FAQ in the category of Universe

1 Ayat 40 Surah Yasin

The meaning of the related verse:

It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law). (Yá-Sín-40).

That the sun moves… It revolves around its own orbit. And this is with the permission of the all powerful and all knowing God.

This is no doubtlessly one of the most evident confirmation of the presence and power of the God. The Quran consolidates the issue with MUSTEKAR AND TERCİ having more than one meaning and shedding light on the works of the scientists. It is because that the word permanent meaning stability indicates to time and place and also it has the infinitive form. Furthermore, that it is used with the letter LAM gives it other meanings and help us draw various inferences. It is such that that part of the clause points to five different meanings and inspire us to contemplate deeper about the system. As for the verb “TERCİ”, it derives from the word occurrence; and is mostly known as flow or circulation.  

As understood from the explanations above, the verse designates some meanings and decrees, and becomes a good sample of telling plenty of meanings with a few words.

a) The sun revolves around its own orbit

b) It keeps its motion till an appointed time within the laws it depends.

c) It moves regularly in a certain area in accordance with the laws to which it bounds.

d) The sun revolves in stability in the domain planned to be allocated for it.

It is worked out from the first interpretation that the sun revolves around its own orbit. From the second one is realized that the sun will continue its motion and provide us energy till an appointed time.

Out of the third commentary is comprehended the sun is not moving in an aimless, arbitrary way or without any purpose but rather it is in action on a regular basis, planned and programmed way and will regularly keep on providing us its light.

The sun, from the last interpretation, is grasped to be in movement between two centers together with other planets that depend on it instead of staying steady at a certain point.

We can figure out from this sublime style of explanation that the Quran has been revealed by a divine source and always leads to the sciences of all ages. While majority of the people in the age the Quran was revealed used to spend their lifetime in an absolute ignorance, some would worship for the idols, some had belief in the sun or moon or other inanimate beings. No sound observation about sun or moon was done. For this reason, some of them assumed the sun as God and some thought the moon as an animate being. Particularly in Arabian Peninsula, there used to be no any school or Islamic theological school. The Arabian people were aggressive, ignorant and depopulator. That the Quran provided to those people such a knowledge which constitutes the basement of the present science and gives light to the ongoing inventions and scientists proves that it is neither the words of a human being nor the work of a human mind but rather all of its verses are Divine.

Thus, the attributes of God All Knowing and Glorious are indicated in the last part of the verse making up our subject. It is such that it is stated the Quran is beyond the power of human being by stressing out that God Almighty is all-powerful and all-knowing.

The stations measured for the moon

“And the Moon,- We have measured for her stations (to traverse) till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date-stalk. (Yasin 39)

The motion, orbit and route of the moon are absolutely different from that of sun. Some stations have been measured for the moon. The station points toward a place to live and a distance to go. Therefore, the Quran says the moon turns not around itself but around both the world and the sun together with the world, the shadow of the world each day comes in a certain rate between the sun and moon sends it to a new station.

That the Quran gave explanations sheding light on the developing science while there was no serious knowledge or reseach about the moon is an obvious proof for the fact that the Quran is divine book and it is, in terms of this feature of it, leading to all ages.

The sun can never catch up the moon

“It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon”

The moon and sun continue their movements within different orbits. It is not a matter of question to strike and to violate the boundaries of each other. It is because the moon is the satellite of the world and close to it. It is too remote from the sun. It has its own course.

God Almighty, by this means, let us see two major important points and illustrates those who are intending to make scientific investigations by supplying them both basic information and the starting point to begin. First point indicates that there is a distance between moon and the sun, the second points to that the moon and the sun moves within separate courses.

We had better stress out the fact again the Quran giving the clearest and the most dependable data fourteen centuries ago is not a work of man. It is because there was not any sound and clear investigation about the moon and sun in those times. In the Arabian Peninsula, majority of the people leading a tribal life were illiterate.

Thus, we tried to prove the existence, unity and power of God and Muhammad (pbuh) is a true prophet through the verse forming the frame of our topic. At the same time it gives the basic data for those wishing to make scientific searches. It is impossible to claim the otherwise.

“Nor can the Night outstrip the Day”

We know the reason why the day and nighttime came about. And yet Quran gives us the gist with a little explanation by pointing out a very important issue. That is, the earth surface has been maintaining its revolving from east to west since its creation and the daytime is followed by nighttime. Then, it is out of question the night comes before the daytime since the world cannot be thought of turning reverse that is to say it cannot keep on following a course from east to west. By drawing our attentions to this truth, the Quran brings proofs for the fact that it is the words of God Almighty and it points out the truth that Quran goes in front of all civilizations by bringing light on the scientists.

In this sense, at the very beginning of the verse Ya-sin, the topic is discussed by taking oath on the Quran incorporated with science and wisdom and by referring to its qualities. In addition to this, it is designated that Muhammad (pbuh) is a true prophet.

Sources:  Celal Yıldırım, İlmin Işığında Asrın Kur’an Tefsiri, Anadolu Yayınları: 10/5049-5051.

For further information, also you can read the article given bel

39. And the Sun runs unto a resting place: that is the decree of (Him), the Exalted in Might, the All-Knowing.

39. And the Moon,- We have measured for her stations (to traverse) till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date-stalk.

40. It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law)

Quran wants to give its addressees the message that there is a perfect and drawback-free order in the universe. And this order and system related with every aspect of them are verifying the unity of God. One sample of this is the movement of the sun. This movement can be around itself. It can be around the world, it can be as solar system, or it can be in a speed 18 km per second or more within the Milky way which contains the sun. The verse has such a sentence structure that it is possible for it to mean all of these meanings. And yet what important at this point is the idea of order included in all probabilities. The sun which is miraculous, sturdy, tremendous and talented servant of God can not cause any problem or disharmony despite its incredible movements each of which is taking place in various courses.

The word “sun” is the name of a star around which the members of earth and solar system turn and solar system is one of the star systems contained in milky way. And as for Milky way, it is just one of the galaxies whose numbers are almost limitless. The explorations in the field of astronomy say that the sun in terms of both greeatness and brightness is at average, and ordinary one but as it is the closest star to the earth surface, it looks greater and brighter.

The importance of the sun stems from that it is the planet around which our world revolves and it is the source of light and heat necessary for maintanance of life in earth. It is the source of natural gas, petrol and coal like the food all humanity need. The climate cases in the atmosphere, winds and rains all come about thanks to solar energy; the circulation of the water on the ground is possible with solar energy; green plants photosynthesize through it.

As for the moon the single satelite tied to world, it reflects little light that it receives from the sun, by this means it illuminates the darkness of night of the world. Also, both sun and moon are very important in terms of counting the dates and making calender. In short, the importance of both derives from their relevance with the world that is to say with the whole humanity.

The sun and moon have always attracted the attention of mankind due to their being eye catching and their significance in his life, and even they affected the religious systems to such an extend that they had such an impact that some people divinised them.

In the middle age iconography, it is observed that the sun was used as a symbol of Christ. In the Romanesque art, Jesus was associated with time determining sun and described as a sun disc.

The researches about pre-Islamic Arabic history point out that the Arabic people worshipped for the sun in a variety of areas in the Arabic peninsula and this situation extended over before Christ age. And these observations show that the religion of ignorance age was based on the worship for the stars, all of these god names originated from the names “moon father”, “sun mother” and their daughter “Venus”. And the culture of sun used to be common amongst the Arabic people of ignorance age. (Look: Cevâd Ali, el-Mufassalfî târîhi'l-Arab kable'l-İslâm, VI, 50-57) Therefore, this finding can be said to comply with the verse:

37: Among His Sings are the Night and the Day, and the Sun and the Moon. Prostrate not to the Sun and the Moon, but prostrate to Allah, Who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve. Fussilat

While the Quran is touching to the sun and moon, it intends to grip the attentions towards the vastness of God’s knowledge and these are His works of art and His blessings on mankind. Thus, at the end of the 38th verse, this point is emphasized. That almost all the verses discussing the places, movements and significances of both sun and moon in the universe are, according to majority, Meccain show that the main reason about discussion of these subjects are to clear away all false beliefs and to suggest being a good servitude to Almighty God.

While the Quran is touching to the sun and moon, it intends to grip the attentions towards the vastness of God’s knowledge and these are His works of art and His blessings on mankind. Thus, at the end of the 38th verse, this point is emphasized. That almost all the verses discussing the places, movements and significances of both sun and moon in the universe are, according to majority, Meccain show that the main reason about discussion of these subjects are to clear away all false beliefs and to suggest being a good servitude to Almighty God.

The data of the astronomy, astrophysics and solar physics highly improved recently are also important in terms of Quran investigations which have currently gained a new speed, and it strengthens the possibility of reviving the implied two-way improvement. These are good indications of that investigators working in these fields don’t conceal their admirations for the greatness of the book of universe and direct the gazes towards the underlying power of that book and by this, the areas of thoughts and science must be consolidated with a divine book authenticity of which cannot be questioned.  

We can summarize all of these as follows: the sun moves:a) Until an appointed time for it (that is to say till the doomsday)

b) Around a certain fixed position peculiar to itself

c) For the benefit of realm which is the station of it

d) Towards a point determined for it

e) In accordance with a law to which it has been appointed not with randomly or by a blind chance 

f) So as to bring a stability and balance to its own realm,

g) In order to stop and calm down at the end

h) To finalize its daily and yearly movement.

In the illustrations of the doomsday in the Quran and hadiths, it is discussed about the breaking down the present order of the sun and even it will be wrapped, and besides this, it has been confirmed by the scientific researches that each star has got a limited lifetime.

By the verse “It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon” ( ya-sin:40), it is emphasized that the sun and moon have got so vital impacts both on the mankind and earth, and these cannot go beyond their limits, all are subject to the laws established by the power and wish of the God.

This sentence was commented as “neither of its lights does look like each other” or “once one of its luminosity arises, the other’s light disappears”

The reason here why the verb “to reach” was employed for the sun can be that the moon finishes turning its course within one month and the sun completes its revolving around the world in one year. The interpretation of Razi for the verse “nor can the Night outstrip the Day” means that the night in question stands out the moon, and the daytime represents the sun. The intended meaning here is that might and command of the moon can never outstrip the strength and influence of the sun.

God Almighty appointed some stations for the moon travelling in the heavens. Though the moon receives its light from the sun, the first day it rises, it seems very small then, it gets bigger and then again becomes smaller. While the sun carries out its duty in the daytime, the moon does its task in nighttime.

God All Besought One informs us that the order and harmony in the universe are provided by Him and this is a very evident of His presence and might by stating the functions of the sun and moon are different from each other, and though the day and night follow each other, one never exceeds the other. (Kuran Yolu, interpretations ofthe verse Yasin 38, 39, 40)

2 Do Aliens really exist?

There are creatures outside the world, too. However, those creatures are luminous creatures. In Shari'ah (Islamic law), they are called angels or spiritual beings.

The world or earth’s surface is mentioned as “al-Ard” in the Qur’an and it is also stated that and all prophets beginning with Hazrat Adam were sent to the earth. It is stated in the hadith Mir’aj (ascension) that there are ranks belong to prophets such as Abraham, Idris and Jesus Christ (Isa) at some parts of the heaven. In the verses of Surah al-Isra 44 and at-Talaq 12, it is also mentioned that the earth as well as heavens are seven layers. However, it is not clearly stated that whether those layers consist of seven layers of the earth, seven continents or seven climates.  

However, even if there are planets that are suitable for living other than the world in which we live there are no verses or hadiths about the existence of creatures like human beings who are obliged and responsible.

It is known that there are eight or eleven planets according to the latest information acquired other than the world but there is not any religious or scientific document regarding the existence of such a living species.

On the other hand, there is a truth that should not be ignored; our world, which is an old planet, consists of living creatures that have spirit, intelligence and mind; similarly, there are spiritual creatures living in other planets, stars and heavenly bodies based on the living conditions, structures and locations of those places. Badiuzzaman Said Nursi explains the issue as follows:

The globe of the earth is the home of these infinite numbers of beings endowed with consciousness and spirit, despite its insignificance and density among the lofty heavenly bodies and planets, and even its grossest and most rotten particulars becoming masses of micro-organisms when they cease as sources of life, necessarily, demonstrably, decisively indicates, testifies to and proclaims that infinite space and the majestic heavens with their constellations and stars are full of animate beings, conscious beings, and beings with spirits. The Illustrious Shari‘a of Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him) and the Qur’an of Miraculous Exposition call these beings, who are created from fire, light, and even from electricity, and from other subtle flowing matter, “The angels, the jinn, and spirit beings.” (The Words - The Twenty - Ninth Word - First Aim)

3 Why did Allah create the universe?

Allah the Almighty, Who is the Maker of the universe and of all beings in it, created the universe for very significant purposes. Qur’an informs this as follows:
“Not for (idle) sport did we create the heavens and the earth and all that is between.” (Anbiyya Surah, 21:16)
“Not without purpose did we create heaven and earth and all between” (Sa Surah, 38:27)
All beings glorify and magnify the Exalted Creator with their languages. They fulfill the tasks with a pleasure and enthusiasm, which are assigned to them. For example, the sun, without falling behind even a second, moves around the orbit, which has been drawn for it. Rivers enthusiastically flow into seas. Animals, which have been given under the command of man, serve him with an absolute obedience.
Besides, if the universe had not been created, the never-ending perfection and beauty of the names and attributes of Allah Almighty would have never been known. This would have only been known by Allah (SWT). By manifesting the spiritual beauties of His names and attributes, Allah Almighty, besides beholding His own Beauty and Perfection on His own works, also wished to give a share to angels, man, and jinn from this honor and bestowal.
Regarding the question of whether to create the beings or not to, Allah (SWT) made His Divine preference for creation, and this preference has become an interminable mercy for all creatures. Or else it is unthinkable that Allah’s, one of Whose names is Samed (everything is in need of Him but He is in need of nothing), creation of this universe stems from a necessity.

Further reading on this subject, please click on the link given below.

Why was Man Created? What Should Be His Purpose and Goal?

Alaaddin Başar (Prof.Dr.)

4 Can I have information about how we were created?

According to the Quran, we can study the creation of man in two parts: the creation of Hazrat Adam and the creation of man in the womb. The creation of Eve should be added to the first one and the creation of Jesus should be added to the second one.

The verses in the Quran regarding the creation of Hazrat Adam (pbuh) are as follows: (3)

"Behold thy Lord said to the angels: ‘I will create a vicegerent on earth’." (al-Baqara 30).

"We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape" (al-Hijr 26).

"He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery. (ar-Rahman 14)

"…Are they the more difficult to create, or the (other) beings We have created? Them have We created out of a sticky clay" (as-Saaffat 11)

"He Who has made everything which He has created most Good. He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay" (as-Sajda 7)

"Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay)" (al-Mu'minun 12)

"He it is who created you from clay, and then decreed a stated term (for you)" (al-Anam 2).

"From the (earth) did We create you" (Taha 55)

"Among His Signs is this that He created you from dust; and then Behold ye are men scattered (far and wide)!" (ar-Rum 20)

"... Iblis said "Shall I bow down to one whom Thou didst create from clay?" (al-Isra 61, al-Araf 12, Sad 76)

To sum up those verses, "Adam was created from clay" (al-Isra 61, al-Araf 12, Sad 76, as-Sajda 7),

"Them have We created out of a sticky clay" (Saffat 11)

" Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay)" (al-Mu’minun 12)

" We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape " (al-Hjcr 26, ar-Rahman 14). (3).

Adam is a Hebrew word that means a being that emerged from soil; earth, dust; it is stated that Adam was created from mud, that is, a mixture of the soil and water; to put it more clearly, from sounding clay molded into shape; and he revived after the divine spirit was breathed into him:

"He Who has made everything which He has created most Good. He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay" (as-Sajda 7)

"But He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something of His spirit. And He gave you (the faculties of) hearing and sight and feeling (and understanding)" (as-Sajda 9) (3).

In fact, it is known that what constitutes the structure of not only man but also all living beings are the elements in soil and water and that the human organism consists of 30% inorganic and organic matter and 70% water. If that constitution is taken into consideration, it will be seen that the human organism consists mostly of water. Water gives the life. Similarly, plants, animals and everything come from the soil and return to it and become soil.  

The creation of man in the womb is stated as follows in the Quran:

"Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing--(not even) mentioned?― Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. " (al-Insan,2).

"Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest firmly fixed" (al-Mu'minun 13).

"Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (fetus) lump; then We made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature: so blessed be Allah, the Best to create" (al-Mu'minun 14).

" It is He Who has created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a leech-like clot; then does He get you out (into the light) as a child: then lets you (grow and) reach your age of full strength; then lets you become old " (Ghafir, 67).

" O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise each other) " (al-Hujurat 13)

" That He did create the pairs male and female. From a seed when lodged (in its place); "(an-Najm 45-46)

" He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases.." (Aal-i-Imran 6)

" He has created man from a sperm― drop " (an-Nahl 4).

"And He has multiplied you through the earth" (al-Mu'minun 79)

" It is We who created you and gave you shape " (al-Araf 11)

" It is He Who has created man from water: then has He established relationships of lineage and marriage " (al-Furqan 54)

" Doth not man see that it is We Who created Him from sperm?" (Yasin 77)

" Seeing that it is He that has created you in diverse stages " (Nuh 14)

" Have We not created you from a fluid (held) despicable? The which We placed in a place of rest, firmly fixed. For a period (of gestation), determined (according to need)? (al-Mursalat 20,21,22)

"Was he not a drop of sperm emitted (in lowly form)? Then did he become a clining clot; then did (Allah) make and fashion (him) in due proportion. And of him He made two sexes, male and female. " (al-Qiyama 37,38,39)

" It is He who hath produced you from a single person " (al-Anam 98)

" From what stuff Hath He created him?  From a sperm-drop: He hath created him, and then moldeth him in due proportions; Then, doth He make His path smooth for him " (Abasa 18,19,20)

" We have indeed created man in the best of molds " (at-Tin 4)

" Proclaim! (or Read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created― Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood. (al-Alaq 1,2) (3).

Those verses, which express the formation of the fetus in the womb, are like the description of the embryological development. The study of the formation of the fetus in the womb and its phases of development determined by Keith Moore, Canada Toronto University Anatomy Professor, through the latest technological methods and comparing them with the verses of the Quran and hadiths is like the proof of the Quranic verses mentioned above and the hadiths of the Prophet of Islam.

5 Can you give Hadiths which emphasize the importance of trees?

1- "Whenever Muslims plant a tree, they will earn the reward of charity because of the food that comes from it; and likewise what is stolen from it, what the wild beasts eat out of it, what the birds eat out of it, and what people take from it is charity for them" (Tacrid us Sarih trans. VII,122)

2- “If a Muslim plants a tree or grow grains and a bird, a person or an animal eats from it will be counted as a charity for him. (Tacrid us Sarih trans. VII,123)

3- “If any of you have a date sapling on the doomsday he should plant it -if possible.” (Bukhara, Edebu'l-mufred, (thk., Halid Abdurrahman), p. 138, Daru'l-Ma'rife, Beirut, 1966).

4- “Whoever plants a tree is rewarded by Allah as much as the produce grown in that tree.” (Tacrid us Sarih trans. VII,122)

5- Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle said, "There is none amongst the Muslims who plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, but is regarded as a charitable gift for him."

6 Is global waming true that when we use too much electricyty and stuff that eartquakes and tsumnis will happen?

GLOBAL WARMING
It is not right to reduce ayahs and hadiths that mention the signs of the Doomsday to a single subject and limit it. It can be said that those ayahs and hadiths contain lots of issues and may imply calamities like global warming.
The Prophet said in a hadith in which he mentions the features of the end of time:
When the world remains in “harj u marj”, when troubles appear, when the ways are blocked off, when some people attack others… (Kıyamet-Ahiret ve Ahirzaman Alametleri, p. 454)
The meaning of “harj u marj” in dictionary is “turmoil, disorder, unrest” and in the hadith it is said that it won’t be limited in a particular area and will prevail in all parts of the world. Blocking the ways and attacking of some people to others are counted as the signs of the age mentioned in the hadith.
The event mentioned above is mentioned in another hadith similarly. The Prophet who said “The apocalypse draws nearer and “harj” increases” was asked about the meaning of “harj” and he answered as “harj means killings”. (Kur'an ve Sünnette Kiyamet ve Ahiret, p.172)
Other hadiths that came to us about the issue are:
There exists anarchy and disorder days just near apocalypse. (Suyuti, Jami'üs Saghir, 3/211; Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad, 2/492)
The Doomsday will not come till these events happen… Deaths and massacres will be common… (Jamiu's-Saghir, 3:211, Musnad, 2:492, 4:391, 392:)
Examining the hadiths above, leads us to an important conclusion. The Prophet, with crashes, disorders and massacres He mentioned, describes the worldwide wars, terrorist attacks and different events about the world and states that these events are signs of apocalypse.
The modern war technology of our time, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons increased the effects of wars to a level that has never been seen in the history. It is also commonly accepted that the World cannot have a third world war because of mass-destruction weapons.
The ayahs about the issue contain lessons we are supposed to learn. Allah says in surah Al-Room that there were disorders in the world because of the actions of people.
Corruption has appeared in the land and the sea on account of what the hands of men have done, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, so that they may return. The Quran, the Romans (Ar-room); 41 (30:41)
It is worth to add that there is an important warning in the ayah. The sorrows, grieves and pains resulting from the faults of men are sort of opportunities for them to return from their mistakes.
In short, the time when the world is in “harj u marj” has been exactly lived in our time and a sign of apocalypse has came true in this way. At the same time, this sign has been an important warning for people to live in accordance with moralities of life.
As Doomsday approaches, big cities will be destroyed because of wars and calamities.
One of the pieces of information which The Prophet gave about end of time is: “Big cities will be destroyed as if they did not exist yesterday.” (Kitab-ul Burhan Fi Alamatt-il Mahdiyyil Ahir Zaman, p. 38)
Industry causes global warming which is a harmful and unwanted by-product; the balances in the world atmosphere which is gradually getting warmer and so climate changes take place. Calamities like hurricanes, storms, tornados, typhoons caused destructive damages in many places of the world especially in America. In addition to them, many settlements suffered from floods. Moreover, we did not forget about the damages caused by earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. As a conclusion, the destruction in big cities caused by all those calamities has been an important sign. The most common definition for 20th century is “the century of calamities” Natural calamities like earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and civil wars, clashes and important sea accidents or plane crashes claimed lots of lives. Cities that were destroyed, people that went out of existence  are among the signs of the apocalypse mentioned in the hadiths. Allah says in the Quran: “Do they wait the Hour to overtake them unawares? Its signs have already come…” (the Quran Muhammad, 18)
The believers who believe in Allah sincerely, conscious of following the destiny, observed the appearance of the signs of the apocalypse with great curiosity and excitement for ages. They contemplated about the signs in ayahs and hadiths, tried to be ready for the instigations and troubles in the first times of the end-of-time and wished to live in the golden age about which they are foretold in advance. The time which we are in is the time in which most signs of apocalypse have fully appeared.  Present time witnesses the appearance of the heavenly signs successively and in accordance with the way they are described and witnesses the events that have never happened before. Without doubt, they are the most important events after the time of the Prophet. The global warming is one of those events. Evaluating those events with prejudice, ignoring or denying them is a great loss for those who think so.
It is clear that 21st century is the beginning of a new era in world history. The promise of Allah is an absolute reality. Nobody can prevent or change His promises. As it is in every issue, the wisest and the most beautiful statement is in the Quran. Allah says:
“And say:  “Praise is only for Allah, who will soon show you His signs so that you will recognize them.”…

7 Could you give information as regard to the Big Bang theory and the creation of the universe?

People, in the every age and epoch have been always curious about the enormous universe in which we live.  How did it come into existence?  Where is it going?  How do the laws that provide the order and balance work?  For centuries, scientists and thinkers have carried out innumerable researches and produced a lot of theories.

The view that had prevailed till the beginning of the twentieth century was that the universe had infinite dimensions, that it had existed from pre-eternity and that it would exist forever.  According to this concept which is called “The Static Universe Model”, a beginning and an ending for the universe was not in question.    

This concept, which underlies the materialistic philosophy, considers the universe to be a static, stationery and unchangeable sum of substances.  It also negates the being of any Creator.   

While everything, even “the heavens and earths” which had not been created yet, was in one point, they were created with a big bang.  Then, everything was separated from one another, and they formed the current shape of the universe.  Materialism is a system of thought which regards matter as an absolute being, and does not accept the existence of anything except it.  Tracing back to the ancient Greeks, but, spreading especially in the nineteenth century, this system of thought became famous by the dialectical materialism of Karl Marx.    

As earlier noted, nineteenth century’s static universe model had provided ground for the materialistic philosophy.  Relying on this model of universe, the materialist philosopher Georges Politzer claimed in his book Principes Élémentaires de Philosophie, that the universe “had not been created” and said: "If it had been created, then, it would be  necessary that it should have been created by God at a particular time out of nothing."  

While Politzer claimed that the universe had not been created out of nothing, he relied on the nineteenth century’s static universe model and, therefore, thought that he put forward a scientific thesis.  However, the science and technology which developed in the twentieth century eradicated the primitive concepts such as static universe model which provided ground for materialists.  In the present period, the threshold of the twenty-first century, the thesis that the universe had a beginning and that had been created with a big bang out of nothing have been proved by the modern physics through a lot of experiments, observation and calculations. 

In addition to this, it has been demonstrated that the universe is not static or stationery; on the contrary, it is constantly in motion and change, continuously expanding.  Today, these realities have been recognized by all the scientific circles. 

Now, let us mention how these most important truths were discovered by the scientific world:   

In 1929, at California Mount Wilson Observatory, American astronomer Edwin Hubble, while researching the outer space by the means of the huge telescope, found out that the stars, depending on their distance, were spreading reddish beams of light.  This discovery caused a great sensation in the scientific circles because according the established and known physical rules, the spectrum of the beams of the light moving into the point of observation shifts to violet, and that of the beams of the light diverging from the point of observation shifts to red.  However, during the observations of Hubble a shift to red at the beams of stars was observed.  That is to say, the stars were moving away from us constantly.

Hubble, soon afterwards, discovered another important point: the stars and galaxies move away not only from one another but also from us.  In the presence of a universe in which everything moves away from one another, the only result that can be concluded was that the universe is “expanding” constantly.  In order to understand the point better, it is possible to consider the universe as a surface of inflated balloon.  The points on the surface of the balloon move away from each other as the balloon is inflated; similarly, the objects in the universe move away from one another as the universe expands.

“Do the disbelievers not see that the heavens and the earth were one mass, and We tore them apart? And We made from water every living thing. Will they not believe?"(the Prophets, 21/30)

In fact, this reality had been discovered earlier theoretically.  Albert Einstein, who is regarded as the greatest scientist of the century, concluded that the universe is not static after the calculations that he had made in the realm of theoretical physics.  However, in order not to contradict the prevailing static universe model of that period, he set aside his discovery.  Einstein, later, would call his own behavior as “the gravest mistake of his carrier”.  Afterwards, through the observations of the Hubble, the expansion of the universe was proved definitely.  What was the importance of the expansion of the universe as regard to existence of the universe? 

The universe has been and is expanding, accordingly, as we go retrospectively, it has been established that the universe began at a particular point.  The calculations carried out, have shown that “the single point” that included all of the matter of the universe had to have “zero volume” and “infinite density”.  The universe emerged by the explosion of this point which had zero volume.  This explosion marking the beginning of the universe was called “Big Bang” and the theory started to be called “the Big Bang Theory”.   

In fact, zero volume is a theoretical expression form of this issue.  Science can identify the concept of “non-existence” only with the expression of “the point at zero volume” which exceeds the borders of human intellect.  In fact, the point at zero volume connotes “non-existence”.  The universe emerged out of nothing.  In other words, it was created.

This profound fact, which modern physics discovered in the last years of this century, had been informed to us in the Holy Quran fourteen centuries ago as follows:   

"Originator of the heavens and the earth—how can He have a son when He never had a companion?"(the Livestock, 6/101)

As is known, the Big Bang theory has shown that at the beginning all objects in the universe were together and moved away from one another later.  This fact that has been put forward by the Big Bang theory, had been declared in the Holy Quran fourteen centuries ago, when people’s knowledge about the universe was very restricted:   

"Do the disbelievers not see that the heavens and the earth were one mass, and We tore them apart? And We made from water every living thing. Will they not believe?"(the Prophets, 21/30)

That is to say, while everything, even the “heavens and the earth” which had not created yet, was at one single point, they were created with a big bang and then moved away from one another, and their present shapes formed.  When we compare the expressions of the verse with the Big Bang theory, we can observe a full conformity.  However, putting forward of the Big Bang as a scientific theory could be achieved only in the twentieth century.

The expanding of the universe is one of the important proofs of the Big Bang Theory, namely, the creation of the universe out of nothing.  This fact, which has been existent since the creation of the universe was discovered by modern science only in this century.  However, this truth was declared by the Quran some fourteen centuries ago:   

"We constructed the universe with power, and We are expanding it."(the Spreaders, 51/47)

As it is seen clearly, the Big bang theory was proof that the universe was created out of nothing, that is, it was created by God.  With the victory of the Big Bang, the concept of “pre-eternal matter” which underlies the materialistic philosophy vanished, or became obsolete.  Well, what did exist before the Big Bang, and which power did extract the “non-existent” universe and changed it into “existence” with a big explosion, then?  Of course, this question shows the existence of one God.  The well-known atheist philosopher Anthony Flew writes the following regarding the issue:   

"It is said that admitting mistakes heals the human’s soul.  Thus, I will admit something:  The Big Bang model is very embarrassing from the point of view an atheist.  For, science has proved a claim that has been advocated by religious sources: the claim that the universe has a beginning.  We can only defend that the current situation of the universe is an absolute explanation as we assume that the universe does not have a beginning and ending.  I, still do believe in this explanation, yet, I should admit that advocating this view against the Big Bang is not an easy and comfortable stance. “ 

Many scientists who have not conditioned themselves blindly to be atheists accept that there is a Creator who has infinite power in the creation of the universe.  This creator should be a being who both created matter and time; that is to say, a being independent of both of them.  The well-known American astrophysicist Hugh Ross explains this truth as follows:   

"If the time and matter emerged with a bang, then the cause who generated the universe should be entirely independent of time and place in the universe.  This shows us that the Creator is beyond all dimensions in the universe.  This also proves that the Creator is not, as some claim, identical with the universe, that He encompasses, and that He is not only an ordinary power in the universe among others.

As the above-mentioned scientist said, matter and time was brought into existence by a Creator who has infinite power and is independent of all of these concepts.  This Creator is God, the Lord of the heavens and the earth.

8 Is the first artificial bacterium DNA that the scientists from Craig Venter Institute produced in the laboratory environment and its transplant into a cell of a bacterium of the kind of Mycoplasma related with creating out of nothing?

First of all, let us define the event that occurred. Craig Venter and his team injected a DNA, whose array they had changed, into a bacterium and the bacterium synthesized that array in the form of a cell. 

In fact, that technique has been practiced all along. However, they have taken that technique more forward.

Viruses are beings even smaller than bacteria. Some of them can live inside bacteria cells. Viruses living inside bacteria have a special name called phage. The single- arrayed DNA of the phage sticking to a bacterium cell is transferred to the bacterium cell. After the DNAs of the phage get into the bacterium, the bacterium biosynthesis mechanism takes service with multiplying the phage. After that, the bacterium’s own chromosome and hence its DNA is destroyed. The all biosynthesis mechanism of the bacterium’s entering into a phage’s service is a very important event.

In the gene technology, that system is made use of. In other words, directing the bacterium mechanism by a DNA array that you have sent from outside is extremely important.

That practice has been made use of for a long time. Genetic structures of some substances like insulin are injected into a bacterium and the synthesis of those substances are supplied. Nowadays, the Venter team cuts some arrays from some parts of the DNA of a random virus and makes some additions to it and so achieves a new DNA with new arrays. When that DNA with new arrays is injected into a bacterium, the genetic code of the bacterium is destroyed and that new DNA is synthesized. When the phage covers form above those DNAs, the bacterium cell is torn and new phages –viruses- appear. Thus, viruses with new genetic arrays are obtained.      

Is it creating a new living-thing?

It is not creating a new living-thing but copying a new living-thing. In one respect, we can liken the study Craig Venter did to grafting. You can graft plum onto the peach tree. In this way, you achieve plums from a peach tree. Another similar way of it is grafting watermelon onto a squash seedling and getting watermelon from a squash plant.

What Venter and his team do is a more sensitive form of the grafting of plants and it can be considered as grafting at the level of molecules.

All we do is preparing the conditions for a different living thing or a fruit to come into existence. It is not creating. It is making something from existing elements or substances. Creating is peculiar to Allah. In order to create a living thing, we have to control the growing up, the developing and the differentiation laws taking place in all of its cells and have to form the atoms and the molecules according to them. Moreover, we have to make the property of vitality or life, which does not exist in elements.  

Everything in the universe is under the knowledge and will of Allah. Through our scientific studies, we are trying to explain and understand His laws and principles He imposed in the universe. As we enter into details at the level of molecules and atoms through our studies about the world, the knowledge we obtain has to be a stage to understand and know His knowledge and power.

It is because, the book of the universe, which is Allah’s work of art, makes Him known.

Otherwise, an approach in a manner like disregarding Allah and asserting godhead by saying “I created”  by relying on some kinds of results that they obtained by their little knowledge compared to Allah’s knowledge and power is only the act of some ignorant people who do not know Allah rightfully. 

May Allah protect scientists from being such ignorant people, amen.

Prof. Dr. Âdem Tatlı

9 Is the following theory of evolutionists regarding the formation of the sun true: “the sun came into existence by the compression of a huge cloud in the course of time”?

The materials and methods that are used by scientists, whether they are evolutionists or creationists, in order to understand the formation and structure of the universe, the sun and other plants are similar. The biggest difference between them is regarding by whom this life was created? An evolutionist proposes that all living things come into existence coincidentally, without a purpose or aim. On the other hand, people who accept that there should be a creator think that every creation comes into existence according to a plan for a certain cause as an art of God’s knowledge, will and power.

After these explanations, as for the question given above, we can say that no one knows the truth about the formation of the sun so we cannot decide whether it is true or wrong. There are interpretations about the creation of the sun according to the information we have today. It is possible that scientists will abandon their interpretations based on the new data to be obtained in the future and accept new interpretations and views.  

If what is asked in the question is the view of the Quran regarding the formation of the sun, first of all it is necessary to state that the Quran is a book of religion and its essential duty is to inform people about Allah, about their duties toward Allah, themselves and the society and about the hereafter. The following is stated in a verse regarding the issue in the Quran: “Moreover, He Comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: ‘Come ye together willingly or unwillingly.’ They said: ‘We do come (together), in willing obedience.’" (Fussilat, 11)

The religion of Islam encourages people to search and examine; it regards the study of the scientists and scholars as worshipping. What Islam rejects is leaving Allah out and attributing creatures to coincidence and causes.
Man has a nature that can be influenced and he is open to suggestions and inculcations. Thus, man is like an empty container. If his heart and brain are not filled with positive thoughts and truths, they will be filled with negative ideologies, superstitions and sophistry.

After a certain period, materialists fill the brains of poor people through continuous and intense inculcations so that they will not accept anything other than materialistic and atheistic thoughts. Then, those people lose their logic and reasoning, becoming like robots.

Although it is certain that even a simple house cannot form without a master, they regard the palace of the universe to have formed without an owner and creator. It is impossible for a letter to form without a writer but they regard the book of the universe to have formed without a writer. They also believe that lifeless, unconscious and will-less nature created all plants, animals and human beings or that they formed on their own. They think that they are aimless, at large and unattended; they are in a terrible deviation.
They cannot see the ugliness and impossibility inside the denial of Allah that lower the value and nature of man from the level of being a diamond to the level of being coal and that eliminates all of his humane characteristics, making him fall down to a level lower than that of animals. The great, comprehensive truths in the universe cannot be explained by unbelief and denial.

The nature of denial involves lies but it also involves accepting the opposite of the truth. For instance, to deny the architect of the Selimiye Mosque is a truthless sophistry and a big lie. When such a magnificent work of art that boggles the mind with its perfect plan, wonderful esthetics and artistic construction exists, it is a great sophistry, a terrifying oppression and a truthless superstition to deny its architect.

Similarly, to deny the creator, owner and director of this magnificent palace of the universe is a much uglier lie, more terrible nonsense and a more terrifying sophistry.

10 Are there not any flaws in the universe? What are the criteria showing that the universe is functioning and operating in incredible harmony?

The criterion showing whether something is beautiful or ugly depends on the perfection of that thing. The perfection of something depends on the fact whether that thing functions and serves in accordance with the purpose of its existence. Whether something functions and serves in accordance with the purpose of its existence depends on the fact whether its outward state is orderly or not. Whether something is orderly or not depends on the fact whether it respects the rights of the mass it is located in.

For instance, the perfection of an eye is to see the beings, which is the purpose of its creation. It can see beings only if it obeys the rules of the reflection of the sunlight. Thus, an eye that sees things also indicates the perfection of the sun, the atmosphere and the solar system. For, it is necessary for this system to operate perfectly for the eyes to see properly. The eye needs to have flexibility in the presence of little or much light; in addition, the light waves, the refraction of light and the frequencies of sight need to be adjusted very well for the act of seeing to take place.

Similarly, the perfection of an ear depends on its hearing sounds very well, which is the purpose of its creation. In order to hear sounds, it is necessary for the ears to be in the frequency that will enable them to hear in the atmospheric system they are located in, apart from being created in the available system. Since the system that is available serves to realize this person, it means a perfect system is functioning.

For instance, if it were not for the law of gravity, we would not only face the danger of being thrown into space but also we would not be able to swallow food. That is, the proper operation of our inner system depends on the existence of the law of gravity and on Allah, who created this law. This is perfection. All of the elements and systems of the universe have been functioning perfectly for billions of years. Otherwise, Doomsday would have struck so many times up to now.

The phenomena like beauty and ugliness have two aspects: Firstly, the state that is existent in their own beings; secondly, the position that they have compared to others.

When we look at the universe in accordance with the criteria presented above, we will see that it is a perfect system that operates without any flaws. The greatest evidence for it is the facts found by the present exact sciences as a result of long researches. The conclusion that each one of the present exact sciences has drawn is as follows, as Imam Ghazali puts it:

“It is impossible to have a better system and order than the one that is available.”

As it is expressed in the question, whether something is ugly or beautiful is relative based on the viewpoint of people. A person who is sad will see everybody, even the whole world, crying; a person who is happy will see everybody, even all beings, happy; it is something relative.

Beauty is essential in the universe. Some phenomena that are seen as ugly have been placed here and there among beings in order to show the beauty of the beautiful things; they are also elevated to the rank of relative beauties since they become a means of showing the beauties. The number of ugly things is really small in the ontological mechanism. For instance, the movement of a comet that zigzags can be regarded as deficient / ugly. However, this movement contributes to our understanding of the beauty of the millions of celestial bodies that move regularly on the one hand; and it shows a very nice talent of maneuvering existent in comets on the other hand.

Similarly, a person who looks at the digestive system of man can think that the bends and crooked ways in it are a disorder. However, the experts on the issue know very well that it is not so.

“With Him are the keys of the Unseen, the treasures that none knoweth but He. He knoweth whatever there is on the earth, and in the sea. Not a leaf doth fall but with His knowledge: there is not a grain in the darkness (or depths) of the earth nor anything fresh or dry (green or withered) but is (inscribed) in a Record Clear (to those who can read).”(al-Anam, 6/ 59)

The verse above indicates that the system and design of everything is prepared by Allah’s knowledge and wisdom and therefore, everything will be nice and perfect.

“Mischief has appeared on land and sea because of (the meed) that the hands of men have earned that (Allah) may give them a taste of some of their deeds: in order that they may turn back (from Evil).”(ar-Rum, 30/41)

It is emphasized in the verse above that the most important being that causes the negative incidents in the world is man. This fact, which was emphasized by the verse fifteen centuries ago, has been accepted by experts today and they have rolled up their sleeves to stop this inattention.

In conclusion, we can say that the whole universe reads the following verses with its tongue of disposition and makes those who are conscious read them:

“He Who created the seven heavens one above another; no want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. so turn thy vision again: Seest thou any flaw? Again turn thy vision a second time; (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.” (al-Mulk, 67/3-4)

May our Lord make us read them, too.

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It is stated in the Quran that everything is perfect. Was everything really created in the best and perfect form?   

The following is stated in verse 3 of the chapter of al-Mulk: "So turn thy vision again: Seest thou any flaw?" Why does Allah address man like that? Are layers of the sky things that can be seen?

11 What is the realm of beings and what does it include?

It is a fact that the realm of beings does not consist of the beings that can be perceived through five senses only. Man sees material beings through his sense of sight. He feels the realm of tastes through his tongue, the realm of sounds through his ear and the realm of smells through his nose. In fact, there are so many phenomena like electricity, gravity, magnetic force of pushing and pulling that are neither seen nor heard. However, the existence of these facts is undoubted.

In this old planet of our world, there are so many living beings with spirit, mind and consciousness; similarly, in the other planets, stars and celestial bodies, there are spiritual beings peculiar to the structure and location of those places. Badiuzzaman Said Nursi clarifies the issue as follows:

“The globe of the earth being the home of these infinite numbers of beings endowed with consciousness and spirit, despite its insignificance and density among the lofty heavenly bodies and planets, and even its grossest and most rotten particulars becoming masses of microorganisms when they cease as sources of life, necessarily, demonstrably, decisively indicates to, testifies to and proclaims that infinite space and the majestic heavens with their constellations and stars are full of animate beings, conscious beings, and beings with spirits.

The Illustrious Shari’a of Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace) and the Qur’an of Miraculous Exposition call these beings, who are created from fire, light, and even from electricity, and from other subtle flowing matter, 'The angels, the jinn, and spirit beings'".

(Sözler, Yirmi Dokuzuncu Söz, Birinci Maksat, Birinci Esas) (Words, Twenty-ninth Word, First Aim, First Fundamental Point)

12 How many planets are there in the solar system?

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi states that there are twelve planets in the solar system.  

"American astronomers stated that they discovered two new planets about 150 light years away from the earth. According to the statement made by San Francisco University, the planets that have been discovered are located in an orbit around two stars similar to the sun and they are as big as Jupiter. Along with the 2 planets discovered by the teams of Geoffrey Marcy and Paul Butler, the number of the planets discovered in the solar system since 1995 became 12. 9 of these planets were discovered by Marcy and Butler. Like the other planets that were stated to be discovered, the last two planets were not observed physically. While about 430 stars were being observed by two Keck telescopes located in Mauna Kea, the existence of those two planets was discovered thanks to their effect on the stars that they have been rotating around. A space study published in Nature magazine showed that a planet system formed around two stars near Taurus constellation and in orbits near each other. According to a research done by an international team headed by the Mexican Luis Rodriguez, planets form more often than expected around these pairs of stars, which confirms that there are more planets in the solar system. It is stated that most of the planets are not alone but in groups of two or sometimes three unlike the sun."

If we go back and look at Risale-i Nur Collection written in 1928 after this news, we see the same truth there. For instance, the following is written in the 21st Window of the 33rd Word:

"…the twelve planets including our globe known as the solar system..."

"Now we shall refer to the all-encompassing knowledge of Allah the wonders of the solar system, that is, the twelve planets which are the sun's followers and fruits..."

The following is stated in the last part of Lem'alar (Flashes) called Munajat:

"There is not even one planet among the 12 planets stars that..."

If we think how Badiuzzaman Said Nursi determined this truth, we see many scientific discoveries and karamahs in his works. We quoted some of them from time to time. This is one of them. Besides, its resource is the Quran because there is a simile about the sun, the moon and eleven stars in a verse:

"Behold Joseph said to his father: 'O my father! I did see eleven stars and the sun and the moon: I saw them prostrate themselves to me.'" (Yusuf, 12/4)

The following is stated at the end of the story of Yusuf:

"Then when they entered the presence of Joseph, he provided a home for his parents with himself, and said: 'Enter ye Egypt (all) in safety if it please Allah.' And he raised his parents high on the throne (of dignity), and they fell down in prostration, (all) before him. He said: 'O my father! This is the fulfilment of my vision of old.'"(Yusuf, 12/99-100)

We understand that the moon and the sun in the dream are Yusuf's mother and father. They bring to mind a group and a system out of one thing. 12 brothers including Yusuf means 12 stars, which indicates strongly that there are 12 planets in the solar system.   

We will see what else will take place from the things he stated. If we have a long life, we will see them.

(Abdullah AYMAZ)

13 Are there any living creatures in other planets?

- As far as we know, “aliens” mentioned by earthmen are not real. In the Qur’an’s statements, there is no clarity about aliens or humans or any other living creatures living in other planets. However, the existence of angels and spirits is mentioned there.

- Nevertheless, in addition to the planets in which spirits and angels live, it is not impossible for creatures like humans to live in some stars that have the necessary living conditions.

As a matter of fact, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi mentioned that possibility with the following words:

“...(from the explanation of the verse about seven skies and seven layers of the earth...) with the references of both existence of seven planets similar to our world, and having room for living creatures ( to existence of another world that is suitable for some creatures to live and resembles to the world) it is discovered from the ayah of the Qur’an that with the reference of existence of seven layer, that is, seven worlds, even the world is formed with seven layersalso the seven levels indicating that seven further globes exist resembling our globe, and that they are the dwelling places of living creatures– from these indications it has been understood from verses of the Qur’an that the earth too has seven levels.

It thus becomes clear that the earth has seven sorts of levels that exist in seven ways. The eighth, which is the final meaning, is important from another point of view; it is not included in the seven.”  (Lemalar (Flashes), 65)

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Can you give some information about UFOs (aliens)?

14 Is teleportation possible? Can a living person be teleported? Can cells be eliminated and then brought together again?

The verses mention many miracles of Hz. Sulayman. Some of them are as follows: using jinn as his servants, understanding the language of animals including ants and giving commands to them, covering a distance of two months in a day by flying, bringing the throne of Balqis, the queen of Sheba, to Jerusalem within the twinkling of an eye, having a palace made of glass, which made Balqis tuck up her skirts, making her think that she was entering a pond.  

a) We should remind this first: It is stated before the verses explaining the miracles mentioned above that Hz Sulayman had exceptional knowledge:

"We gave (in the past) knowledge to David and Solomon: and they both said: ‘Praise be to Allah, Who has favored us above many of His servants who believe." (an-Naml, 27/15)

b) The second point we should state is this: They are not the only people who had exceptional knowledge. The verse mentions another person "who had knowledge of the Book" near Hz. Sulayman. Besides, the miracle ofbringing the throne of Balqis, the queen of Sheba, to Jerusalem was realized for Hz. Sulayman by means ofa person "who had knowledge of the Book". The relevant verses are as follows:

He (Sulayman) said (to his own men): "Ye Chiefs! Which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?" Said an Ifrit of the Jinn: "I will bring it to thee before thou rise from thy Council: indeed I have full strength for the purpose, and may be trusted." Said one who had knowledge of the Book: "I will bring it to thee within the twinkling of an eye!" Then when (Solomon) saw it placed firmly before him, he said: "This is by the grace of my Lord!― to test me whether I am grateful, or ungrateful!...' " (an-Naml, 27/38-40)

We will emphasize a few points that attract our attention in the verse:

1) "It is clear that the person who had knowledge of the Book is not a jinni. For, the following is stated in verse 17 of the same chapter: "And before Solomon were marshalled his hosts― of Jinn and men and birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks." Therefore, the second important group existing in the consultation committee of Hz. Sulayman consists of human beings. They are not angels. Then, the interpreters who hold the view that this person is a human being seem to be right.

2) What is “the book” from which this person obtained knowledge? It should not be a religious book, for instance, the Psalms, which was sent down to Hz. Dawud. For, the knowledge of such a technique is not and cannot be present in religious books.

3) If we understand ilm (knowledge) as definite knowledge based on some laws and rules, we can deduce that there is a book in which the knowledge stated to be given to Hz. Sulayman exists. The following outcome is obtained from those explanations: The miracles given to Hz. Sulayman are based on some scientific principles. These principles were not only written in a book but also taught to some people. Hz. Sulayman executed his rule and activities based on scientific principles with a distinguished group consisting of some people who had a good command of them.    

Another piece of news showing that people who lived in the first ages were savage, ignorant and deprived of technique as the Westerners insistently claimed up to recent times is the one related to the palace that Hz. Sulayman built out of glass. The verse is as follows:  

"She was asked to enter that lofty Palace: but when she saw it, she thought it was a lake of water, and she (tucked up her skirts), uncovering her legs. He said. ‘This is but a palace paved smooth with slabs of glass.’"(an-Naml, 27/44).

This verse states that various sciences and techniques were developed at that age. For, building a construction is a sector that necessitates many sciences and techniques like ironworking, carpentry, glasswork, adorning and decoration, which are products of a developed civilization along with engineering and architecture. It cannot be claimed that such a scientific and technologic level did not exist in a community where a sultan prophet who was stated to be made distinguished by the knowledge given to him was dominant and that he realized all of them with miracles.

A question that can come to mind here is as follows: What did Hz. Sulayman do to this book?  

Very few people might have obtained the knowledge in this book, which is estimated to have existed. As a matter of fact, the history of Sons of Israel is full of incidents showing the material elimination of the Torah, their religious book, repeatedly. On the other hand, even the great Egyptian civilization, which was dominant for more than four thousand years, was forgotten and became unknown for centuries despite their huge pyramids; it started to be enlightened and known beginning from the 19th century and their books on religion, medicine, literature, education and other subjects were discovered. Besides, wonderful works left by the people living in previous eras have been found all over the world. These works are so extraordinary that some Western authors who still hold the view "There is no civilization except the Western civilization; humanity reached the level of Western civilization from an era of absolute savagery through a straight progress" as we have mentioned before explain those works through giants that descended from the sky. Although it seems strange to us, this is the most reasonable sophistry to which the people who do not believe in prophets and revelation will resort.

The miracles of prophets draw the ultimate limits of science about that issue.  Teleportationis also a law of Allah. If science discovers this law, it can realize teleportation.

İbrahim Canan (Prof.Dr.)

15 What does reading the book of the universe mean? What is the book of the universe?

Allah created us so that we would worship Him and to make Himself known. Therefore, He also created the teachers and introducers that would introduce Him to us. The most comprehensive and universal ones among those teachers and introducers are the following three:

1. The book of the universe
2. Hz. Muhammad (pbuh)
3. The Quran.

Each of those introducers introduces and describes Allah to us (those who can read). Acting upon this universal rule, we can say that since Allah will introduce us all of His names and attributes through the universe, He will definitely make His names and attributes that include His perfection and beauty manifest in it. Therefore, we can say “all kinds of names and attributes are manifest in the universe”.

What is meant by the universe is not the material realm that we see. The universe means the created realm. Thus, it will be appropriate to understand the universe as the realm of similitude, Lawh al-Mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet), Paradise and Hell and all of the creatures.