls and wear earrings. However, it is not right to pierce other places like nose and to wear nose studs.

Please click on the link given below;

Can ears be pierced in order to wear earrings?

36 Can we live and worship in a house having dog?

"We can live and worship in a house having dog. It is enough for the floor that we perform salah on, to be clean."

Is there a drawback in raising dog? Can we raise dog in the garden?

There are some hadith (word of prophet Muhammad) stating that “angels of God’s mercy and grace do not enter the house with a dog in it, some rewards of that home owner that he won for his good deeds decrease everyday, but it is permissible raising a dog for the purpose of hunting, for the sheep, and as a guard”. Also it has a possibility to harm our health and worship (which requires cleanness) because dog saliva and hair may spread around. Therefore if there is not a necessity it is not proper to have a dog inside the house. Raising a dog at home when there is no necessity is not haram (forbidden) but slightly makruh (disliked or abominable acts). In the Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) this is called “tanzehan makruh” (not close to haram (illicit) like tahreman makruh but better if avoided).

In addition to this we can live and worship in a house having dog. It is enough for the floor that we perform salah on, to be clean.

Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) says: “Some rewards of a dog raising person that he won for his good deeds decrease everyday except that it is for hunting, for the sheep, or as a guard for gardens or fields.” (Bukhari, Zabaih, 6; Muslim, Musakhat, 46,50,56-58)

And when the hadith that declaring angels not entering a home with a dog in it taken into consideration,  raising dog at home without a necessity like protection or hunting is banned in Islam, because: a) Poor and lonely people deserve the maintenance and spending of the people who can raise dog more.

b) According to definite medical information there are many contagious diseases passing from dogs to humans.

c) A dog may scare or disturb people near home or coming home. (Günlük Hayatımızda Helaller ve Haramlar (Halals and Harams in Our Daily Life), Hayreddin Karaman, İz Yayıncılık)
For more information about Pets, please click on the link given below.

What does our religion say about raising domestic animals (cat, bird, fish...) at home?

37 Is it abortion by curettage permissible if the woman has been raped or if there is a risk of disabled birth?

Although there are some scholars who say "Abortion is permissible if an illegitimate fetus has not been formed, that is, before it has been given a spirit.” (Halil GÜNENÇ, Günümüz Meselelerine Fetvalar II. 327), there are other scholars who say that the fetus cannot be aborted and that it is never permissible. The baby has no fault even if it is a product of fornication. As a matter of fact, according to Islamic fiqh, a married woman who has committed fornication and who is sentenced to death cannot be executed if she is pregnant. That is, the baby cannot be killed.

The mother is not responsible if a child is born as a result of rape because the mother and the child are innocent. The woman and the mother cannot be blamed for it by any means. The crime and responsibility belong to the person who raped.

38 Is it religiously permissible to draw interest in Dar-ul Harb?

There is no drawback to a Muslim living in dar-ul harb (non-Muslim lands) receiving interest from non-Muslims because, according to them, it is regarded normal, not infidelity, to receive interest. (1)

According to other madhhabs and Abu Yusuf, interest is forbidden everywhere. It is not permissible to receive interest in dar-ul Islam (muslim lands) or dar-ul harb. It is necessary to treat non-Muslims as one treats Muslims in buying and selling things, weighing and measuring. (2)

For instance, if someone goes to Europe and finds something belonging to the state or to a person there, he has to return it to its owner. (3)

The view of Imam Azam and Muhammad stating that it is permissible to receive interest from non-Muslims in dar-ul harb is more preferable because if a Muslim deposits his money in a German bank (as a matter of fact it is not appropriate), the bank will use that money and earn money out of it; if the depositor does not receive interest, he will not earn anything and non-Muslims will mock him. (4)
 
Note : The view of Imam Azam and Imam Muhammad that it is permissible to receive interest from non-Muslims in dar-ul harb is based on the following hadith:there is no interest between a Muslim and a non-Muslim in dar-ul harb. (5)

It is halal for our citizens abroad because they act upon that hadith and the view of Hanafi madhhab. 

Footnotes:
1- al-Fiqhu ala'l-Madhahibil arba'a, 1/340. Fathu'l-wahhab 2/355.
2- al-Fatawa'l-Kubra v. 2, p. 238, Badayi as-Sanayi' 9/4378.
3- Hidaya, 2/66.
4- Halil Günenç, Günümüz Meselelerine Fetvalar, 1/243-244.
5- Zaylai, Nasbu’r-raya, 4/44; Ibn Humam, 7/ 39.

Please click on the link given below;

What does determine one country whether is an Islamic country or not?

39 What is the religious decree about putting the photographs of immodest women in internet sites and looking at those photographs?

It is not permissible to look at the photographs of women with lust. Anything that arouses the feeling of lust is a trap of the devil. The following is stated in hadiths: "Looking with lust is the fornication of the eye." (Bukhari, Isti`zan 12); " Looking with lust is an arrow from the poisonous arrows of the devil." (Hindi Kanz V/329 (13075).

What leads to haram is also haram. A person who paves the way for a haram act to be committed is an accomplice to that crime. To put illegitimate photographs in a website means to help people look at them and to be a means for it.

The following statements of Badiuzzaman summarized below is an explanation that is sufficient for the issue:

And the worship of forms in particular has shaken morality in appalling fashion and caused the abasement of man's spirit, which may be understood from the following: just as looking with lust and desire at the corpse of a beautiful woman needy for pity and compassion destroys morality, so too looking lustfully at the forms of dead women, or the forms of living women, which are like little corpses, shakes to the very base the elevated human emotions, and destroys them.” (Sözler, Yirmi Beşinci Söz, Dördüncü Esas) (Words, Twenty-fifth Word, Fourth Principle)

40 Can a Muslim girl learn share market and be a share broker?

Yes, in the circle of permissibility , a muslim woman can learn share market like a man.

Is share market permissible in Islam?

41 Is it permissible for a man to stay alone in a place with his wife's sister or his brother's wife?

There exists temporary mahramiyat for a man regarding his wife’s sister. A man cannot marry the sister of his wife. However, if his wife dies, he can marry her. For a man, his wife’s sister is like any other woman regarding other issues. It is necessary to be careful about the limits of mahramiyat.
For a woman, her husband’s brother is non-mahram. He is like a stranger. It is necessary to be careful about the limits of mahramiyat.
It is not permissible for a man to look at his wife’s sister or any other woman lustfully. It is necessary to be more careful about mahramiyat regarding relatives like that. It is not permissible to stay alone with any of them at home.
Once our Prophet (pbuh) said, "Avoid entering places where there are women." When a person from Ansar (Muslim from Madinah) said, "O Messenger of Allah, what about the relatives of the husband of a woman?”, he said, "They are death". (See. Bukhari, Nikah, III; Muslim, Salam, 20)
Explaining that hadith, Imam Nawawi said: "A person may stay alone with the wife of his brother due to the customs and traditions; it is death. The fact that chatting with him is forbidden is more important than the prohibition of chatting with strangers. That is the correct meaning of the hadith."
It is necessary to be careful about the limits of mahramiyat regarding the sister of one’s wife.

42 Is Boxing allowed in islam? Is it permissible to learn and teach boxing with the aim of self defense or guarding?

As it is known boxing is not like playing football, running or wrestling. The aim in boxing is fighting each other and harassing your opponent. As cock, goat, camel, ram and bull fighting harass animals, it is not permissible. Our religion does not allow harassing animals and cannot give man, who is the caliph of earth and highest of all living beings, the permission of harassing and fighting with one another.  (See, Yusuf Ardabili, Anwaru'l-Abrar, II/388, Halil Günenç, Günümüz Meselelerine Fetvalar, p. 199)

However, it is permissible to learn and teach boxing with the aim of self defense or guarding.

43 Eating Pork Accidentally

It is necessary to keep away from the unknown things. More particularly Muslims who live in non-moslem countries should be away from doubtable things and they should be careful about what they eat. If someone eats a food which is considered haram despite his/her searching, Inshaallah he/she won't be held responsible. But if you eat something haram without any researching, you will be held responsible for it. In this regard it is necessary to be careful. If something happens like in this example, you should repent for it.                       

44 Is cheating in exams permissible?

There are some objections to cheating in exams and it may be violating others’ rights:

1- We achieve something which we have not endeavored.

2-It leads man to laziness, which does not befit Islam.

3-It is not an ethical action.

4-It prevents us from being someone to be respected in our job and school.

5-If we study for our lessons as much as we work for the cheating techniques, we can get the same result about us. 

6-We lose our esteem among our friends.

7-We would not be practicing the true Islam and the honesty that Islam deserves.

8-It is inappropriate behavior since we introduce ourselves as if we know although we do not know.

9-It means violating other persons’ rights if there will be a situation of taking another person’s right because of the additional marks achieved through cheating as it happens in applying for a job or entering to a superior school. 

Because of the reasons above or the reasons like those, cheating in exams and helping others cheat are never appropriate.

45 Is it haram to talk behind a non-muslim's back (to backbite)?

It is haram to talk behind a Muslim’s back (to backbite). It is definite.
However, as for the non-Muslim, there are two cases:
1 — The non-Muslims with whom we are in a state of war.
2 — The non-Muslims with whom we are in a state of peace. (Like the Christians and Jews of today.)
It is not haram to talk behind non-Muslims with whom we are in a state of war. It is necessary to talk badly about them to make the war favorable for us. There is no sin in doing it.
However, the case about non-Muslims with whom we are in a state of peace is not the same. It is permissible to talk behind their backs only by differentiating between them and their attributes. That is, it is not permissible to talk behind their backs as the perfect creatures that Allah created but to talk behind the back of the unbelief that they added to those creatures so that they will be afraid of unbelief. That is, it is not permissible to talk behind the back of people but their attributes.  
We learn form the fatwas of Ghazali that there is no drawback to talking behind their backs because the aim is not to talk behind the back of people but to state that the wrong beliefs are bad.
As for the minorities among Muslims:
— All of their situations and states are under the guarantee of Islam like Muslims. The justice of the exalted Islam does not regard it permissible to talk behind the back of people that are under its protection. 
Islam does not permit itself to fall into disrepute. Talking behind their backs except for the situations stated above is haram. If one has talked behind their backs, he should apologize to them and ask for forgiveness.

46 My Old Girlfriend

You are welcome to the deen of Islam. May God help you in your future life. If you have any other questions concerning Islam and belief, you can ask your questions to us in any time that you want, we will try to answer. Now, let me give the answer of your question.
Firstly, there is no drawback for such a marriage. Detailed explanations will be given below.
Secondly, the judgement for writing poetry changes in accordance with the position of the parts and the theme of the poetry. If there is a marriage contract between the parts there is no drawback otherwise it is not licit. Also the theme of the poetry is important. It should not contain nasty words or meanings.

As all we know, considering a marriage with a woman and engaging to be married doesn't mean getting married. Therefore, going out or being alone with fiancée is absolutely illicit and a grievous mistake. Prophet (PBUH) says: "When a strange man becomes alone with a woman, assuredly, the third one of them is devil." When many engaged people become alone with their fiancées, some unwanted and illicit results occur, also their relations can be broken for some reasons, at the end. The remaining after these relations is sins and wrongdoings. Thus, people who coddle their religion, worldly lives and honor, must be careful on such things. 
What is your advice about flirt kind of relations?
Neither the word flirt takes place in the dictionary of the Muslims, nor the meaning it carries finds life in the lives of the Muslims; whoever loads whatever meaning into it. Islam puts definite borders on this sensitive issue and Hz. Muhammad’s (pbuh) famous warning takes both parts under protection with definite rules.
What is our prophet’s definite and very logical warning?
– If two strangers, a woman and a man remain in private, the third one is the Satan!
Yes, when two strangers of opposite sex remain in private when there is no other one around, their sexual senses become active by their creation and they may rebel. Then things become dangerous. We know that most of the regrets, evils, even murders in the society occur because of not paying attention to this warning and going beyond the borders.   
Isn’t there an exception of this; is every woman and man like this?
Of course we have not such a claim and every rule may have its exceptions. But exceptions do not change the general rule. Truth that the woman should not be too familiar and saucy, she should not become a toy for fun easy to acquire and leave.
As we know easy come easy go. We can not appreciate the things we have easily and we can leave them easily. And precious things are acquired hard, thus they are not left easily too. The woman is the most precious of the values, and the first to protect the honor. If she becomes one day here and one day there she becomes sentenced to disgrace for her life. And whether you call flirt or something else the thing which makes the precious woman such worthless and discredited, neither it can be defended nor it can be considered as a simple and natural issue.
Again as we learn from a holy text, parts will regret the illegitimate relations such that they will cry in the afterlife:
– If only I held a piece of fire and didn’t start such a relation giving these consequences.
But it will have no use. Because the bullet shots the target and destroys it with no return back.
Therefore a faithful woman does not want to have a past with faults, and acts very carefully for a happy marriage and family life. And because of this care and attention she carries the pride of having the honor and lives happily without regret.  Men making women joy for their daily life instead of a founder for a clean and happy family, or women accepting this, may not agree with us. But as you make your bed, you lie on it.
Ahmed Şahin, Aile İlmihali (catechism for family), 142.
What is the allowed amount of meeting before the marriage?
We saw in the sunnah (the way of the prophet) two methods on this issue. One is to send a trusted woman to look to the girl we want to marry. Anas Ibn Malik transmits:
“Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) sent Umm Sulaym to look to a woman, and said ‘look upper of foot part, smell her mouth’.” The aim of this request was to learn if her legs were regular and if her mouth smells.1
This is valid for two parts. The girl can send a person to the man she thinks of marriage to learn whatever she wants to learn too.
The other method to learn about the part we want to marry is to meet him or her by person directly. This way a man is allowed to look only to the face and hands of a woman and also see the height of her. Her face shows her beauty and hands indicate the elegance.
As transmitted by Abu Humayd, Hz Muhammad (pbuh) says:
“When you want to marry a woman you can look at her, but with the intention of marriage. And it is not required to be known by her.”2
Mugira Ibn Shuba wanted to marry a woman. Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) said him, “Go and see her. Because it is better to see her for the harmony between you.”3
And in another hadith (word of prophet Muhammad) of Hz Muhammad (pbuh) we learn:
“When one of you want to marry a woman look at her features that you seek and which will encourage you if you can.”4
These hadithes tell the necessity and the use of the look. Also there are some restrictions with this look and meeting. One is about the meeting place. This hadith enlightens us:
“Whoever of you believes in Allah and the doomsday, do not remain in private with a woman without someone with her. Because if you do this, the third one near you will be Satan.”5
Because of this there must be a third person near two people when meeting by the intention of a marriage. Otherwise it becomes a head to head situation and it is not permitted. In this meeting, parts can talk about their requirements, wishes and whatever they want to learn about. When talking, stammer or hesitancy can be understood, tone of voice tells about the person’s thoughts too, and wisdom and intellectual levels of the parts can be checked to see if they match to their wishes.
After a while of this meeting and talk, impression and opinion of parts become clear and they can decide to marry or not. This meeting is allowed once because if it occurs several times it loses its seriousness and does not have a use for the health of the family to be founded.
Shafi’i sect’s perspective on this issue is important to show the honor and seriousness of the family foundation: Before requesting a meeting, the man who wants to marry should look at the girl. The girl and her family should not know about this. This is more proper for the honor of the girl and her family. This way if he doesn’t like her she and her family does not get hurt. This one is more reasonable and well-accepted method. The hadith telling that it is ok to look at the girl without her information confirms this method.6
After deciding to marry, on the meetings until the marriage, it is clear that the man can look at the lady without a sexual feeling like he can look at other stranger women without such a feeling.
1 Hakim, al-Mustadrak, 2: 166.
2 Nayl al-Awtar, 6: 110.
3 Nasai, Nikah (Marriage): 17.
4 Hakim, al-Mustadrak, 2: 165.
5 Bukhari, Nikah (Marriage): 111.
6 İslâm Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi (Encylopedia of Islamic Jurisprudence), 9: 24.
Mehmed Paksu, Aileye Özel Fetvalar (Juridical decisions for the family)

 

How should engagement and the period of engagement be? What should the criterion for the engaged couple to meet each other be?

 

How should our weddings be?

47 Is it permissible to have my moles surgically removed?

You can have these unpleasant looking moles surgically removed that have appeared later on your face.

If there is a legitimate and reasonable excuse, the question becomes different. For instance, those who have harelip by birth or those who have a similar bodily defect are exceptions. Those who have defects in their bodies as a result of a fire, traffic accident or a similar accident are regarded in the same group. That is, if such a person has a psychological depression in the society, has inferiority complex, his honor is hurt and his defect makes him seem despicable and ugly, removing that defect becomes like a treatment.4 Therefore, there is no drawback to having an aesthetic operation for such a person because Allah does not make the religion a difficulty for us. If the aesthetic operations or other changes in the body are carried out for beauty, not with the intention of removing a defect or ugliness, it is haram; if they are carried out to eliminate a harm or ugliness, and to make the body normal, it is permissible.

To read the whole artcile, please click on the link given below;

Are there any situations where aesthetic surgery is permissible?

48 What is the criterion of permissibility for a food to be aten in Islam?

If it is produced or made by a haram (forbidden) matter such as pork, alcohol, etc it is not permissible to consume it. If it is not produced by a matter that Islam forbid, it is permissible. You need to look through what it contains and by what it is produced.

For further information please click on the links given below.

Is every drink or food in which alcohol present as haram (forbidden)?

Why Muslims don't eat bacon, hog? Why it is banned?

49 Alcohol
Is it permissible to work in a place where alcoholic drinks are served and sold?
It is not permissible to work in a place like a pub or saloon where all of the income comes from alcoholic drinks. However, the state of places like restaurants and supermarkets where permissible goods are sold along with alcoholic drinks is different.  
It is haram (forbidden) to buy, sell, carry and service alcoholic drinks. Therefore, it is not permissible to work in those departments of supermarkets and restaurants. However, it is permissible to work in the other parts like the kitchen in a restaurant. It is better to work in places where all of the income comes from halal (permissible) goods and services.
The religion of Islam did not prefer the way of abruptly eliminating certain bad characters and habits that were common in the community but used a method beginning from the minimum level that directed the affected people towards evolution in a certain way. For instance, the prohibition of interest is one of the latest decrees of Islam. That wound in the commercial life was cured after people reached a certain level through the method of the Quran. Gradualism was accepted as a basis. One of the issues that gradualism was observed was the prohibition of alcoholic drinks. Alcohol was not prohibited at once; it was prohibited after three successive verses that were sent down at certain intervals by making people ready for the prohibition. So much so that, as soon as Muslims heard that alcohol was prohibited, they overturned all of the wine jars and poured them into the streets. 1
The prohibition was not limited to drinking alcohol only; Buying and selling, that is, the trade of alcohol was also prohibited. Our Prophet (PBUH) stated that alcoholic drinks were damned in ten aspects and said the following in a hadith:  «Alcoholic drinks were damned in ten aspects: the drink itself, the producer, he who wants to produce it, seller, customer, carrier, he who makes others carry it, he who makes a living by the money earned from alcohol, he who drinks it and he who makes others drink it. » 2
A person who owns or runs a restaurant, club or a similar place that serves alcoholic drinks is one of the people that are damned. He is in the state of a seller and a person who makes a living by the money earned from alcohol. Therefore, it is not possible to approve of such a way of making a living.
There is no difference between being in a Muslim country and non-Muslim country regarding this issue. Although there is a fatwa (legal opinion, an answer to a question) by Imam Azam Abu Hanifa that it is permissible to sell alcoholic drinks to non-Muslims in a non-Muslim country, his student Imam Abu Yusuf states that a Muslim cannot sell alcoholic drinks even in a non-Muslim country and says: «Being a Muslim means to have accepted all of the decrees of Islam no matter where one is. A Muslim cannot do anything contrary to Islam. »3  Fatwa regarding this issue is in accordance with what Imam Abu Yusuf says. A Muslim cannot buy and sell something that Allah made haram (prohibited) no matter where he is. The decree is the same in Shafi sect too. Something haram is haram anywhere in the world. 
1. Muslim, Musakat: 67.
2. Ibn Majah, Ashriba : 6.
3. Ibn Abidin, Raddu'l-Muhtar, 3 :247.
Mehmed PAKSU (HALAL – HARAM)

50 Watching TV

Deciding whether watching TV is haram or not completely depends on the program. Here  the problem is not in the TV as an electoronic device but in what a person watches in it. There is nothing wrong in watching TV programs that respect to our social, belief system and moral values. As muslims we should always watch programs that are beneficial for us. In addition to this, watching TV kills good traits such as friendship and reading. In conclusion TV can be considered fair as long as the programs are good but watching programs that show nudity is considered haram in Islam.         

51 Is it permissible for a Muslim to sing a song?

A song or a piece of music that is permissible to sing, broadcast and listen to must have the following properties:

1- The lyrics and the clip of the song must not have a depressing and grievous content.

2- The lyrics and the clip must not arouse lustful and carnal desires.

3- The lyrics and the clip must not encourage evil things.

4- The lyrics and the clip must not praise something that is forbidden by Islam.

5- The lyrics must not include words about other people that are unpleasant, that criticize and blame them like backbiting, slandering and gossiping.

6- The lyrics and the clip must not arouse grudge, revenge, animosity, jealousy, hatred and discord.  

7- The person singing the song must avoid using a tune, lyrics and tone of voice that will arouse the feelings of the opposite gender by softening one’s voice, behaving coquettishly, etc.

8- The lyrics of the song, the singing style, its clip, the environment where the song is sung or listened to must be permissible.

For more information please click on the links given below;

Is it Haram to listen to Music?

52 Is it haram to play rock music and listen, and wear tight pants
53 Is it permissible for Muslims to eat the food that is offered by a non- muslim which s/he brought from their worship places?

As a rule, a Muslim can eat the food of a non-Muslim in Islam. The verse of the Koran: “The food of those to whom the Book was given is lawful to you, and your food is lawful to them” (al-Maida 5/5) underlines that reality.
It does not matter whether the food is brought from the church or not. It is enough if the food does not to include pork.

54 Is it permissible to take protein pills that contain "Beef Liver"?

Eating or consuming "beef liver" is halal. So it is permissible to take protein pills that contain beef liver. But ıf it damages the human body then it is not permissible to use it. so you should consult to your doctor before using such pills.     

 

55 When a person eats or drinks alcohol or something unlawful, does s/he really lose his/her religion (belief) for 40 days?

One cannot perform the prayers while drunken. But there is no verse in the Qur'an which states that the person who drinks alcohol cannot perform prayers for forty days. However, in some hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) there are expressions which say that the believers who drink alcohol or perpetrate other sins will have less reward for worships such as obligatory prayers. Our Prophet encouraged people to be more alert by making such warnings so that they avoid grave sins like alcohol. (Tirmidhi, Ashriba, 1; Ibn Maja, Ashriba, 9; Nasai, Ashriba, 45,49)

Ibadah (worship) has certain aspects:

 

-  The slave (of Allah; human) becomes qualified for Paradise through worship. In other words, out of copper, s/he becomes silver and gold.

- S/he fulfills his/her obligations toward Allah.

- Goodness brings about goodness and a circle of goodness forms, which encourages the love in humans for worship and obedience; and that goes on like that.

 

While there are narrations which state that the reward of the worships, who drink alcohol and commit sins, will be reduced; there is no clear reliable source (from the Qur'an or the Sunnah of the Prophet) which states that s/he must compensate for the prayers that s/he performed while drunken; there is not any verse or a verse which was invalidated by another verse, or a weak narration corroborating that.

 

- Just as one improves one's health by doing exercise, so too one acquires love for worship through prayers. However, when s/he performs prayer, a person who drank alcohol is not equal to the person who doesn't ever drink alcohol; the former lacks in pleasure s/he takes from his/her prayer. Therefore, there is no religious basis for saying “the person who drank alcohol cannot perform the obligatory prayers for forty days.”, yet we should also not forget the effect of drinking alcohol mentioned above.

 

A similitude for that: A person lays a foundation for a building, puts up a wall; but if he doesn't build the roof, then the house is unfinished. Similarly, if somebody who drinks alcohol or who earns his/her livelihood through unlawful means, gets ablution and performs the obligatory prayers, then s/he fulfills his/her duty and acquires the reward attached to it, but the roof of the building is still missing. When it is built, too, then Allah's favor will be reflected on him/her.

 

Besides, it is not appropriate not to perform the obligatory prayers for 40 days because s/he drank alcohol or committed another sin. At most, the reward of the prayers who drinks alcohol will be reduced. On the other hand, the person who drinks alcohol or who commits another sin doesn't become an unbeliever; s/he becomes sinful. Actually, the Muslim who performs his/her five daily prayers will not commit such grave sins as alcohol.

 

Performing prayers while still drunken, though, is haram (forbidden). Only after the state of intoxication ends, should s/he perform his/her prayers.

 

How was alcohol prohibited?

 

When Islam came, of course it would be hard to uproot the habits of the people in the Arabic Peninsula all of a sudden, which became rooted in their lives for many years. It is even more difficult to quit such substances as alcoholic drinks, which virtually enslave people to themselves the more they use it. But the light brought by Islam eradicated alcoholic drinks from that community, just like all other bad habits.

 

Another name of Allah is “Hakim” (The Wise). That is, He performs every deed and creates everything in accordance with wisdom and benefit. Similarly, a human being's growing to be an adult, a seed's becoming a tree, an egg's cracking open and flying as a bird, all happen in a certain process. That principle of Allah, which is prevalent in the universe, is also valid for some of the religious decrees. Likewise, our Lord, as a requisite of His name Hakim, willed to forbid the habit of drinking alcohol from that community step by step. On the other hand, if alcohol had been made unlawful all of a sudden, the people of that time, who were addicted to alcohol, might have shown hesitations to embrace Islam. They might not have wanted to quit their habit. For this reason, the verses in the Qur'an about alcohol were revealed step by step according to the following order:

 

1. “And there are (among the produce that God brings forth as nourishment for you on the revived earth) the fruits of the date-palm, and grapes: you derive from them intoxicants and good, wholesome nourishment. Surely in this there is a sign for people who reason and understand.” (The Qur'an, An-Nahl Surah, 16:67) In that verse, it is implied that alcohol is not good nourishment. Some Companions of the Prophet quitted alcohol as it was understood with the revelation of that verse that alcohol is not religiously approved. Indeed, with the revelation of that verse, it was understood that alcohol would be made unlawful in future.

 

2. “They ask you about intoxicating drinks and games of chance. Say: "In both there is great evil, though some use for people, but their evil is greater than their usefulness.” (The Qur'an, Al-Baqarah Surah, 2:219)

 

3. “O you who believe! Do not come forward to (stand in) the Prayer while you are in (any sort of) a state of drunkenness until you know what you are saying...” (The Qur'an, An-Nisa, 4:43) This verse forbade performing the prayers while drunken. In that case, a Companion who performed the five daily prayers without skipping could not drink alcohol between two prayers during daytime. Otherwise, if s/he had drunken alcohol between two prayers during daytime, s/he would not be able to perform the prayer as the effects of drunkenness, which alcoholic drinks produced, would not be over yet. S/he might be able to drink alcohol after the Night Prayer. Under those circumstances, a great many Companions quitted alcohol altogether, too. For the bodies that were addicted to alcohol was now gradually getting away from it.

 

4. “O you who believe! Intoxicants, games of chance, sacrifices to (anything serving the function of) idols (and at places consecrated for offerings to any other than God), and (the pagan practice of) divination by arrows (and similar practices) are a loathsome evil of Satan's doing; so turn wholly away from it, so that you may prosper (in both worlds).” (The Qur'an, Al-Ma'idah Surah, 5:90)

 

5. “Satan only seeks to provoke enmity and hatred among you by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to bar you from the remembrance of God and from Prayer. So, then, will you abstain?” (The Qur'an, Al-Ma'idah Surah, 5:91)

 With that last verse, alcoholic drinks are categorically and definitely forbidden.

 

Anas, one of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates: We were drinking alcohol. I was serving. One man came and said: “Alcoholic drinks are forbidden.” The friends there commanded quickly: “Trash the drinks and clean these cups!” Nobody put a drop of alcohol in their mouths after that news.

56 Is it religiously permissible for a female doctor to treat a male patient?

It is obligatory for a person to maintain life and avoid things that may damage it.

People have the right even the duty to have a medical treatment when they become ill because the body itself is entrusted to people. In order to fulfil worshipping and other sorts of Islamic orders and prohibitions completely, the body needs to be in good health. In case of an illness despite protection, a believer needs to have a medical treatment because, the Prophet ordered “O, the servants of Allah, have (medical) treatment (if necessary)”. ( see Tirmidhi, Tibb, 2; Abu Dawud, Tibb, 1, II; Ibn Majah, Tibb, 1; Ahmad b. Hanbal, III, 156, IV, 278)

As using medication, cleansing wound with surgical operation is included in treatment, operations like blood transfusion when necessary, extracting an organ which needs to be separated from the body are also included in treatment. A doctor can observe the private parts of the patient as much as necessary during an operation. However, for women, it is best to undergo treatment under the control of female doctors and nurses if possible because the Prophet (pbuh) has warnings as regards to this issue.

When the Honored Companions asked the Prophet (pbuh) “O the Apostle of God, should we also care to cover even when we are alone?, he replied “ there is no doubt that Allah deserves to be shown respect.” (Bukhari, Ghasl, 20; Tirmidhi, Adab, 22, 39; Ibn Majah, Wedding, 28). Once, the Prophet (pbuh) went when to the place where the camels of zakat were. When he found the herdsman was naked under the sun, he dismissed him and stated : “A person without embarrasment cannot work for us” (as-Sarakhsi, ibid X,156)

However, it is not unobjectionable to look at the private parts of a man or a woman because of an excuse. For instance, it is permissible for a circumcissor to look at a male’s private part to perform circumcision; similarly, it is permissible in case of an illness. Moreover, during parturition, a midwife looks at the private part of a woman and if a female doctor is not available, a male doctor can carry out the treatment because the Prophet gives permission to a midwife to be available during parturition and bear witness for the birth if necessary. This includes looking at the private parts, too. (as-Sarakhsi, ibid X, 156)

As-Sarakhsi (death 460/1097) states his viewpoint on the matter of treatment of a woman by a male doctor: “If a woman is not available to treat a blister on another woman’s body and if it is not possible to teach a woman the exact way of treatment and if the woman is threatened to death or exhaustion due to this disorder or if the pain is unbearable, it is acceptable for the woman to uncover all the parts except the wound and a man to treat her medically. This man should avoid looking at other parts of the woman’s body except for the part he can help her because it is worse to gaze upon the body of the opposite gender. Here, the state of necessity is important. And it is a life-threatening situation. Even if such a situation arises, other parts apart from necessity are not acceptable to look at. (as-Sarakhsi, ibid X, 157)

57 What can a Muslim do If s/he cannot find Halal meat to eat?

If a Muslim, Christian or a Jewish did not slaughter the animal, it is not enough to say Basmala (In the name of Allah) before/while eating.

That is, "The People of the Books slaughtered is eaten."

With the term of “the People of the Books”, we understand the Christians who believe Gospel and the Jewish who believe Torah among the Books that Allah sent.

Please click on the link given below to read full answer

Is it permissible for Muslims to eat meat slaughtered by Non-Muslims?

58 Why homosexuality is forbidden in Islam?

Homosexuality is contrary to the law of creation. Everything was created in pairs. Even in animals and plants, new products occur within the framework of the law of pairs. The fact that human beings were created in pairs has the same wisdom. The duty of the male of the pair is to inseminate and the duty of the female is to be inseminated. That is, the sperm of the man is in charge of inseminating and the woman is in charge of being inseminated and developing the embryo for the reproduction of human beings.

Homosexuality is contrary to that law of creation. 
Every act that is contrary to the wisdom of the creation of Allah is oppression because oppression means to do something inappropriately and unjustly. Homosexuality, which blocks the way of reproduction for human beings, is an unmatched form of oppression, inappropriateness, shamelessness, aberration and deviance. 
In addition, it is a psychological deviation which is not appropriate to the honor of humanity since all people are disgusted with those kinds of acts in principle. 
It is unthinkable for Islam, which was designed by Allah to show people the right path, to allow such aberration and deviance full of oppression.

Please click on the link given below;

What am I supposed to do?

59 Is it right to have ones body tattooed?

People have been having different parts of their bodies tattooed for a very long time. Today, this custom is maintained in some places. While some young people in Europe and the US do it as an 'ornament', some irresponsible young people in our country imitate them, too. The Arabs of Jahiliyya/Ignorance (the time before Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him) would have themselves tattooed to ornament themselves; at the same time, they believed that their joints became stronger with the various shapes and pictures that they had tattooed on their bodies. Today, however, this does not go beyond the desire to imitate. 

As is commonly known, tattoo is done this way: The body is wounded with needles or similar tools so that blood comes out. Then, the wound is left to heal after putting suet and other substances on it. Finally, a dark green shape forms under the skin. 
According to the hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet prohibited tattooing and having oneself tattooed and stated that the one who does it loses the worthiness for Divine mercy. 
What will the one who had himself/herself tattooed without knowing its illegality in Islam do? Here, the decree changes depending on the material that was used while tattooing. If the materials are among the things that are accepted as 'najis' (dirty) by religion, the tattoo is similarly dirty. If they are clean, then the tattoo is also clean. The thing to do here is to remove it if it is possible to be removed with a small operation. If it is not, and if no opportunity to do it is present, the tattoo is left as it is. This is because Allah does not burden his slave with a burden he cannot bear and does not ask of him the things he cannot undertake. 
As for whether it cancels ablution and ghusl (overall cleansing) or not, tattoo is actually under the skin. In other words, it is under the outer skin. In ablution and ghusl, however, it is fardh (obligatory) to cleanse the surface of the skin, not the part under it. As tattoo is under the skin, its presence on any part of the body does not cancel ablution and ghusl. Ablution and ghusl become sound and valid by cleaning its surface. 
Somebody who committed such a sin without knowing should ask Allah for forgiveness and repent, and may his repentance be accepted, Allah willing.

60 Cat Hair

It is permissible to keep cats in the house. Because cats are not harmful or naajis (impure). You can also pray if your clothes have cat hair on them.

For further information about pets, please click on the link below.

Are pets ok?

 

61 Is it permissible to drink Alcohol-Free Beer?

Alcoholic beverages regardless of its kind are produced by the fermentation of fruit and cereals. The beverage does not consist of only alcohol. There is also water, sweet substances etc, in it. However, regardless of its kind, what actually gives harm to the body in an alcoholic beverage is the chemical called ethyl alcohol which makes one drunk.

Ethyl alcohol exists in different beverages in different amounts. For instance, while it is 5-7% in beer, 15-20% in wine, it is 45-50% in liquor, and 65-70% in vodka and whisky.

Alcoholic beverages do not contain beneficial substances for human body, such as minerals, vitamins, proteins and fats. For this reason, alcoholic beverages do not have a nutritious feature at all. The Prophet (pbuh) stated in one of his hadiths, “if a large quantity of something makes one drunk, little quantity of it is forbidden (haram) too.” (Tirmidhi, ashriba, 3). According to this judgment, everything which contains ethyl alcohol is forbidden in the religion regardless of its amount.

What is Beer? What is Beer Not?

1. Beer is produced by processing sprouted barley and fermenting it. It contains ethyl alcohol in an amount of 5-7%. It is certainly included in alcoholic beverages category.
2. Beer which is marketed as alcohol-free beer is indeed a kind of beer whose ethyl alcohol is reduced via vacuuming. It certainly contains ethyl alcohol in an amount of 1-1.5% (Gıda Bilimi ve Teknolojisi. AÜ Ziraat Fak Teksir No: 113, p.173, Ankara, 1983).

As it can be deduced from that information, beer contains alcohol no matter how much it has been reduced; therefore, it is not permissible to drink.

62 How and when alcoholic drinks were proclaimed religiously forbidden?

Alcoholic drinks were banned in the fourth year of the Hijra (Muslims migration from Mecca to Medina) when Bani Nadeer Jews were driven into exile from their lands.

When the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) honored Medina with his migration, drinking and gambling were widespread among Muslims. When the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) arrived, Muslims asked him for his views about drinking and gambling. Umar offered a supplication to Allah Almighty about a decisive decree to be stated by Him.

After a while, the decree that they had been waiting for came: They ask you about intoxicating drinks and games of chance. Say: "In both there is great evil, though some use for people, but their evil is greater than their usefulness." They also ask you what they should spend (in Gods cause and for the needy). Say: "What is left over (after you have spent on your dependents needs). Thus does God make clear to you His Revelations, that you may reflect" (1)

Upon that, some Muslims quit drinking due to its harm, but some continued to drink as before.

Those who were drunk caused some unpleasant things to happen. During the evening worship, someone from the Muslims was confused as he was reciting the Quran in a way that totally sounded in the reverse meaning.

Umar again supplicated; O Lord! Send us a clear and final verse about drinking.

Before long, the following verse was sent down: O you who believe! Do not come forward to (stand in) the Prayer while you are in (any sort of) state of drunkenness until you know what you are saying, nor while you are in the state of ritual impurity (requiring the total ablution) – save when you are on a journey (and then unable to bathe) – until you have bathed (done the total ablution)... (2)

And this verse was the second phase of the ban on drinking.

Until then, there was a large number of Muslims who drank. When the verse came, they promised the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) not to approach worship when they were drunk. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) remained silent in the face of the promise.

When the prayer times came, some Companions always reminded the others not to come near to worship if they were drunk. Nevertheless, a Muslim came to worship when he was drunk.

Umar again supplicated: O Lord! Give us a clear and final verse about drinking. Then another verse was sent down:

"O you who believe! Intoxicants, games of chance, sacrifices to (anything serving the function of) idols (and at places consecrated for offerings to other than God), and (the pagan practice of) divination by arrows (and similar practices) are a loathsome evil of Satans doing; so turn wholly away from it so that you may prosper (in both worlds)

Satan only seeks to provoke enmity and hatred among you by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to bar you from the remembrance of God and from Prayer. So, then, will you abstain?" (3)

On hearing this final verse, Muslims promised not to approach drinking and gambling any more. And that was the third phase of the ban on alcoholic drinks. Thus, alcoholic drinks were proclaimed religiously forbidden for all Muslims.

After those verses were sent down, a town crier called out to the people of Medina with the order of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) about this final ban.

On hearing this order, all the Muslims poured out their drinks.

Below are some hadiths about the issue:

Verily Allah Almighty curses alcoholic drinks, those who make them, the place where they are made, who drink them, and who make others drink them, who carry them, who get them carried, who sell and buy them, and who make a living with them. (4)

Every intoxicating substance is haram (religiously prohibited).

Whoever keeps drinking in the world and dies before s/he could repent, s/he will not be able to drink sherbet (sweet nonalcoholic drinks) in the hereafter. (5)

Stay away from drinking alcohol! For it is a key to every evil thing. (6)

Alcohol is the mother of all evil things. (7)

Very little of those intoxicants is also haram (religiously unlawful). (8)

1. al-Baqara, 219.

2. an-Nisa,43.

3. al-Maida, 90-91.

4. Abu Dawud, Sanan, 2:292.

5. Muslim 5:100.

6. Hakim, Mustadrak, 4:145.

7. Daraqutni, Sunan, 4:247.

8. Abu Dawud, Sanan, 2:294.

63 Is it permissible for me to date a non-Muslim?

A woman cannot touch any Muslim or non-Muslim. She cannot stay alone with a man in a place and cannot show her private parts. Besides it is haram for a Muslim woman to get marry with a non-Muslim. It would be considered adultery if they get marry.

The verse 221 of the Surah al-Baqara clearly and apparently tells us that marriages between polytheists and Muslims are forbidden regardless of gender. A polytheist is a person who associates partners with Allah and who believes that there are other gods and who worships them. As for the People of the Scripture (Book), according to Islam, it means the people who had got further away and deviated from their original religions in terms of belief and worship when Islam emerged, who believed in a prophet and the religion he brought even if they lost their original books and who regarded their religion as the true religion although it was distorted according to Islam. When looked at closely, it can be seen that there are some polytheistic elements within faiths of the People of the Scripture, at least in some of them; they think that some created people like Jesus and Mary have some features special to Allah and worship them. For that reason, the faith of the People of the Scripture cannot save them from Hell unless they clear their faith from the polytheistic components. Despite this, since Christians and Jews have had some beliefs and applications based on revelation even if in part and are probably more inclined to believe in the Right Religion, they have been given some privileges and they have been made exempt from some of the laws peculiar to unbelievers. One of those exceptions relevant to our issue is that “Muslim men are allowed to marry women of the People of the Scripture”.
In the verse 5 of the Surah al-Maeda, after it is expressed that Muslim men and women can eat foods of the People of the Scripture (if offered), it is said that just Muslim men can marry women from the People of the Scripture; it is not stated that a Muslim woman can marry a man from the People of the Scripture. As there is nothing about it, we need to arrive at a decision based on the applications of the Prophet (pbuh); if there is not such an application, then we need to come to a decision by making comparison. Since women and men are subject to different rules about marriage, it is not possible to apply a rule about one gender for the other. Therefore,  a comparison was not made about the issue. As a matter of fact, before comparison, there is Sunnah. Some Sahabah and mujtahids who bring a different comment on the verse, said that even marriages between Muslim men and woman from the People of the Scripture is not halal (permitted) after the death of the Prophet. As for the issue about a Muslim woman’s marriage to a man from the People of the Scripture, they did not even make it a matter of discussion.  There were men from the People of the Scripture in places where Muslim women lived in the time of our Prophet but there was not an example of such a marriage; there has been a consensus about that it is not halal. Fiqh scholars accepting that judgment as a rule based their views on this verse of the Quran about women who migrated from the country of unbelievers to a Muslim country in addition to the evidences mentioned above “O ye who believe ! When believing women come to you as Refugees, examine them. Allah knows best their faith. Then if you find them true believers, send them not back to the unbelievers.” Being supported by some other evidences, it was concluded that that the word “unbeliever” mentioned above included the People of the Scripture and that a Muslim woman could not get married to a man from the People of the Scripture or could not maintain her marriage ( al-Baqara 2/212). Most of the Fiqh scholars did not see a difference between marriages that continued and new marriages and some Fiqh scholars paying attention especially to some applications in the time of our Prophet and Umar said that it was not permissible to get married but that the marriage would not be invalid if one of the spouses became a Muslim ( Ibn Qayyim, Ahkam'u Ahli'z-Zimma, Damascus 1961, , 317 et al. , 340 et al.). Qardavi, one of contemporary scholars, also accepted that judgment. 
It is natural that Islam wants to be spread and be accepted by people. A more natural outcome of it is to maintain the religion of the people and the following generations that believe in it. Maintaining it becomes possible through education and the most important means of education is family. If there are two religions in a family, it will affect the children and will pose a serious risk for them. For this reason, the ideal one is that Muslims get married to Muslims and start a family. If there is not a compulsory reason for it, a Muslim man should get married to a Muslim woman. It is more important that the husband of a Muslim woman should be a Muslim in terms of protection, education, and influence. In some matters like the continuation of the lineage, heritage, and guardianship, if the father is not a Muslim, there will be a series of problems. We can easily understand why it is not permissible for a Muslim woman to get married to a non-Muslim man when all those reasons are taken into consideration.
Prof. Dr. Hayrettin Karaman

64 What is Backbiting? Is it allowable for some certain cases?

Gossip, backbiting
Unnecessary, empty talk, backbiting
It is the bad habit called (backbiting). It is criticizing some faults of a person when the person is absent. And that person will not be happy with what you say about him/her. It is considered to be both an unlawful and immoral behavior in Islam.
Backbiting results from the habit of seeking faults of others. Some people tend to seek and disclose the faults of other people, instead of correcting their own faults. When they are warned, they just insist on repeating the same mistake, together with claiming to tell the truth. In fact, the backbiter is not a liar. It would be a slander if he/she lied. (al-Munziri, at-Targhib wa't-Tarhib, Egypt 1962, V, 157).

Backbiting is strictly forbidden in the Quran. “Do not speak ill of each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it?” (al-Hujurat 37/12).
In many hadiths narrated from the Prophet (PBUH), it is definitely described to be a disgusting behavior and strictly forbidden. “Backbiting is worse than adultery, because, an adulterer may repent and Allah may accept his/her repentance, but a backbiter can be pardoned, only, on condition that, the person that he/she backbit forgives him/her.”

Backbiting is of several types: 1- With the tongue: Uttering the faults of someone. For instance: Saying about someone “So-and-so man is the son of a garbage man, he is a skinny person, he is haughty, he is inept..” with the intention of speaking ill of somebody.

2- With the eyes, hands or gestures: Using these organs in order to defame someone. For example: Meaning that somebody is short by using the hands, walking lame or squinting the eyes. Or by counting his/her own faults in order to mention others’ faults.

3- With the heart: To think bad things about somebody whom you did not see, hear or know for sure.

Backbiting is considered to be allowable for some certain cases, although it is morally repugnant. Such as;

1- When someone is in the position of testifying about someone, it is permitted to backbite him/her. It means, it is lawful to say whatever he knows about that person. He cannot act differently.

2- If the man who is backbitten is of the kind that does not bother to hide his/her faults, then it is permitted to backbite him.

3- People who are in power and persecute the public, or try to invent immoral things, may be backbitten. Through this attitude, their vice is expected to be stopped.

Gossips other than these, are unlawful and forbidden because they demolish the dignity.

Such unlawful backbitings are a serious disease which should be removed once the remedy is known. Each backbiting erases the good deeds in the Book of Deeds. Furthermore, those erased good deeds are recorded in the backbitten man’s Book of Deeds.

The atonement for backbiting is seeking forgiveness from Allah, regretting and seeking forgiveness from the very person that was backbitten. Even if he does not forgive, the backbiter should praise him, beg him to forgive and try to please him.

The listener of a gossip, shares a part of this sin. Therefore, the backbiter must be silenced properly. The backbitten must be defended. (al-Munziri)
Hasan Fehmi KUMANLIOĞLU
Please click on the link given below;

What is Talebearing? What does Islam say about it? What is the difference between Backbiting and Talebearing?

65 Is it permitted to shake hands with women?

Firstly, I want to highlight an essential point. I will then continue with the details of the matter. The point is as follows:

One may not be able to practice a truth. One may perform something wrong. Here, the most important thing is, not to defend the mistake that one makes, but to admit the truth.

Thus, one saves the situation from worsening. In this way, one possesses the virtue to acknowledge the truth instead of defending the wrong. One saves one's faith.

If somebody says “I am living something wrong; therefore I should defend the wrong that I live, and I should deny the truth.” in this case the situation becomes very bad. Practicing something wrong emerges from being sinful; believing in the truth emerges from being a believer; and one who defends the wrong may be face to face with the attribute of denier who opposes the truth. From that exactly the danger comes. So one should not defend the wrong one lives and should not deny the truth one cannot practice. On the contrary, one should admit and accept the truth saying “I will, too, practice that truth one day.” so that at least s/he stays as a sinful believer, and does not fall into the state of a denier inclined to unbelief.

Indeed, in our time, the number of those who practice all the truths in their selves is not high. We all have flaws and shortcomings and in admittance to that we ask Allah for forgiveness and we retain our intention and perseverance to compensate for our shortcomings one day. In this understanding, we should not see it permitted to shake hands with women. However, if we are encountered with such a sin, we should know our mistake and should repent.

For a man to shake hands with a woman whom he can religiously marry, and for a woman to shake hands with men other than her mahrams such as father, brother, and uncles whom she cannot marry is not seen permitted. The Prophet, peace and blessings upon him, is a very good example and an infallible measure for us in this matter, too. The Prophet addressed the women companions who came to him for biat (pledging to follow him) this way:

I don't shake hands with women. The word I say to a hundred women is like the word I say to one woman.” 1

Our Mother Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, narrates what she observed in Allah's Messenger:

The blessed hand of Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, did not touch the hand of any stranger woman by any means.” 2

The measure in hadiths (sayings of The Prophet) is expressed thus. For this reason, whether in working life or in family relations and in certain ceremonies, it is not permitted for a man to shake hands with a stranger woman and for a woman with a stranger man. Moreover, that's not a necessity.

In other words, one cannot choose to violate that prohibition of one's own accord by saying “This is a necessary situation.” 'Necessity' is applied only when one is in an imperative situation and if the thing that is forbidden is not done, one's life, property and integrity will be harmed and this is foreseen with a high probability.

Otherwise, doing something forbidden and practicing it by saying “This is a necessity.” in any troubling situation and in any encountered urgent and immediate situation leads to misuse. In this case, anybody brings a pretext of their own for 'necessity' at their own will and thus everything inappropriate becomes 'permitted'.

However, that's not the case. Necessity can be in question only in situations when it is impossible to stay in the circle of the permitted. A Muslim can stay and live in the circle of the permitted without harming his/her social relations. Therefore, it is not that easy to find a just reason for practicing with the pretext of necessity and for men's shaking hands with women who are permitted for them to marry and women's shaking hands with men who are permitted for them to marry.

This is because there is no necessity involved. If not done, no harm or shortcoming would befall one's life, property or integrity. It is not probable that there are rightful reasons for thinking that the vicinity will see it different, that if one does not shake hands with the other sex, civilized relations will be harmed, that one will be viewed as “reactionary, bigot” by attracting attention...

In addition, this wrong habit and etiquette from the West has found widespread acceptance. How to act in the face of such a situation? How to behave in such a way that we will both not renounce our beliefs and thus fail our responsibilities and not break our addressee's heart who does not really know that this is something not appropriate in religion?

First of all, if you know and believe that this is something forbidden, which is the case, then you will take pains not to fall into an objectionable situation and try to avoid doing it and to act according to the situation.

Second, you find an opportunity to tell your addressee that it is forbidden according to Islam. Indeed, it is a requisite of his/her civility that s/he shows tolerance and understanding toward you and respects your belief and view. If you show your behavior about that, you will see that in the next encounters the matter will be solved or the flow of the matter will be in a very different way.

In addition, if the person sees oneself as obliged, and does shaking hands by knowing it as a sin, as s/he will have accepted the responsibility from the start, s/he performs a forbidden action. But if s/he thinks “There is no harm in that.”, as s/he sees prohibition as permission, s/he will bear a grave responsibility.

Meanwhile, let us remind this: If the woman is so old that she does not have lustful desires any more, there is no harm in shaking hands with her and kissing her hand. For then there is no drawback related to feelings any more. Nevertheless, however old a man is, whether he is eighty-ninety years old, prohibition continues.

It does not annul ritual ablution to shake hands with women in the Hanafi Sect.

1 Nasai, Biy’a: 18; Ibn Maja, Jihad: 43.
2 Bukhari, Ahkam, 49; Ibn Maja, Jihad: 43.

Mehmed Paksu Aileye Özel Fetvalar

66 Is it permissible to open an online lingerie store and sell woman clothing?

It is religiously permitted to sell women underwear on such a website.

One of the conditions necessary to sell a product is that that product should be available and religiously proper. However, if the product is available, selling or buying a commercial product is permitted in the religion (Majallah art. 127). However, goods that has the other conditions – availability, deliverability and being known – (See Majallah, art 197-204) are permissible to buy and sell under normal conditions.

67 Blood transfusion, graft and organ transplantation

Blood transfusion, tissue and organ transplantation have been among medical treatments in our age. In that case, when there are no other remedies in order to save somebody’s life or a vital organ, treatment through blood transfusion, tissue and organ transplantation can be permitted on condition that some conditions are fulfilled.

Accordingly, If the following conditions are fulfilled, performing organ or tissue transplantation is permissible:

1. For organ or tissue transplantation from a living person to a living person:

* There must not be a physical or a spiritual oppression,

* It must not be a threat for the health of the donor,

* Besides that, for organs or tissues that can not renew themselves;

* There must be no other ways to save the life or a vital organ of the patient,

* The doctors must be of the opinion that the illness can be cured by that way,

* The donor must be sane and he must consent to his organ’s  being removed,

* The organ or tissue to be removed must not be a vital organ or tissue.

2. For organ or tissue transplantation from a dead person to a living person:

* There must be no other solutions to save the life or a vital organ of the patient,

* The doctors must be of the opinion that the illness can be cured by that way,

* The person whose organ or tissue will be removed must be dead during the transplantation process.

* The person whose organ or tissue will be removed must give permission before dying or his relatives must consent to it on condition that he did not have any declaration against donation of his organs when he was alive.

Moreover, taking a benefit or a fee in return for an organ or a tissue that will be removed is not permissible in both cases.  

68 Wahhabis say that tombs are indicators of shirk (polytheism). How was the application of the Companions? What are the views of the Islamic scholars regarding the issue?

It is mustahab to raise the soil on the grave for about twenty cm or more so that the grave will be easy to find and it will not be trodden on. Unlike the other three madhabs, the majority of Shafiis hold the view that it is more appropriate to make the grave level with the ground. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) erected a largish stone on the head part of the grave of Uthman b. Maz'un and said, "I will know the grave of my brother and find it thanks to this stone; I will also bury the people from my family near it."(1)

Acting upon the hadiths (2) that prohibited writing things on the grave, most of the fiqh scholars regard it makruh (abominable) to write anything on the grave no matter what it is about. According to Hanafis and some other scholars, there is no drawback to writing things on the grave so that the grave will not be lost and it will not be trodden on because despite the prohibition in the hadiths, writings have been written on the graves as if there is a consensus. Hakim an-Nishaburi states that the narrations regarding the issue were sound but the application did not turn out to be in compliance with them adding that writings were written on the graves of all of the leaders of Muslims and that it was something the successors took over from the predecessors.(3) After reporting the determination of Hakim, Ibn Abidin says the issue is strengthened by the hadith regarding Uthman b. Maz'un; he adds that writings can be written only due to those reasons stated above and that it is makruh to write verses, poems and writings praising the dead person on the gravestone. (4)

Taking the statement of the Prophet (pbuh) he made during his last illness about the outward appearance of the graves into consideration,  

"May Allah damn Jews and Christians. They turned the graves of their prophets into mosques and temples."

(5) and similar hadiths, the scholars stated different views about building domes, tombs and buildings on the graves.

According to Hanafis, Malikis and Shafiis, it is haram to build houses, domes, tombs on the graves in the private property in order to show off and boast; it is makruh if there is not such a purpose. It is haram in both cases to build buildings, etc on the graves in public cemeteries and lands allocated for graves by their owners. Hanbalis regard it as makruh tahrimi without discriminating between them.

It is makruh to build mosques or to perform prayers in the cemeteries according to all madhhabs except Hanbalis, who regard it as haram. The aim of the prohibition in hadiths is to protect the belief of oneness and to prevent show off and extravagance. It was prohibited to make graves like mosques and to turn them into mosques because people with weak knowledge of religion could confuse them with mosques and could regard the person in the grave as a superhuman being. Besides, it is not regarded permissible to build the graves using materials like marble, stones, etc by spending a lot of money in order to show off.

Some scholars regard it permissible to build tombs over the graves of saint, scholars, sultans, the wives and children of sultans. There are some scholars who regard it permissible to build tombs and domes on the graves if there are many buildings and domes in a place and if those tombs and domes do not lead to any respect and similar homage to the people in those graves but serve to make the names of those people known. (6)

All madhhabs except Wahhabis agree unanimously that it is necessary to put or erect a stone or a similar sign so that the name and place of the dead person will be known.  

It is understood from the fact that the dead bodies of Hazrat Prophet (pbuh), Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar are in a room that the decree of the hadiths that prohibit constructing buildings and domes on the graves is not absolute and that the applications of some Companions who understood the decree as limited and based on some conditions.(7) Here, an interpretation can be made that rather than the violation of the prohibition stated by the hadith, there was, at first, an uncompromising prohibition aiming at protecting the belief of oneness just like the prohibition of visiting graves, but later the prohibition was moderated as the risk of aberration from oneness and returning to shirk diminished in parallel with the demand from the society.  As a matter of fact, it is known that some people from the Companions, their successors and the successors of their successors constructed tombs (buildings, tents) on the graves. For instance, Hazrat Umar made a tomb on the grave of Zaynab bint Jahsh, Hazrat Aisha on the grave of Abdurrahman, her brother, Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyya on the grave of Ibn Abbas, and Fatima, Husayn’s daughter, on the grave of Hasan, her husband, and who is also the sun of her uncle. It is reported that the building on the grave of Abdurrahman was later pulled down by Abdullah b. Umar. (8)

Ali al-Kari states that the scholars of predecessors regard it permissible to construct domes and tombs on the graves of famous saints and scholars so that people will visit them and rest there.(9) Ibnu'l-Humam, a Hanafi scholar says that it is permissible not makruh, according to preferred view, to build a place to enable people to sit while reading the Quran next to the grave. (10), (11)

Footnotes:

1. Abu Dawud, "Janaiz", 63; cf. Ibn Majah, "Janaiz", 42

2. Müslim, "Janaiz", 94, 95; Ebû Dâvûd, "Janaiz", 76; Tirmidhi, "Janaiz", 58

3. al-Mustadrak, I, 370

4. Raddu'l-Mukhtar, 11, 237-238

5. Bukhari, "Janaiz", 62; Abu Dawud, "Janaiz", 76

6. Hasan al-Idwi, Mashariku'l-Anwar, Egypt, 1316/26

7. Süleyman Uludağ, Mezar ve Türbe, Nesil, II/1, İstanbul 1977, p. 25

8. Ayni, VII, 46

9. Mirqatu'l-Mafatih, II, 372; Ibn Abidin, I, 237

10. Fathu'l-Qadir, 1,473

11. DiA, Kabir Maddesi.

69 What is the criterion of permissibility for a food to be aten in Islam?

If it is produced or made by a haram (forbidden) matter such as pork, alcohol, etc it is not permissible to consume it. If it is not produced by a matter that Islam forbids, it is permissible. You need to search what it contains and by what it is produced.

Is any kind of gelatin haram for muslim?

70 Will getting a "Tattoo" still be haram regardless of the material used?

It is religiously not permissible to have one’s body tattooed regardless of the material used.

For more information about this subject, please click on the link given below.

Is it right to have one’s body tattooed?

71 Can one whose hand touched pork eat something without washing his/her hand?

Because the pig is najis (dirty, not clean), it makes where it touches najis. So, if one’s hand touches pork, s/he cannot eat anything with that hand. However, s/he can eat with untouched parts of his/her hand. If s/he washes his/her hand, the state of najasah disappears. And the criterion of washing is to wash at least three times.   

72 Is the Real Estate Business and Brokerage Permissible?

The real estate business and brokerage and charging money for the goods that are sold is permissible.

Brokerage is a legitimate profession. What a broker does is to make efforts in order to make the buyer and seller meet and agree. There must be a fee for this service. It is a legitimate job. However, the first condition of this profession just like the other professions is not to tell lies about the prices when making buyers and sellers meet.    

The fee for this service can be negotiated separately. The usual price for this kind of work in the neighborhood or the market can be agreed on. The broker cannot take the difference himself by showing the price of one party higher or lower than it is. What he deserves is the fee for the brokerage. Furthermore, he cannot have extra money for himself secretly by changing the price of the goods, because he is a broker. He is not a partner of the buyer or the seller.    

73 What are the Significant Points in the Relations Between Man and Woman?

For the answer please click on the link given below.

What are the Significant Points in the Relations Between Man and Woman?

74 What is Gambling? What is the view of Islam on Gambling?

Gambling means to give or take money or goods depending on something that is not known how it will end. No matter what the name is, any game or bet that has this property and that is played in return for money or goods is called gambling. The word "maysir" mentioned in the Quran is derived from the word "yusr", which means ease, which indicates that money or goods are obtained or lost easily in gambling. 

Gambling is a way of obtaining undeserved money which makes man forget his Creator, prevents him from performing prayers, leads him to laziness, eliminates his strength to work and causes grudge and enmity among people. All kinds of gambling, which causes irreparable wounds in individual and social life, are haram in the religion of Islam.

The following is stated in the Quran regarding the issue:

"O ye who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities" (al-Baqara, 2/188; an-Nisa, 4/29).

"O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination― of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper. Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer (al-Maida, 5/90, 91; Ibn Abidin Raddu'l Mukhtar, İstanbul 1307, V, p. 355; Hamdi Yazır, Hak Dini Kur'an Dini, İstanbul 1960, II, p. 766).

Gambling and its harms:

There is no difference between alcohol and gambling in terms of being forbidden and being a sin. Allah renders them haram in the same verse:

" O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination― of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper." (al-Maida, 5/90).

All kinds of games of chance that cause benefit or harm are regarded as gambling. Gambling means to get a person's money or goods unjustly and to steal one's money or goods deliberately. Gambling is a social disaster. It is always seen that this destructive evil prohibited strictly by the religion of Islam destroys many families. Those who gamble around a table until morning due to the excitement caused by greed and ambition lose their health, wealth, ethics and money; they lose their human feeling. Those who win today lose some other day. 

Wives, children and the poor have the right on the money lost at gambling. The money obtained by gambling is not legitimate.

As gambling becomes widespread, social harms will increase. Working is replaced by laziness. The productivity in business life decreases. Gambling brings along evil deeds like alcohol, telling lies, greed, grudge, revenge and murder.

Gambling also causes disorders, disagreements and neglects in family life. There are many people who sell their religion, honor and country due to gambling and who tread on all kinds of sacred values.

Gambling becomes an addiction in a very short time like alcohol. It is very difficult to get rid of it. Therefore, gambling and alcohol are very dangerous habits. 

All kinds of games of chance in which you win or lose money like dice, card games, lottery, football pools, lotto, betting and sweepstakes are regarded as gambling.

All games of chance are played to enjoy and to spend time at first. As man wins, he plays for the sake of the pleasure and ambition of winning. As he loses, he plays in order to get back what he has lost. Then, he becomes a gambler. It should not be forgotten that those who lose everything at gambling tables, who sell whatever they have and live in debauchery and poverty, who destroy their wives and children start gambling as a means of pleasure and entertainment at first.  

It is an important duty to keep away from gambling as well as protecting the people around us especially our family members from gambling. The duty of protecting family members from harmful and evil things and educating them for a lifestyle that Allah and His Messenger want is given to the head of the family by the Quran:

" O ye who believe! save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe who flinch not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded " (at-Tahrim, 66/6).

If games like backgammon, chess, checkers, cards, tennis, and billiards are played with the intention of gambling by risking money, they are also regarded as gambling.

There are various hadiths of Hz. Prophet that prohibit backgammon: "A person who plays backgammon is regarded to have disobeyed Allah and His Messenger ." (Abu Dawud, Adab, 56; Ibn Majah, Adab, 43; Malik, Muwatta', 6; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, IV, 394, 397, 400). "The state of a person who plays backgammon and then performs prayers is like the state of a person who makes wudu with pus and the blood of pig and then performs prayers." (Ahmad b. Hanbal, V, 370).

Acting upon the general prohibition of backgammon in these hadiths, most of the scholars of Islam say that playing backgammon is not permissible.  Ibn al-Musayyab and some other Islamic scholars hold the view that it is not haram to play backgammon if the intention is not gambling. Cards and dominoes are regarded as the same as backgammon.  

The game of chess, which is called "shatranj" in Arabic, appeared during the period of the Companions after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh); therefore, there is no hadith of the Prophet regarding chess. The Companions and Tabiun scholars stated three views about chess:

According to the Companions and Tabiun scholars like Abdullah b. Abbas, Abu Hurayra, Ibn Shirin, Hisham b. Urwa, Said b. al-Musayyab, Said b. al-Jubayr, it is permissible to play chess.  

According to Imam Shafii, chess is makruh tanzihi; according to Abu Hanifa, Malik and Ahmad b. Hanbal, it is haram.

Considering that chess is more like a game of intelligence and a brain sport rather than a game of chance and that there is no definite prohibition about it, this conclusion is made. However, it is understood that the Companions liken it to backgammon. As a matter of fact, the following is narrated from Abdullah b. Umar: "Chess is worse than backgammon." It is stated that Hz Ali regards it as gambling. (Ibn Kathir, Tafsiru'l-Qur'ani'l-Azim, İstanbul 1985, III, 170). On the other hand, it is reported that Yahya b. Sad heard the following from Imam Malik: "There is no good in chess; it is makruh to play chess and other games of chance." Imam Malik was reading the following verse while uttering that sentence:  "…Apart from Truth, what (remains) but error? "(Yunus, 10/32; see Malik, Muwatta, Ru'ya, 7).

Checkers is a game like chess. In the games of tennis and billiards, sport is prevalent. They need to be permissible unless some illegitimate elements are added to them.

In conclusion, four conditions are laid as necessary for the games that are played only for relaxation, entertainment and pleasure without the purpose of gambling to be religiously permissible:

a. They must not make people miss or delay fard prayers.

b. People must not expect any material benefits.

c. Players must abstain from uttering bad and unnecessary words during the game.

d. People must not waste their time by playing so much that cannot be regarded as relaxation and entertainment.

75 What is the decree for men to wear ear rings, necklaces, bracelets etc made of silver or other kinds of material except for gold?

Men are forbidden to wear golden accesories for adornment in the hadiths. Some hadiths regarding this issue are as follows: “ The Prophet (pbuh) forbade men to wear golden rings” (Bukhari, Clothing, 45); “The Prophet (pbuh) used to wear a golden ring. When he noticed people began to wear golden rings too, he threw the ring away and said he would never wear that any more. Then, people, therefore, threw their rings away.” (Bukhari, Clothing, 46) “The Prophet (pbuh) got a golden ring. When he noticed other people also began to get such rings, he threw the ring way and he got a silver one.” (Bukhari, Clothing, 45) In this case, it is permissible for men to wear silver or platinum rings. As silver and platinum are different than gold, they are subject to its decree. Nevertheless, ear rings, bracelets, necklaces except rings have been accessories for women in our tradition. In Islam, it has not been considered suitable for men to wear accesories which go with women. Since men’s wearing such accesories is generally regarded as resemblance to women in our tradition, this has always been looked down upon through the history. A report about resemblance to women is as follows: Ibni Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported the Prophet’s (pbuh) statement: “ The Prophet (pbuh) cursed upon men who try to look like women and women who try to look like men”. (Bukhari, Clothing, 61-62 (5585-5586) For this reason, it is best not to wear any accesories even if it is not made of gold and if it causes a lot of condemnation in that society when it is worn by men.

76 With the wife's permission is having another woman to fulfill some needs a sin?

In terms of the validity of the marriage, it is not necessary for a man to inform his wife or to get permission from her when he wants to marry another woman. However, a man is advised to inform his wife about his intention and not to do it secretly for the sake of the tranquility of the family.
A man is allowed to marry more than one woman only if he has decided to treat the women equally in terms of behavior, sleeping with them, justice, clothes, meeting their needs and other issues and he really needs another woman. Otherwise, it is not permissible. If he does not act accordingly, he will commit haram and infringe others’ rights.
Allah allowed marrying more than one woman in the Quran. However, He wanted men to marry only one woman if they cannot treat them justly. Therefore, we can readily say that it is not right to marry more than one woman unless it is necessary because it is almost impossible at least very difficult to treat women equally and that not every man can manage to do it.
However, if a man thinks that it is absolutely necessary for him to marry another woman, he can marry in the presence of witnesses; it is not fard (obligatory) for him to inform his relatives about it. 
Polygamy is not a system that Islam introduced. It was very common and widespread without any limits before Islam. It was impossible for a woman even to express her opinion. Islam came in such an environment and reduced the number of women in polygamy from twenty or thirty to four. In addition, Islam laid conditions for polygamy. It laid some difficult conditions like treating one’s wives equally. Otherwise, Islam advised that marrying one woman is better.
There are important reasons (wisdoms) why Islam allows polygamy. Some of the reasons are diseases that affect many people, disproportion of males and females in the population, etc. For instance, in the western culture a man cannot marry another woman even if his wife is paralyzed or has gone mad. Therefore, man is forced to seek illicit ways. Generally, men take part in wars. Many men die in wars; and, especially at the end of time, more females are born than men due to a wisdom that we do not know, which causes more women to remain unmarried. Sometimes polygamy becomes necessary whether due to serious diseases or women outnumbering men.  Otherwise, the family home may become like hell for a man and many women may be deprived of the holy right of marriage. It harms social peace and deteriorates ethics.
The permission of Islam for polygamy aims to cure those conditions.
In this century, it is better for men to be content with monogamy if possible. It will prevent them from oppression, unhappiness and harming the rights of the second, third or fourth women and their children in terms of law. Although it is not necessary to get permission from one’s wife to marry another woman, it is better to get her permission and consent for the continuation of respect and love in the family.
POLYGAMY
Ancient Egypt Law:
A man was allowed to marry more than one woman under some conditions.
Babylonian Law: According to Hammurabi laws, a man was allowed to have a concubine if his wife could not give birth to a child or if she had a serious illness.
Chinese Law: If a man were rich, he was allowed to have secondary wives. However, the children from those secondary women were regarded as the children of the primary wife.
Ancient Brahmans: According to the book Vichnou, men could marry one, two, three or more women in accordance with their classes. In the book Apastamba there was a limit; if the woman carried out her tasks and she had a male child, the husband was not allowed to marry a second woman. In the laws of Manu, a man had to choose his first wife from the same social class; he was allowed to marry a woman of lower classes as his second wife
Ancient Iran: Polygamy was legal.
Roman Law: A man was allowed to have a concubine, without a legal wedding.
The Bible: It is stated in the Old Testament that Hazrat Dawood married more than one woman. There are some other places that mention polygamy in the Old Testament. There existed polygamy in Judaism too.
In the New Testament, there is nothing prohibiting polygamy. However, there are recommendations that it is better to be content with one wife.
In Christianity, polygamy was normal until the 16th century.
Arabia before Islam: There were no limitations regarding polygamy. A man was allowed to marry as many women as he wanted; sometimes, men even exchanged their wives. 
POLYGAMY IN ISLAM
Allah states the following:"If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two, or three, or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or that which your right hands possess. That will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice." (an-Nisa / 3)
It is seen clearly in the verse that marrying more than one woman 2, 3 and finally 4 is not an order that has to be carried out like fard or wajib (compulsory) but a permission. However, the permission depends on dealing justly among the wives. It is stated that being content with one wife is the closest and the truest way to justice; it is ordered that a person who fears he will not be able to treat them justly should be content with one wife.  
PRINCIPLES OF ISLAM REGARDING POLYGAMY
1)
Limitation of the number: Islam put a limitation to the limitless number of marriages of men of the period of Jahiliyyah (Ignorance). After Allah sent down that verse, acting on the order of the Messenger of Allah, those who had more than 4 wives divorced the extra ones.
2) Dealing justly among wives: It will be in eating, drinking, clothing, housing, intercourse and love. However, it is very difficult, almost impossible to deal justly in terms of love. Various physical and psychological characteristics will cause differences in the level of love. No matter how hard a man tries to deal justly, it is almost impossible for him to achieve it.
Allah states the following:
"Ye are never able to do justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire: but turn not away (from a woman) altogether, so as to leave her (as it were) hanging (in the air). If ye come to a friendly understanding and practice self-restraint, Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." (an-Nisa/ 129)
In this verse, Allah exempts men from dealing absolutely justly in terms of love and affection. However, He prohibits men from inclining totally to one and ignoring the other(s), and He orders men to do their best to deal justly.
The following is stated in a hadith: "A man who has two wives and who is completely inclined to one and who ignores the other emerges with one side of his body paralyzed in the Day of Judgment." (Hadith; Ibn Majah, Nikah, 47; Mishqatl’l-masabih, 2/196)
A woman does not consent to share his husband with another woman under normal circumstances, and no woman would like to marry a married man unless she has to.
It is a necessity of belief to believe that polygamy is allowed. However, to believe it does not necessarily mean for a woman to consent to the second marriage of her husband and approve it.
No believer father is expected to consent to his son-in-law to marry a second, third or fourth woman along with his daughter. The jealousy nature of the woman and the affection of the father prevent it. As a matter of fact,
The daughter of our Prophet, Hazrat Fatima, objected to his husband’s, Hazrat Ali’s, marrying to a second woman. If it were not permissible to object, Hazrat Fatima, who was brought up by our Prophet, would not have objected. The Messenger of Allah would have warned her and ordered her to consent to her husband’s wish. However, it did not happen like that. On the contrary, the Messenger of Allah, who saw that his daughter was sorry, asked Hazrat Ali to give up his wish and told him that if he did not give up, he could marry another woman after divorcing Hazrat Fatima. He did not consent to Hazrat Ali’s second marriage and his depressing his daughter.
By considering that act of the Messenger of Allah, it can be stated that Muslim daughters and fathers may object to the second marriage of the husband or son-in-law.
To sum up: Islam neither orders nor prohibits polygamy. It only permits it when it is absolutely necessary. There is no need to say much after narrating the incident above.

77 Why did Allah create fornication which is a very evil deed?

We may ask such a question at this point. Essentially, this action is not fornication in creation. It was created as a action of sexual intercourse so that human generations could be reproduced. It is a very beneficial deed in terms of its result.

The thing Allah created is not fornication. Fornication is a deed which a person decides to commit of his own accord. What Allah created is sexual intercourse and it is bestowed just for reproduction. It is a God-given blessing for people to continue their generation.

The pleasure therein is an advance payment to people in order to continue their generation. Humans are obliged to use this pleasure and satisfaction within legal bounds. When they misuse it in places which they do not own, it is the commitment of fornication.

Allah creates things based on general results and general benefits. It is man’s own faults due to his actions if they result in some sort of unfortunate evil. See how our Lord states this fact in a verse from the Qur’an : “(O human being!) Whatever good happens to you, it is from God; and whatever evil befalls you, it is from yourself.”( the Qur’an, an-Nisa, 4:79)

In other words, the committer of fornication is the human, so the hideousness, therefore, belongs to human. However, while human commits it, the action is created by Allah. Since it is he who commits fornication, it is him who should be punished.

M. Ali Seyhan

78 What is the judgment about celebrating a birthday in Islam?

It is not a sin, in general, to hold ceremonies and meetings for wedding anniversaries or birthdays. Rather, the actions during those occasions are under question. Sinful situations may occur in them.
People come together, eat lawful things, chat lawfully, ponder that one more leaf of the life has fallen, one more year from the life has gone, make useful chats. If they entertain like that, surely, such celebrations are permissible. No drawback is considered. However, if unlawful deeds are committed, bad examples are displayed through extravagant entertainments and excessive food waste, then we can conclude that the sin occurs from the wrongdoings within, not merely from the gathering.

79 Is it permissible to carry a pig in return for a price?

In the Qur’an, hadith and fiqh (Islamic Law) books, pip is accepted as “naceesul ayn” which is called as “hindir”. That is to say, every part of it is nacis (dirty, unclean). In any way one should not use it. It, absolutely makes dirty where it touches, falls (for example in a well), and salivates. And it cannot be clean although having been slaughtered like other animals. One cannot eat its flesh, use its parts and benefit from its skin.
The explanation of the Qur’an is very clear on this matter. In the chapters of the Qur’an such as the chapter of Baqarah, verse number 173; the chapter of Maidah, verse number 3; the chapter of An’am, verse number 145 and the chapter of Nahl, verse number 115, it is informed that pork is nacis and eating pork is haram (forbidden).
The meaning of the verse in the chapter of Baqarah is as follow:
“He hath only forbidden you dead meat, and blood, and the flesh of swine and that on which any other name hath been invoked besides that of Allah. But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, - then is he guiltless...”
In the chapter of An’am it is informed that this animal (pig) is nacis. The meaning of that verse is as follow:
“Say: ‘I find not in the Message received by me by inspiration any (meat) forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be dead meat, or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine,- for it is an abomination - or, what is impious, (meat) on which a name has been invoked, other than Allah's’.”
Both to eat and sell the things that mentioned in the verse are forbidden (haram). Muslims are absolutely abstained from doing these things.
In this case, the statements of Our Prophet (peace be upon him) shows certainty.
Cabir bin Abdullah narrated that:
“The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) during the year of conquest said as follow:
‘Doubtlessly, Allah and his Prophet made forbidden to sell alcohol, dead animal, pig and idols (Buhari, Buyu, 102; Muslim, Musakat, 71; Tirmizi, Buyu, 60).
When explaining that hadith, Imam Navavi makes this explanation:
“The wisdom and reason of why selling dead animal, wine and pig is forbidden is because they are nacis. Thus, that judgment includes all of the nacis matters. There are agreement of Muslims about the case of the prohibition of selling dead animal, wine and pig.”
Thus, wherever and at whichever country a Muslim is, to eat pork and both to sell it or the productions that made of pork is forbidden. It is not permissible to benefit from it. Because, the principle of “forbidden is forbidden at everywhere” is an important base of Islamic law. For this reason, Muslims should provide their needs in a lawful and permissible (halal) way. Because the circle of halal is enough for pleasure, there is no need to commit haram.
Is it permissible to carry a pig in return for a price?
In the present fiqh (Islamic Law) books, although we have not come across any conditions concerning with that issue, there are similar fatwas (Islamic religious law) and opinions. For the transport services were not common in the past comparing with nowadays.
Now, we will mention about some fatwas which will enlighten this matter:
If one employs someone to have carried wine, according to Imam-i Azam, the money that person gets for this carrying is halal, but according to Imam-i Muhammad and Ebu Yusuf, it is not permissible. And, if a non-Muslim who is among the People of the Book rents a Muslim’s animal or ship in order to carry wine, the money Muslim gets according to Imam Azam, is permissible, however, according to Imameyn [Two Imam, generally in the Hanafi School books, “Imameyn is used for Imam Ebu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad. And sometimes, it is used for Imam Azam and Imam Shafee (May Allah give peace and blessings upon them)], it is not permissible.
Although it is not seen in application, there is a fatwa in our books as follow:
A Muslim may get a price in return for herding pigs. That is the opinion of Imam Azam, but according to Imameyn, it is not permissible (Fatava’Hindiyye, 4:449-450).
However, we should comment different points of that case:
It is much more important for a Muslim who lives abroad to live the moral of Islam in social relations by comparison to a Muslim who lives domestic. Since non Muslims who are in abroad see Islam directly in personality of Muslims, so their (Muslims’) good moral may conduce to their salvation.
Badiuzzaman (may Allah give mercy on him), says that, if we experience the moral of Islam ourselves and serve as a model, other religion member may accept Islam with their communities and points the necessity of the responsibility of presenting Islam correctly. Islam lawyers describe the country of non-Muslims as “daru’l harb”. And they set forth different opinions on subject of arranging the relations of Muslims and non-Muslims who live in these countries together. 
A Muslim’s getting interest (riba) from a non Muslim, selling alcohol and pork to a non-Muslim and also gambling on condition of certain winning is based on the basis of explanation which is “Since these acts are lawful for non-Muslims, so Muslims’ benefiting from this lawfulness may be complied partially as a act of plunder.”. That opinion is permissible according to Imam Azam and Imam Muhammad. However, according to Imam Shafee, Imam Malik, Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Azvai, Ishak and among Hanafi school, most of Islamic religion lawyers including Ebu Yusuf, such a superstitious and peccable agreements and trades are not permissible and they say that a Muslim should experience the moral of Islam wherever he is!
So, the most suitable one is the opinion of majority!
As a matter of fact, all of the world countries including Muslim countries base their relations on a universal peace. Muslims can go to non-Muslim countries and can live in these countries safely. And there is no question of a situation such as a war. Thus, the conditions that Imam Azam based his fatwas on are not present in present days. As there is no a situation such as a war, so there is no a case such as plunder, too. And also basically, Qur’an and Sunnah (the sayings and doings of the Prophet Muhammad, which form a basis for much of Islamic law) do not permit harams except for an absolute necessity. When there is no vitalness, haram is haram at every where.
Therefore, if sum up, we can say that: At the present time, wherever a Muslim lives in the world, s/he is obligated to live the rules and moral of Islam. A trade that being held between two Muslim which is not permissible should be the same during a trade that being held between a Muslim and a non-Muslim. 
Therefore, a Muslim who lives in a non-Muslim country (except for absolute necessity) should not get interest and sell something that Islam makes forbidden such as alcohol, pork, dead animal etc... And the majority of scholars’ opinions are in this direction.
However, if we pay attention to the fatwas mentioned above, it can be said that, according to Imam Azam, getting a price in return for carrying alcohol and pig is permissible; but, according to Imameyn and other interpreters of Islamic law is not permissible, it is forbidden.
Unless an absolute necessity, a Muslim should not work at such jobs.
Resources: Mehmed Paksu, Meseleler ve Çözümleri 1 (Issues and their Solutions), Nesil yayınları, İstanbul, p. 135-138; Süleyman Kösmenei (Solutions for Issues of Nowadays), Yeni Asya Yayınları.

80 Is it permissible for a man to go to the cinema with his wife/fiancee?

It is not forbidden to make or watch TV or computer programs, games which do not have unlawful content.

Both cinema and TV may be used for good and bad purposes. That is, the judgment depends on the usage. TV, itself is not directly unlawful. It is not haram (forbidden) to watch useful programs.

The issue has several aspects:

1- First of all, those movies should not contain obscene scenes, anti-Islamic views or behavior. Otherwise, it is not permissible to watch them.

2- The woman must obey the rules of veiling.

3- The man and woman who may legally get married should not sit very close to each other; their bodies should not touch each other.

We think that it is recommendable to prefer the harmless options. If we consider the cinemas and concerts of our day, it is hard to say, “there is no problem with going there”

However, if the aforementioned drawbacks are not present, then it is permissible to go to those places.

81 use of zamzam

There is no Hadith or Ayahs in regards with doing lecal pump (nacasath cleaning) cleaning with zam-zam water. Also there is no drawback for having ablution or full ablution (wudu / qusl) with zam-zam water. Cleaning private parts as may be cleaned with water, also may be cleaned with small stones when there is no water. However, it is makruh (disliked, disagreeable; not forbidden by God but looked upon with horror and disgust by Muslim teachers.) to clean the private parts with zam-zam or with bone, glass, paper, expensive fabrics such as silk but it is not haram (forbidden). Additionally, in difficulties, cleaning private parts with zam-zam is not makruh.

When there is no water, one may clean private parts with worthless fabric, cotton, papers like toilet paper as well. As a matter of fact, it is better to dry private parts with something like a hydrophilic cloth.

82 Can a convert to Islam continue to be married to a Non Muslim Husband?

If the man is not a Muslim then the nikah of the women with him becomes invalid. It is necessary for them to separate. If they do not separate (divorce), the woman will be still a Muslim. But she becomes a sinner. And they will also have an adulterous relationship.

83 Is it considered backbiting when one tells the manager of the company, which he is working for, about a colleague who has got weak performance or who is inadequate in protecting the company's interests?

Backbiting, which is prohibited in Islam, is not haram in some cases. One of these cases is when one complains. It is not backbiting to tell the manager of the company on someone who causes damages to the company. However, there must not be any personal interests involved in this case.

The person whose negative aspects you complain about to your employer is someone who can – at least in your opinion – improve his negativity. For instance, your neighbor’s child throws rubbish in your garden and you go up to his parents and ask them to prevent their child from doing so; your workfellow wrongs you and you go up to your employer and ask him to protect your rights. We must pay attention to the following:

 

• There must be bad deeds of a person. This bad deed must not be related to his private life but it must be obvious and must clearly harm you or others. If this bad deed is not related to infringing your or someone else’s rights, you have not got the right to report him to anyone. For instance, your neighbor drinks alcohol secretly in his private life. He hides it because he knows that it is a fault. Probably, he is regretful and wants to quit it; yet we do not know. When we discover this secret habit of his, we cannot report him to anyone, even to someone who can make him quit this habit. Actually, if we do it, we make the mistake of revealing a secret fault of someone’s, which is a grave sin.

• When you complain, you only report. You do not insult, mix your anger into your complaint. If you tell untrue things in your report because of your anger, then you will be slandering or insulting. However, it is not insulting if you are telling the truth. If you are sure that he stole something, you are rightful to start your speech by saying “that thief”; or if he swore, you are rightful to start with “that immoral man”; because, he actually did it and deserved to be called so.

• The person whom you report him to must not be anyone or a friend of yours, but must exactly be the person who is in charge of solving the problem. If a neighbor of yours is not responsible for solving your problem with another neighbor, you cannot complain to that neighbor about the other one. Moreover, let us suppose that you have found someone who can really solve your problem with that neighbor. In this case, you must not complain to him about your neighbor in front of others, but only to him alone.

• Those who complain about their sibling to another sibling of theirs, about one of their relatives to another relative, about a friend to another friend and about their spouse to a friend must be very careful. Most of the time, the person to whom we complain is not someone who can solve the problem. What he can only do, generally, is to have prejudice about us or to pass what we have said on to someone else, or to alienate himself from us in order to get rid of our complaints.  While trying to take revenge on someone, we happen to reveal a negative aspect of ours by reporting him to an irrelevant person; and because of this, our spiritual side weakens and because we have chosen to take revenge through this way, we will be deprived of our right of revenge in the presence of God.


You may say “Shall I keep the unfairness to myself in order not to complain?” No, you should not keep it. However, the right way of fighting against unfairness is not to smile at people’s faces and then to backbite them. Unfairness cannot be fought against by hypocrisy. Human dignity requires one to express wrongness in front of the wrongdoer bravely and publicly. Wrongness and unfairness cannot be fought against by complaints made secretly and mixed with untrue information which cannot be backed up. It can only pave the way for mischief. In a law state which has got a proper, trustful and quick law system, someone who has been wronged can resort to the court and seek his rights.

84 Why did the Qur’an not forbid cigarettes and drugs?

In the Qur’an, forbidding wine means forbidding drugs, too. Although the word “hamr”, which was emphasized in particular for its popularity at that time, was attributed to drinks such as “wine”, the etymological meaning of that word is “covering”. Therefore, the concept “hamr” taking place in the Qur’an includes every kind of narcotics covering the mind. Indeed, the Prophet (pbuh) explains the wide meaning of that ayah (verse) by declaring “using every kind of substances causing man to be drunk is forbidden”, “every substance causing to be drunk is hamr and every hamr is forbidden”. (Majma’ az-Zawa’id, 3/58-59).      

We should also consider that how can talking about a narcotic material that did not use to exist at that time and telling man to refrain from it be reasonable! Can we expect such a thing from a heavenly book which has a reasonable style like the Qur’an?

How can a substance -which did not exist in that age- like a cigarette could be forbidden!

However, it is possible to comprehend every kind of harmful substances from the ayah with the meaning “Make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction” Qur’an, The Cow (Al-Baqarah); 195 (2: 195)

85 Considering the command of the verse;`they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty.` Could you please give advices about protecting the eyes from harams?

One of the most obvious realities of the world is that one cannot live without rules. First of all, life itself is the fruit of a rule. The universe we live in exists with a rule with all of its atoms. Everything, from the tiniest atom to the biggest galaxy, is subject to a system. All existing things and living beings whisper a universal reality called ‘rule’ with their existence.  
On the other hand, man, unlike other creatures, is a living being whose feelings and ambitions have no limits. A lion which is full will not even look at a young gazelle that passes nearby. A tree receives the amount of water that it needs; it does not try to receive extra water. However, man always wants more with his unlimited feelings. Even if he swallowed the world, he would not feel full. If he is full, he keeps the food for tomorrow. If he has enough food for tomorrow, he keeps it for next week. He saves for months, years, his children and future generations; he stocks and saves continuously. He often has designs on other people’s rights since his feelings are unlimited. He even transgresses other beings’ rights.
Thus, along with the existence of a ‘rule’, there is another universal truth: the necessity of imposing certain rules that will limit man whose feelings are not limited naturally.
The attack of some people on others is an alternative for it. As the ecological and nuclear disasters seen in this century clearly indicate, man endangers the existence of all living things even the whole universe.
Since the necessity of imposing a ‘rule’ for man is obvious, we are faced with this question: Who will impose the rule? 
It is perhaps the most crucial question of the history of humanity. Will man understand the existence of only one Creator and say, “The judgment belongs to Him”? Or will he associate partners with him and invent partners in imposing rules? For instance, will he attribute the valid rules in the whole universe to ‘nature’, ‘coincidence’, ‘time’, and ‘powers’? Will he set forth rule imposers in human life like ‘ego’, ‘society’, ‘era’ and ‘national interests’? Or, will he declare one of them, for instance himself as the rule imposer and worship `unique ego’? Or, will he give the role of rule imposing to the state through fascism, to the working class through socialism, to the capital owners through capitalism, to the nobles through aristocracy, to a race through nationality? 
It is one of the most crucial issues that shapes the human history as a whole. The whole history of thought is in that axis. When we look at our own lives, we are faced with it as one of the most important issues in the short life.  
On the other hand, that question is directly related to our understanding of man, the world and the universe.
It is an expected situation for someone who regards man as a being that occurred spontaneously to say ‘I impose the rule’. If it is the state that creates him, the state will impose the rule; if it is the society, the society will impose the rule.
Therefore, it is necessary for someone who says ‘I impose the rule’ to ground it, that is, to prove that he occurred spontaneously. Similarly, it is an unavoidable obligation for someone who says, ‘the society imposes the rule’ to show that his existence belongs to the society. If the one that creates and the one that imposes the rule are different beings, an obvious contradiction is in question.
First of all, the nature of man reveals such a contradiction openly. A woman may beat her child but she will not let anybody else even touch him/her. She will say, ‘You have no right to interfere in my child’s nurture.’ There is no husband that will not mind his wife’s not heeding him but her acting in accordance with what other people say. You cannot imagine a boss who will not object to the management of his factory by someone whom he has not appointed as he/she wished; you cannot imagine a director who will let the subordinates receive orders from other people instead of him/her.  
The struggle for sovereignty and domination that marks the history of humanity and that we observe in our daily life underlines a reality: `whoever owns something dominates it.’ In other words, ‘the rule about something is imposed by its owner.’ 
Therefore, the owner of man is often reminded in the Quran. He is warned that he does not exist coincidentally and that there is One that has created him. For instance, the chapter ash-Shams starts by attracting attention to the sun, moon, day, night, sky and earth, then all of a sudden the creation of man is mentioned. In many other chapters, it is often emphasized that man was something that ‘was not worth mentioning’ and that he took the shape of man out of ‘some worthless liquid’ through various phases, that he was extremely weak after his birth but he was fed with the purest food and that he was bestowed unlimited bounties although he could not walk and feed himself. 
Among all those things mentioned above, the following question is repeatedly asked: `Does man think that he will be left uncontrolled, (without purpose)? `
The answer is obvious. He who created even the tiniest fly with many reasons, will definitely not leave man uncontrolled. He who directs the universe without any partners will definitely not surrender man to others. 
He is the Owner, the Lord of Majesty. He owns all of the land. Then, the judgment will belong to Him, too; he will impose certain rules for man, whom He did not create in vain and did not leave uncontrolled, in accordance with the reason for his creation.  
As a matter of fact, the Quran reminds man the Owner of the universe and his Owner; on the other hand, it imposes rules. It warns seriously that the rules are not imposed just for fun. For instance, it attracts attention to the fate of some previous nations that did not heed the commands given to them.  Or, it warns by reminding the disappointment of the Nimrod, Croesus and Pharaoh, who all said, ‘I impose the rules.’  
Each command that is received has a clear instruction regarding belief, too. For instance, man, whose feelings cannot be restricted, may attack others in order to fill his stomach. However, the Quran speaks on behalf of the Lord of his stomach and the bounties that enter it: `eat and drink: but waste not by excess.’ Man did not find his two feet in the street. Those feet are not some ordinary things given to him by others. The Quran speaks on behalf of the One that gives those feet: ` nor walk in insolence through the earth.`  Women are endowed with a more graceful state. They should not use that state for their souls. For instance, they should not walk in a way that will seduce men. The Quran speaks on behalf of the One that gives that graceful state: `Do not walk like the women of Jahiliyyah (Ignorance) by making the outlines of your body apparent` The eye is a miracle of Allah’s power. It condenses the whole universe in a small point and puts it before the mind. However, man may forget about the owner of that eye and may attribute it to his own soul. The Quran reminds man that the eyes are not ownerless and that they do not belong to him by speaking on behalf of the One that gives those eyes: `Do not look at forbidden (haram) things.` `Keep your eyes away from forbidden things.`
All of the commands like those have a clear message: Sovereignty belongs to Him who owns. Judgment belongs to Him who owns all of the land. 
Such verses invite us to eliminate the contradiction we have. The contradiction is attributing the land to someone and the rule to someone else. There is no contradiction in this: ‘if man is really the owner of the eye, he can use it however he wants.’ However, if the eye is entrusted to him temporarily and if the owner of it is someone else, he can only use it based on the permission and command of its Real Owner. He cannot use the eye that is entrusted to him and that does not belong to him; that is a contradiction. There is only one way to solve the contradiction: to use the eye in accordance with the purpose that the One who gave it meant.
Reminding that He is the One that created the whole universe, that created man in the universe and that gave man eyes to see with, the Quran gives the command: ` they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty.`
Those commands contain rage in a sense because it includes clear threats for those who do not heed the commands. The Quran informs us that the real owner of the eyes that gives the command is a Lord, who knows everything, who is glorious and who is swift in taking account, threatening those who do not heed His commands with the promised torture. It also warns them about the day they will taste the torture of fire. 
On the other hand, those commands also contain beauty. For instance, they are the commands of a Lord, who presents the glorious sky as shivery scenery to our eyes and who embeds unmatched beauty and extremely vital benefits in the grandeur of mountains and in the waves like mountains. Therefore, all of the commands that seem difficult for the soul are actually for man. Although it breaks the sovereignty of the soul on all of the feelings, it is also beneficial for the soul. Does compassion necessitate overlooking a thief that transgresses or warning him saying, ‘Give it up; know your limits and avoid the punishment’? 
All of the commands that are present in the Quran contain the aspects of both rage and beauty.
One of the commands of the Quran, in an environment in which women wear immodest dresses, naked legs allure men,  and hearts are enslaved by souls due to the body outlines that are displayed indecently, especially has significant lessons for us, who make their eyes peeping toms in spite of our minds, hearts and spirits:
` Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: and Allah is well acquainted with all that they do. `
Following that verse comes a verse regarding women. In that verse, both commands are repeated.
The beginning parts of the both verses are significant: ` Say to the believing men...` ` Say to the believing women...`
Both verses have an emphasis on ‘belief’. It is an emphasis that makes the relation between obeying the command that follows and belief clear. Both verses insinuate that protecting the eyes from forbidden things is in question only for believers and that he can do it based on the degree of his belief. Someone who does not know his Creator and Owner will not know that his eyes are given to him as trusts by his Lord. Someone who does not accept that eyes are trusts will not realize the responsibility of using the eyes in compliance with the command and permission of their owner. Someone who does not realize it will not think that he will have betrayed otherwise. In conclusion, it is not in question for someone like that to protect his eyes from forbidden things.  
Similarly, a heedless person who believes in a Creator but does not practice that belief and who uses that belief as a ‘relief valve’ or ‘spare tire’ when he feels he is in dire straits will not heed that command. He will not heed it even if he wants because a person who does not arrange his inner world in such a way to be always alive and alert with the consciousness of being in the presence of that Creator is like a car in the neutral gear or a boat with a loose rudder. He drifts with the inclination or current; he goes wherever his soul and desires take him. Even if his conscience warns him reminding the command of the Creator and the hereafter, it will not be of any use because when he is heedless, it seems to be far away. However, there is piquant scenery in front of his soul. The soul is near-sighted; it sees only what is in front of it; it cannot see what is far ahead; it does not think about the hereafter.
Similarly, a person who believes in a Creator but does not know Him by His beautiful names (asma al-husna) will have difficulty in carrying out His command. For instance, someone who does not know Him by His name al-Hakim ( perfectly wise) and who does not know that He creates every being with many reasons and wisdom, for instance, that He makes a hand or a tree do thousands of tasks will not see a reason or wisdom in that command. He will not fulfill that command since he does not see any reasons or wisdom in doing it.
Similarly, someone who does not know the names ar-Rahim (all-compassionate) and al-Hannan (compassionate) will have difficulty in carrying out that command. The universe whispers the reality of a universal mercy and compassion with every being in it. Every weak being is fed through a unique mercy and compassion due to their weakness. He is Rahman(all-merciful) and Rahim (all-compassionate), who gives everybody and everything the most appropriate sustenance that they need. The weaker a being is, the more the mercy and compassion it gets. Babies and young animals are the most obvious examples to it. Such a compassionate being will definitely warn someone who tries to sell a brilliant at the price of junk in the market because of His mercy and compassion. He informs man that the eyes He gave him are so valuable that looking at haram things with them will mean regarding a unique diamond as a piece of glass and a unique jewel as junk. However, if those eyes are kept away from haram things, they will look at endless beauties and halal women or men on behalf of their Lord. However, in the balance of haram-halal and command-prohibition, the Maker and Owner of the eyes will always be kept in mind. When he looks at a flower or his spouse, he will look remembering Him, on behalf of Him, and contemplating and appreciating His art as long as the divine command determines his looking. Those eyes will have a unique value when attributed to a Lord that created the whole universe with innumerable beauties and wisdom; they will not be simple pieces of meat that will start to fade in thirty years. As a matter of fact, a Qadir (all-powerful) and Rahim Lord will give eyes that deserve eternal Gardens to His slave, who uses the beauty He has given on behalf of Him, to watch the innumerable beauties in His artistic creation. He is able to do it.
On the other hand, someone who does not know the owner of that command with His names ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim and al-Hannan will be away from those meanings. He will try to obey that command unwillingly, or, to be frank, he will not obey it since he cannot see the mercy and compassion it contains. 
Therefore, both verses unlock the key to the problem at the beginning by the definitions ‘believing men` and ` believing women`. However, we usually miss that key point. Therefore, we try to open the door by force. The feelings of both guilt and hopelessness prevail in us since we cannot manage to fully obey the command that we cannot understand. As a matter of fact, if we give the key of belief what it deserves at the beginning, the rest will be easier; just like the Companions that obeyed without hesitation whenever a command was sent as revelation. It is a known reality that there was not a long time between the moment the Companions heard a command and the moment they obeyed that command unlike us because they fully digested the lesson of belief given by the Quran and the teaching of knowledge and love of Allah presented by the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). They did not show any hesitation, half-heartedness or difficulty in accepting them since they knew that each command that came through revelation was from the all-Compassionate Lord, who created all of the realms and human beings, who has endless wisdom, mercy, compassion and power and who has all of the beautiful names.
The One that gives that command is the One that created man. Who else can know better than the Wise Creator what is the most natural and appropriate for man? Who can speak after the One who created man like that?
The Wise Creator invites us to a state that is necessary for our nature. Not keeping away from haram and looking at whatever one sees is something that contradicts our nature because, by doing so, we put the unlimited feelings of ours under the control of only one feeling. There appear personalities resembling human beings that associate all of their lives, worlds and thoughts with their lust as we can see many examples of them in this century. As a matter of fact, so many eyes look at haram things and so many hands, tongues, minds, feet and memories accompany them today. There are so many people who spend their time by talking about the haram images that they have seen when they come together and by imagining those visions when they are alone. So many eyes, minds and lives are wasted like that. There appear ill personalities that reduce every man they see to material figures and look at only some parts of those material figures. There are ill personalities that infer sexual associations from words that are uttered for some other purposes.   
It is the result of a weakness in belief that eyes look at haram things; keeping on looking at haram things develops that weakness and it also has a dimension that degrades man from humanity. It is a dimension that makes man, who is equipped with feelings and abilities that can cover and surround the whole universe, the slave of his lust, that reduces people of opposite gender to certain organs and that vulgarizes the definition of man like that. The negative effects this state brings about in the life of family and society is another aspect of the issue.
Why does the Quran address only believers about the issue that interests all of the human beings when it is seen in this light?
The answer is this: man can understand the content of that command based on the degree of his belief. He can realize the responsibility of using his eyes in accordance with the permission of his Lord to watch the beauties that his Lord created only based on the degree of his belief. Only with his belief can he know that every attitude that makes his eye a mean peeping tom in the hands of his soul means betraying the trust.
Man can have the determination of keeping his eyes away from haram things based on the degree of his belief only.
Otherwise, almost every man has observed some incidents that show how even the most strong-willed, chivalrous and eminent men become ordinary and vulgar when they see something haram.
Another significant aspect of the command of protecting the eyes from haram mentioned in both verses is that it commands an inner effort. The first sentence that both believing men and women are addressed is not ‘Eliminate the haram things that you see’ but: ‘Protect your eyes’.
It is a significant reflection of the general style of the Quran that gives the priority to man and that solves the problem in individuals because the root of the problem is not in the outside but inside us. A person whose inner world is steadfast and whose castle of belief is sound will not be affected and will not go astray even if the world is full of haram paintings. He will not go after the base people that market themselves even if there are so many haram things in the world thanks to the state of modesty, consciousness and awareness since he is in the presence of his Lord. His modesty, good manners, patience and perseverance will not let him do it.
As a matter of fact, the story of Yusuf (Joseph) (pbuh) is a good example of it. The attitude of Yusuf to the extremely beautiful woman who presented herself with all her jewelry and beauty was to keep his eyes away from her and to turn his back to her. Prophet Yusuf, whose attitude is mentioned with praise in the Quran, teaches the humanity this lesson: If man knows the owner of the eye and knows His command fully and truly, even the most seductive scenery will not seduce him.
The stories of the prophets, among which the story of Yusuf is an example, shows clearly that the prophets who made whole nations follow them started alone in the way of prophethood. Prophets emerged in the times when the nature of man deteriorated, when Allah and the hereafter were forgotten and when human beings behaved as their souls wished. They did not change the environment they found but remained steadfast like the monuments of belief in the deteriorated environment; they changed the environment with the consciousness and will of belief they displayed.
If there is a haram somewhere, the way to keep away from it is not eliminating that haram but first protecting oneself from that haram. There is no evil that was eliminated suddenly and by force. In that case, the evil disappears seemingly but goes underground and its existence continues secretly. What is important is not eliminating the obscene scenery from the streets but being equipped with belief that will protect our eyes from those haram things. That way seems longer and harder than the other one but actually it is the short and easy way. In the other way, only the appearance is improved but the illness remains under the surface. If a person is equipped with belief like the Prophet Yusuf and uses his eyes, which are entrusted to him, in accordance with the consent of his Lord and tries hard to protect his eyes, his eyes will keep away from haram things even if the world is full of haram. 
Besides, haram things are displayed in an environment where eyes are willing to look. Was it not the avoidance of Yusuf from the haram displayed by Zulaykha that made Zulaykha find the true path? For instance, let us deal with the immodesty of women: If men have a full conscience of belief and protect their eyes from haram, no women will go out with immodest clothes. The motive that makes women go out like that is the gaze of men who do not protect their eyes from haram things. Thus, if believing men protect their eyes from haram, the most important step for women not to wear immodest clothes will be taken.
Therefore, it is significant that the command of covering for women was sent down after the verse that commands men to protect their eyes.  
The 30th verse of the chapter an-Nur gives a second command after the command of protecting their eyes from haram: protecting their private parts. It is also a significant issue because the first step of fornication is the looking by the eyes. When the eyes look at haram, the will becomes off and the mind is affected by the soul. The soul that makes the eyes look at haram will not be calm until it goes all lengths. The state that makes man go away from the fact that the eye is entrusted to him by his Lord will also make him forget the fact that the private parts are also entrusted to him by his Lord and reduce them to tools of fornication. As the phrase ‘or come nigh to fornication’ attracts attention, the most critical thing in issues regarding lust is approaching. There is a threshold regarding the issues that the soul likes and that arouses lust; if that threshold is passed, the rest takes place very easily. For instance, the eyes that look at naked legs will not be contented with it; it will seek more. The more it obtains, the more it will go wild instead of being calm. Then, with the incitement of the feelings like imagination and desire, he rushes to fornication because in the thresholds like not protecting the eyes from haram, there is a devilish attraction that bypasses will and drifts man to the last stage of the sin even if the man does not wish. In conclusion, he who does not protect his eyes from haram today will not protect his private parts tomorrow. As a matter of fact, this century and the society we live in are full of obvious examples of it. On the other hand, when the eyes are protected from haram, the private parts will be protected, too.
There is another dimension in the commanding of our Lord ‘protecting the eyes from haram’ that is actually observed in this century and society.
In the last century, there has been a relation between the pages of newspapers and magazines, movies and TV programs and the clothing and living styles of people: All of the debauchery, scandals and obscenity appeared in a marginal section of the community. That section is either the ‘high society’ or the group of ‘artists’ or both of them. Even in that marginal section, not everybody commits the same immodesty at the same time. A woman of high society that comes to a ball in an immodest dress that nobody has ever worn before may be found strange at first; however, a threshold is passed. Those who have such an inclination in their nature see that it may be worn and have the courage or boldness to wear it. The excessiveness that is displayed in the marginal section is presented to the public through newspapers. On the other hand, it is broadcast in films. The community that sees it in the mass media starts to regard it as normal. What the community regards as immoral at first becomes normal as they see it in mass media. When it is regarded normal, people start to wear it too. Meanwhile, a new kind of excessiveness is displayed in the marginal section and people react to it. However, in a few years’ time, they will regard it as normal and start to do it themselves.  
As a matter of fact, it is possible to foresee how people who do not protect their eyes from haram and who regard the age, community and themselves as the rule imposers will  dress in a few years’ time by looking at the films of today, high society pages in the newspapers, the clothes of artists and TV presenters. He who looks at something regards it normal; he who regards it normal starts to do it.
When theater was introduced in the Islamic countries one hundred years ago, actresses acted on the stage with turbans that left only their necks uncovered. People found it normal by seeing it continually; although leaving the neck uncovered was contrary to the command of tasattur (covering), the sensitivity threshold regarding the issue was passed because the command of protecting the eyes was violated. Then, the turban was taken off and all of the hair was left uncovered. Similarly, dresses that covered the arm including the wrist were replaced by half sleeve dresses; the next step was sleeveless dresses. The way to mini-skirts started with the dresses that were a few inches above the heel. Then knee-length dresses followed; after that came dresses a few inches above the knee. The shortening is continuing step by step.
To sum up, the generalization of a special immodesty is realized through looking. As the eyes see it, what is contrary to the rule becomes regular; what is abnormal becomes normal. The command of protecting the eyes from haram addressing both believing men and women prevents that general corruption at the beginning.
Protecting the eyes from haram is valid because it is the command of Allah. Allah, who commands it, is a Lord, who is wise and generous. There exists wisdom, mercy, generosity and training in that command like all of His other commands.
Alcohol is haram because Allah made it haram. It is seen that there are a lot of reasons and mercy present in that prohibition. Alcohol is something that annuls our will, numbs our feelings, atrophies our thoughts and invalidates our minds. It degrades us from the state of being a shy observer of the divine art displayed in the whole universe to the state of inattentive people who have lost their minds and consciousness. The same thing is valid when the eyes look at haram things. When a person who is in deep contemplation sees something haram and stares at it cannot continue the state of contemplation. When we glorify Allah or supplicate while walking on the road, it suddenly goes out of our minds if we cannot protect our eyes from haram things. 
Looking at haram is no different from alcohol or drugs in numbing our feelings and preventing us from contemplating the art and names of Allah. Looking at haram puts our clean feelings under the command of the soul and its dirty aims like alcohol and drugs. Man, who is created in an ability to be addressed by his Lord, wastes a wonderful organ like the eye, which is entrusted to him, while pursuing illegitimate satisfaction. 
In the following sentence, the verse states that protecting the eyes from haram and protecting the private parts is the real clean act. That clean act is actually spiritual cleaning; it is a cleaning in the state of thought and feeling. If that clean act is not preferred, the eye, which is a unique device enabling man to contemplate and travel the universe, is rendered worthless and dirty by being thrown into the pit of mean desires. 
The verse ends with a final warning: `and Allah is well acquainted with all that they do’. Generally, the word ‘ya’maluna’ or ‘yaf’aluna’ is used to express the verb to do. However, in that verse the word ‘yasna’una’ is used. A careful student of the Quran infers the following meaning from that usage: the word ‘yasna’una’ indicates that what is done by the eyes regarding looking at haram things are related to things that are done related to art and that it will turn to a kind of industry. (In Arabic, the words art and industry are derived from the same word ‘sana’a’, which means to do)
Indeed, the immodesty, which is contrary to the divine command and human nature, is always used to make it legitimate under the name of art. Besides, they have found a guise called ‘eroticism’, which is seductive but untouchable, for it. Today, the world is full of artists that have turned their bodies to commodities and that determine their price in accordance with the rate of the uncovered parts of their bodies!
Metin Karabaşoğlu

Please click on the link given below;

What is the sin of watching haram (forbidden) things? Will you give detailed information about looking at haram?

86 How can I dissuade my friend from committing a mistake?

You should advise your friend that a muslim girl or woman cannot mary a non-muslim, unless he reverts to Islam. It is prohibited in Islam and in case of such marriage, their relations are considered “fornication”. After all if she will get marry, nothing can be done. It is her choice and she will face the punishment herself in the hereafter.

For more information, please click on the links given below;

Why can't a Muslim woman marry a non Muslim man?

Marriage and Family Life

87 Is it permissible to despise sinners or non-Muslims and humiliate them?

Although a Muslim has belief, he/she inclines to commit sins and with the support of his/her nafs (evil-commanding soul), he/she may commit those sins. Yes, committing major sins does not originate from unbelief. However, if those sins are not destroyed by repentance immediately, they may take a person to unbelief. Badiuzzaman says the following:

“Sin, penetrating to the heart, will blacken and darken it until it extinguishes the light of belief. Within each sin is a path leading to unbelief. Unless that sin is swiftly obliterated by seeking God’s pardon, it will grow from a worm into a snake that gnaws on the heart…” (The Flashes / The Second Flash)

As believers who commit major sins do not become unbelievers, it is not appropriate to call them unbelievers or utter despising words against them. A believer is just like a diamond. We should try to turn the dirtied diamond to its previous state by cleaning it immediately. That is, instead of casting him/her out, we should support him/her by helping him/her to be cleaned from his/her sin.

On the other hand, we may not love the qualities of unbelief of unbelievers. However, as they are humans, it is not a true attitude to mock them. We do not love their characteristics of unbelief but we should love their human aspects.

The religion of Islam is against all kinds of evil deeds and hurting others because Islam tries to humanize humans. It elevates humans to the level of humanity. Thus, Islam gives orders that enable man to reach every kind of perfection and beauty; it also forbids and prevents man from all kinds of deeds of disgrace and hideousness.

Acting upon the general laws stated above, we can say that all kinds of deeds that disturb and mortify people that we call as swearing and cursing are sin and haram because mortifying Muslims is haram and this makes a person a sinner. Even if that person is an unbeliever but innocent, disturbing him/her is forbidden in Islam because, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, “I am the enemy of a person who maltreats a zimmi(non-Muslim living in an Islamic state).”

88 Is it permissible to damn those who insult Muslims and what is regarded holy by Muslims?

It is permissible to damn those who insult Muslims and what is regarded holy by Muslims. However, it is better to pray for them so that they will improve.

A Muslim cannot damn or utter bad words about people who do not insult Islam even if they are not believers. 

The religion of Islam is against all kinds of bad deeds and hurting others because Islam tries to make human beings real humans. It takes man to the rank of humanity. Therefore, Islam gives orders that will lead man to all kinds of perfection and beauty; it also forbids the deeds that take people to debauchery and ugliness. 

Acting upon those universal rules, we can say that all kinds of acts that offend and disturb others are sins and haram. It is haram to offend Muslims and a person who does so is regarded a sinner.  It is forbidden to disturb an unbeliever if he is innocent and sinless. The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“I am the enemy of the person who oppresses a dhimmi. (Non-Muslim) " (al-Hindi, Kanzu’l-Ummal, IV / 618; al-Jamiu’s-Saghir, I / 1210).

It is not permissible to hurt them in any case.

89 Can a Muslim decorate his/her home with Christmas items such as a tree, candles etc at Christmas just for decoration or is it forbidden?

Before answering this question let us give a brief information about that tradition

Christmas Tree

The pine tree which Christians cut down and ornament for Christmas attracted attention firstly in Germany in 1605. Later in the mid of 19th century, it was brought to France by Helene de Mecklembung. God of the New Year in Armenian mythology is called “Amanor”. In the era of Paganism, animals were hunted and hung on pine trees in honor of Amanor. The ceremony carried out by hanging various things on pine trees entered Christianity from that Pagan tradition. Today, tree festivals are a tradition coming from the primitive people’s worshipping trees. People used to glorify trees for their longevity.

So the consensus of Islamic sources agrees that it is not permissible to celebrate all special days and festivals emerged outside Islamic rules with an aim to be like them. It is wrong of a Muslim to celebrate Christmas, New Year’s Day, or other days established by specific people or institutions.

Please click on the link given below;

What should our understanding of New Year’s Day be? What should we do to question ourselves before we die?

90 Is it permissible to buy the goods from someone who is known to have gained the goods through a forbidden and unlawful way?

It is not permissible to buy the goods from someone who is known to have obtained the goods in question through a forbidden and unlawful way. This is because it means encouraging the acts of grabbing, stealing and earning unlawful money and also means helping those who do those acts. Our Prophet (pbuh) said: “One, who buys a stolen thing knowing that it is stolen becomes a partner of the sin and shame.” (Bayhaqi, as-Sunanu’l-Kubra, V/336; Suyuti, al-Jamiu’s-Saghir (with Faydu’l Qadir), VI/64; Kanzu’l Ummal, IV/13 (9235)).

If it is decided for certain that the goods on sale is stolen or if it is found out somehow that it does not belong to the seller with a strong possibility, it should not be bought, naturally. However, if it is not known and cannot be guessed, the price of the goods must be paid to the seller and the goods must be bought, trusting in the seller’s words. If it is found out that the goods is stolen afterwards, and if its real owner is found, the goods must be given back to the owner on condition that s/he pays the price.

If the owner is not found out and the seller cannot be found again, the goods bought become lawful in this situation. Besides, it would be appropriate for taqwa to stay away from suspicious places.

91 Is it permissible to develop a computer software in which interest payment is calculated on bonds?

1-Just as it is haram (act or deed which is prohibited by Allah) to do evil deeds, so too is it not allowed to be means for prohibited things. In this sense, being a means for such a thing holds a person responsible. After all, most of our scholars hold the belief that it is forbidden to do such a thing.

2- However, since you are not directly engaged in the interest transaction, you will not get the same sin because what is haram is to misuse your work. After all, setting up a program in essence is not illicit. Therefore, the program you are going to develop for them is not directly haram. We can compare it to a store hired for an alcohol manufacturer. According to Imamı Azam, it is not forbidden to rent out the store for someone who is going to turn out it to alcohol manufacturing place. From this point, the work itself that you do is not forbidden but rather what is illicit is to use your work wrongly.

3-However, it does not mean that you are totally free of responsibility even if it is not illicit. Helping them in such a matter is at least makrooh (abominable). Makrooh means it is close to haram and it makes you responsible. Consequently, we do not advise you to do such a thing if you are not under an obligation.

4- It is not abominable for you if your work is multi-functional and the people making the interest transactions are going to use your program, that is to say, if your work is not specifically designed for interest purposes.

92 Is it permissible for a person to read the letter, notebook of somebody else without that person’s permission? Does it mean violating the privacy?

It is not appropriate to read the letter, notebook of somebody else without permission even if that person is your spouse, brother or a member of your family; it may mean violating the privacy.

It is forbidden for a person to look at and to search the private issues of somebody else. For instance, it is forbidden to enter a house or to look through the window of a house without permission.

In the Islamic society, people live in their houses safely and in privacy. It is forbidden to violate the immunity of the people and to do something that will violate their family privacy no matter what the reason is.

It is regarded the same to look at the private issues of a person like messages and e-mails today.

93 What are the harms of gambling and why is it forbidden (haram)?

Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır states the following on the prohibition and harms of gambling while interpreting verse 219 of the chapter of al-Baqara:  

Answer as follows: There are big harms and sins in them. In general, both of them destroy goods and ruin people. They affect each other. Alcohol eliminates the mind; the mind is the support for both the religion and the world. A person commits so many murders due to alcohol and commits so many evils due to gambling that it is impossible to list them; they can be understood only by the term "major sins". However, they also have some benefits for people. People experience some joy and flavor; they earn money by selling alcohol. It gives courage to cowards and strength to one's character. Some people obtain goods by gambling. However, their sins and harms are much more than their benefits.

Then, their benefits are not real and strong benefits. The joy they give causes the mind to be covered. The temporary courage causes disasters. The temporary character harms the health; the goods that one obtains will not be useful for him; a little benefit will bring about a lot of harm. Those who become addicts cannot abandon them easily. To sum up, the joy and flavor they give are personal and temporary but the harms and bad outcomes caused by them are both personal and social; they are both material and ethical. They are contagious like infectious diseases. Those who do not suffer at the beginning will definitely suffer in the end. It is not logical to prefer a definite and general harm in return for an imaginary benefit.  Eliminating the harm is preferred to obtaining benefit. Then, they need to be haram logically. The verse expresses that they are religiously haram through an indirect indication. If there had not been any other verses regarding wine in the Quran, only this verse would have been enough to render it haram. However, this prohibition would not have been a prohibition understood from the words of the expression itself; there could be some people who would think they would limit the harms of alcohol and make use of its benefits by relying on their mind. Therefore, some Companions thought it was not prohibited religiously but rationally; then, the following verse rendered it haram religiously in a clear and definite way: "They are an abomination; ... eschew them" (al-Maida, 5/90).

94 What are the Harms of Alcoholic Drinks?

If something intoxicates in large quantity, its small quantity is also haram. As the Prophet puts it, “If one jar of something intoxicates, one handful of it is haram, too.” (1)

This verse, which renders alcohol haram, explains the reason and wisdom behind this prohibition: It is an abomination of Satan; it prevents attaining happiness; it causes enmity among people and brings about hatred and grudge; it destroys the body and prevents people from mentioning Allah's names and performing prayers. (2) Alcohol has great, wearing and negative effects on nervous system, brain vessels, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. It has fatal impacts on the brain. It causes partial paralysis by injuring the brain nerves and causes various disorders. It harms the eyes by destroying eye nerves. It injures and tires heart cells. The tiredness caused by alcohol in heart cells causes the wearing of the heart muscle, which is called "myocardium". It causes wounds in the kidneys and hampers the filtration of the blood. The kidneys that are harmed by alcohol cannot filter the toxins in the urine. These toxic substances mix with blood and causes blood poisoning called "uremia". It brings about calcification in blood vessels, which causes dementia. It numbs cells and weakens the resistance of the body against diseases. It causes the liver to enlarge through blood accumulation first and to shrink and then to die. 

The harms of alcohol to the spirit are more serious. It causes horrible disorders in the mind, concentration, consciousness and will. It also brings about grave despair and pessimism. It causes fights, murders, marital conflicts, family break-ups, end of so many friendships, so many traffic accidents and so many deeds that break the peace.

Alcohol causes irreparable harms and brings about painful disasters in the individual and the structure of the community, social and economic life. Those who spend the money needed to be spent for their families on alcohol waste their money and violate the rights of their wives and children. Consequently, a person who values his life, appreciates his earning, shows respect to others' rights and gives importance to health will not drink alcohol. The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Alcohol is the mother of all evils.” (3)

The otherworldly harms of alcohol causes complete destruction on our personality, character, existence, spirituality, eternal hopes, bliss and joy - if Allah does not forget - not on our physical and social structure because the person who drinks alcohol is regarded to have ignored Allah's clear prohibition. 

Alcohol is one of the major sins. However, the pardon, mercy and forgiveness of Allah are large. There are strong news and glad tidings that Allah will inshaallah forgive and mercy a person who abandons sins and repents to Allah. Allah forgives all sins (4) as long as a person takes a step toward his Lord; Allah will hug him by running. If a person repents to Allah without associating partners with him, Allah will forgive him even if he has sins that fill the earth and the sky. (5)

It is not seemingly appropriate to give a judgment about dying in a drunk or impure (junub) state. It is not something nice. It is a very grave situation for a person to die before he manages to repent. We hope that Allah will forgive him. We cannot know the inside of the affairs.    

It does not matter whether one gets drunk or not after drinking alcohol; it will not alleviate the sin. One cannot perform prayers when he is drunk or under the effect of alcohol. However, the widespread view among people that the prayer of a person will not be accepted for forty days after drinking alcohol is not true. After becoming drunk, a person can repent and sincerely vow not to drink again and perform prayers. Who can enter between a person and Allah?   

Footnotes:

1-Ahmad, Musnad, 6/71, 72, 131;

2-al-Maida, 5/90, 91;

3-Suyuti, Jami’us-Saghir, 2/12;

4-az-Zumar, 39/53;

5-Riyadu’s-Sâlihîn, 412

95 What is the decree of Islam on narcotic drugs?

The effect of narcotic drugs like hashish, opium, cocaine, morphine, and LSD is more than alcoholic drinks in terms of eliminating the mind and harming the human body.

Therefore, taking narcotic drugs is like drinking alcohol. Furthermore, it is worse regarding some aspects. Islamic scholars unanimously agree that taking narcotic drugs is haram.

96 What is baby shower party? Is it appropriate for Muslims to practice the customs like that introduced by non-Muslims?

Baby shower party means preparation for the baby. It is mostly celebrated in America. Some people have started to celebrate it in our country recently. The aim of the baby shower party is to meet the needs of the baby to be born and to have fun together with the mother-to-be. The friends of the mother-to-be organize the party. They buy the things that the baby will need to help the family. Everybody buys a gift in accordance with their budget. The mother-to-be is asked to make a list of needs and her friends buy gifts based on the list. Thus, the same gift is not bought by more than one person.    

As for the question whether this party has any drawbacks in terms of our religion, these kinds of activities, which are done based on good intentions, cannot be called haram. However, there must not be anything haram during the celebration. It can be carried out within the boundaries of halal. As for buying gifts, it is not religiously appropriate to make people by gifts by embarrassing them. Some people might not afford to buy expensive gifts. It is also not appropriate to invite the rich to the celebration and to exclude the poor. When these aspects are taken into consideration, it is seen that the customs of foreign cultures do not comply with our culture.

The customs that exist in our culture are sufficient for us. If the aim is to meet the needs of the baby, people buy gifts and go to see the baby in our culture anyway. It is more reasonable to buy a gift for a newborn baby and to go to see it than buying a gift for a baby that has not been born yet and that is not definite to be born.    

Besides, if the baby is not born alive after such a celebration and the gifts that have been bought, the mother-to-be may suffer a more severe psychological depression.

In conclusion, our customs in our culture are sufficient for us. There is no need to imitate the customs of non-Muslims.

97 What are alcoholic drinks? How does Islam view the drinks that intoxicate?

Alcoholic drinks are drinks that remove the ability of thinking healthily and reasoning and causing the state called drunkenness.

The Quran prohibits alcoholic drinks and states that they are haram: " O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination― of Satan's handiwork." (al-Maida, 5/90). Most of the scholars say that what is meant by the word "hamr" (intoxicants) in the verse includes all of the drinks that remove the mind. Hanafis explain hamr as follows: Only drinks that are made of grapes and become strong by foaming are called hamr. The other alcoholic drinks that intoxicate people are not regarded as hamr. They are regarded haram through analogical deduction (qiyas) compared to harm because they intoxicate people. Most of the fiqh scholars say that all of the alcoholic drinks that make people drunk are haram whether only a little amount or a lot of them are drunk and they are included in the content of the word hamr. (Sahih Muslim, Translation and explanation, A. Davudoğlu, IX, 247, ff.)

Along with Islam, drinking alcohol is haram in the previous heavenly religions, too: The following sentences in the Old Testament, the holy book of Jews, are remarkable: "And the Lord said to Aaron: Take no wine, or strong drink, you or your sons with you, when you go into the Tent of meeting, that it may not be the cause of death to you; this is an order for ever through all your generations. And make a division between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean." (Old Testament, Leviticus, Chapter, 10, A. 8, 9-11)

The following is stated in the New Testament: "And when they were taking food, Jesus took bread and, after blessing it, he gave the broken bread to the disciples and said, Take it; this is my body. And he took a cup and, having given praise, he gave it to them, saying; Take of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the testament, which is given for men for the forgiveness of sins. But I say to you that from now I will not take of this fruit of the vine, till that day when I take it new with you in my Father's kingdom." (New Testament, Matthew, Chapter 26, 26-29, John 30: et al)

It is known that Turks used to be Shamanists before Islam. It is known that various drinks like kumis were drunk during their feasts and consecration ceremonies in that religion. (Mehmet Aydın-Osman Cilacı, Dinler Tarihi, Konya 1980, p. 97 ff.)

Before Islam and in the first period of Islam, Jahiliyya Arabs drank alcohol and regarded it as part of daily life. Islam gave great importance to the protection of five things:  They are mind, health, property, honor and religion. A person who drinks alcohol cannot protect these five things. An organization established in America searched who prohibited drinking alcohol first in the world. When they found out that the first prohibition was applied by Hz. Muhammad, they built a monument in New York called "Muhammad Fountain" in New York to commemorate him. (Yeşilay Dergisi, iss. 441, August 1970)

The prohibition of alcohol was introduced gradually in the Quran.

In the first verse regarding alcohol that was sent down in Makkah, no prohibition is mentioned.

"And from the fruit of the date-palm and the vine, ye get out wholesome drink, and food: behold in this also is a Sign for those who are wise." (an-Nahl, 16/67)

After that, Hz. Umar went to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) once and said to him, "O Messenger of Allah! You know that wine destroys property and removes the mind. Ask Allah to explain the decree about wine. Then Hz. Prophet prayed as follows: "O Allah! Inform us about your decree regarding wine." Thereupon, the following verse was sent down:

"They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: 'In them is great sin, and some profit for men; but the sin is greater than the profit.'" (al-Baqara, 2/219). When this verse was sent down, some Companions gave up drinking alcohol saying, "it is a major sin" but others continued drinking saying, "it is useful for man."

Once, Abdurrahman b. Awf gave a feast and some of the Companions were at this feast. Some of them drank alcohol. When it was time for the evening prayer, one of them led the prayer but recited the chapter of "al-Kafirun" wrongly. Thereupon, Hz. Umar prayed as follows: "O Lord! Expand your decree about alcohol!" Then, the following verse was sent down: " O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say." (an-Nisa, 4/43). Thus, drinking alcohol was prohibited during the times of prayer. Those who drank alcohol started to drink after the night prayer and performed the morning prayer after they became sober.

Once Utba b. Malik (r.a) gave a wedding feast. Sa`d b. Abi Waqqas was also there. They ate camel, drank alcohol and started to boast about their nobility. Sa`d recited a poet that praised his tribe and satirized the Ansar. One of the Ansar got angry and injured Sa'd with a bone of the camel. Sa`d complained to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) about him. Thereupon, the verses that introduced the prohibition of alcohol definitely:  

" O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination― of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper. Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?" (al-Maida, 5/90-91)

Various hadiths of Hz. Prophet show the essentials of this application regarding the issue:

"Everything that intoxicates is wine and everything that intoxicates is haram. If a person drinks wine in the world and dies before he repents, he cannot drink kawthar in the hereafter." (Muslim, Ashriba, 73)

"If something intoxicates in large quantity, its small quantity is also haram." (al-Asqalani, Bulughu`l Maram, Translated by A. Davudoğlu, lV, 61, ff)

When Hz. Prophet was asked about the decree on wine, he said, "Doubtlessly, wine is not a remedy; on the contrary, it is trouble." (al-Asqalani, ibid, IV, 61)

"Some people from my ummah will drink alcoholic drinks by giving them different names." (al-Asqalani, ibid, IV, 61)

There is consensus of the ummah that alcohol is prohibited.

Islamic scholars agree on the issue unanimously. However, there is a disagreement on some kinds of drinks among mujtahids. In order to eliminate those doubts, Hz. Umar made a concise definition acting upon the word of the Messenger of Allah on the pulpit: "Everything that blocks the mind is alcohol." Accordingly, everything that makes man lose his mind and that makes him unable to differentiate between what is good and what is bad and between what is useful and what is harmful is regarded as alcohol. It does not matter whether it is liquid or solid. Opium, heroin and other similar drugs are regarded as the same because the functions of the mind change in those people who use them; they start to see distant things as near and near things as distant; they move away from normal things and they start to imagine possible and impossible things, living in a dream world. Some drugs stupefy the body, numb the nerves, cause mental depressions, weaken the willpower and make the individual a useless person for the community. The religion of Islam orders useful things for the individual and the society and prohibits what is harmful. When the prohibitions of Islam are examined by medicine, it will be seen that they are for the benefit of the society. As a matter of fact, prohibitions like alcohol and pork were examined by science and medicine, and their material and spiritual harms were explained by the experts. (see Yusuf al-Qardawi, al-Halal wa`l-Haram fi`l-Islam, Translated by Mustafa Varlı, Ankara 1970, p. 50-53, 75-88).

Islam prohibits drinking alcohol and its trade among Muslims as well. Hz. Prophet damned ten people regarding alcohol: The one who squeezes grapes,  the one for whom grapes are squeezed, the one who drinks alcohol, who carries it, the one for whom it is carried, the one who makes others drink it, who sells it, who spends the money earned from it, the one who buys it and the one for whom it is bought..." (Tirmidhi, Buyu`, 59; Ibn Majah, Ashriba, 6).

After the verse in the chapter al-Maida that expressed the definite prohibition of alcoholic drinks, the Messenger of Allah stated the following about the application: “Allah has definitely prohibited alcoholic drinks. A person who hears this verse and who has alcoholic drinks must not drink or sell them..." (Muslim, Musakat, 67; see Bukhari, Maghazi, 51; Buyu, 105, 112; Muslim, Buyu, 93; Far', 8; Ibn Majah, Tijarat, 11; Ahmad b. Hanbal, II, 213, 362, 512, III, 217, 324, 326, 340; Ibn Kathir, Mukhtasar Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Beirut (n.d), I, 544-547).

98 Can the children of a father use the haram (illegitimate) earnings of their father?

The sustenance of the mother and children is an obligation on the father. It is his natural duty and a religious responsibility incumbent on him by Allah Almighty. The following is stated in verse 233 of the chapter of al-Baqara:

“…But he (the father) shall bear the cost of their (mother and children) food and clothing on equitable terms….”

Imam Qurtubi, the interpreter (mufassir) shows this verse as evidence that the sustenance of the child belongs to his father due to his weakness. 1

That is, it is necessary for the father to meet his child's needs until he reaches the age to earn his own living. It is his natural duty as a father.

The father is ordered in some verses and hadiths to fulfill this duty through legitimate and halal ways. That is, the head of the family needs to earn the sustenance for himself, his wife and other members of his family like his father and mother through legitimate ways.

A person who does not find halal earnings sufficient and resorts to haram ways by using earning his living as an excuse and who even earns all his earnings through illegitimate ways by disregarding legitimate ways undertakes the responsibilities and sins of all of his family members whom he feeds through illegitimate ways.

For, the individuals he has to take care of have no responsibility and sins regarding the issue. They eat the illegitimate earnings because they have to. Therefore, they are not regarded to have committed sins.

Ibn Abidin writes the following regarding the issue:

“It is not a sin for a woman to eat the food or to put on the clothes that her husband buys out of his illegitimate earnings. The sin belongs to the husband. However, if the nafaqa (subsistence money) given to her by his husband is something extorted, it is not permissible for her to eat from it.” 2

The situation of the children is no different from it. For, the sustenance of the children is the responsibility of the father just like the sustenance of the mother. The children have to eat what they father brings out of illegitimate earnings; so the sins occurring from this act belong to their father.

When the children grow up and become capable of earning their own living through legitimate ways, they will have to spend their own money.

1. at-Tafsiru’l-Qurtubi, 1: 163.
2. Raddu’l-Mukhtar, 5: 247.


Mehmed Paksu Helal – Haram

99 To listen to music is permitted or Haram in islam?

Our general criterion regarding music should be as follows:

“Some voices have been defined as halal (permissible) and some as haram (forbidden) by our religion. Yes, voices reminding lofty sorrows and divine love are halal. Those that excite depressing sorrows and lustful desires are haram. Those that have not been defined by our religion are evaluated based on the effects that they have on your spirit and conscience.” (İşaratü’l-İ’câz, p. 78; Sözler, p. 382, 687-688)

Two kinds of voices are used in music: human voice and the voice of instruments. When a piece of music is conducted, either only human voice or music instruments are used; mostly both of them are used. In all three cases, a measured voice in a certain mode that is liked and desired by humans and that affects humans is produced. Those voices are evaluated based on their nature, topic and effect. Either music affects the spirit of man and brings about lofty, religious and heroic feelings in him, or a piece of music that man listens to addresses his soul and brings about mean feelings, causing the lofty feelings to disappear. As it is seen clearly in the statements above, the voice that is permissible to listen should remind man the lofty sorrows, that is, the ephemera of the world that death could occur any time an that man could turn to dust one day; it should also remind the fear of Allah, the divine love, the love of Allah and the manifestations of the great names and attributes of Allah in the beautiful works of art. It is permissible to listen to all kinds of voices that excite those feelings. However, it is not permissible to listen to the voices that remind depressing sorrows, that cause hopelessness in man, that remind the agony of being separated from bounties, that lead man to pessimism, that address the lustful feelings of man, that address the lustful desires of man that make the soul enjoy it.  

There are some voices that are not included in either group, and that change from person to person. For instance, while one of the two people listening to the same piece of music has a carnal feeling, the other person can have a lofty feeling.  For instance, one of the two people listening to this song: “Tiny snowflakes fall, fly saying alif, alif/ My mad heart has gone crazy, wanders saying alif alif” accompanied by music remembers Allah and thinks of divine love; the other is interested in its outward meaning and remembers a woman when he hears the word “alif” and thinks of love of a woman.  

Another example: The following poem of Yunus Emre is sung as both a hymn and a folk song: “Your love has taken me out of me/ I need you, only you/I am in fire of love day and night/I need you, only you/ let me drink the wine of love/Let me become Majnun and go to the mountain/I am worried about you day and night/I need you, only you”. While one person thinks of “divine love” when he hears “love”, another person remembers love of a woman.

Imam Ghazali examines music under three headings as haram (forbidden), makrooh (abominable) and mubah (permissible) (Ihya, 2: 279-81) and says the following:

The voices that excite only the desire of the world and feelings of lust in people full of those feelings and desires are haram for those people.

It is makrooh to listen to them for people who spend most of their time listening and who are used to listening to them as a habit.  

It is mustahab (preferable) for a person who is full of love for Allah to listen to music if that voice excites the nice attributes in him.

Imam Ghazali later says that what makes music haram is not the music itself but the things that are added to it later, and classifies them as follows:

If a woman sings and if a man listening to her is afraid that her voice will excite her, then it is haram to listen to her. Here, what makes it haram is not the music but the voice of the woman.

If the lyrics of the song are harmful and contrary to the belief and ethics of Islam, it is haram to listen to it whether accompanied by music or without music.

If a person who is the slave of carnal feelings due to his/her youth indulges himself/herself in music too much and spends most of his/her time listening to music, he/she becomes debauched.

Mehmed Paksu Helal – Haram