Will you give information about entering ihram for umrah, regions of miqat and the Mosque of Tan’im?

Details of the Question
Is it permissible for a person who goes to umrah to enter ihram in the Mosque of Tan’im in his first or following umrahs each time? Is the Mosque of Tan’im a mosque that belongs to Hz. Aisha only?
The Answer

Dear Brother / Sister,

There are places determined for entering ihram around Makkah. Each of these places is called "miqat". It is not permissible for a person who comes for umrah or hajj from outside miqat boundaries to pass those boundaries without ihram. Accordingly:

a. Candidates for hajj who will go directly to Makkah enter ihram in the airport from which the plane will take off or at home since Jeddah is within the boundaries of miqat and since planes land in Jeddah. If it is necessary, it is possible to enter ihram on the plane too. However, since it is difficult to enter ihram on the plane, one should not prefer to enter ihram on the plane.

b. Candidates for hajj who will go to Madinah before hajj enter ihram in the places where they stay in Madinah or in Dhul-Hulayfa (Abyar Ali), which is on the way to Makkah and 11 km away from Madinah.

We have mentioned that candidates for hajj and umrah cannot pass the boundaries of miqat without ihram. A penalty is necessary for a person who enters ihram after passing a boundary of miqat without ihram. If such a person returns to any boundary of miqat without doing any of the duties related to hajj or umrah, the penalty is removed. 

 

IHRAM

Ihram means (for a person) to render certain things for a certain time haram for oneself in order to perform hajj or umrah or both of them together and to avoid doing those haram deeds; it also means to enter the haram region of Makkah, to a haram region or month, to start to act in accordance with the requirements of a promise or undertaking, to transform something from halal into haram. Ihram takes place by making intention for hajj or umrah in a place called miqat and by uttering talbiyah.  

Talbiyahis to say, “Labbayk, Allahumma labbayk, labbayka la sharika laka labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-ni’mata laka wal-mulk la sharika lak.” Its translation is as follows:  I respond to Your call, O Allah, I respond to Your call. I respond to Your call, You have no partner. I respond to Your call. Indeed, the praise and grace are yours as well as sovereignty. You have no partner". That is the talbiyah reported from Hz. Prophet. (Bukhari, Hajj, 26, 101, Libas, 69; Muslim, Hajj, 19-20, 275; Abu Dawud Manasik, 26; Tirmidhi, Hajj, 13; Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, I, 302, 11, 3, 79, 341, 352, 476, VI, 243).

A person who enters ihrama is called "haram" or "muhrim". When a person who comes from outside for hajj or umrah comes to the place called miqat, he makes wudu or ghusl. However, this ghusl is made because the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did it when he entered ihram. The decree for making ghusl for ihram is like making ghusl for Friday prayer. (al-Marghinani, al-Hidaya, Cairo 1965, I, 136) After making ghusl, he wears izar and rida (towels for the lower and upper part of the body). A person who is in ihram cannot wear sewed clothes. He covers his private parts and the lower parts of his body with izar to be protected from heat and cold, and the upper parts with rida. Izar is a piece of towel that covers the parts of the body from the navel to knees. Rida is a piece of towel that covers the neck, shoulders and chest. It is possible to wrap the izar with a belt in order to protect it from falling. A person who is in ihram puts his rida under his right shoulder and places it on his left shoulder in the first tours of circumambulation and sa’y; thus, his right shoulder is left open. (al-Fatawal-Hindiyya, Beirut 1400, l, 222)

Ihram like that is for men. Women enter ihram with their normal clothes. The following is stated in a hadith reported from Jabir: "When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) entered ihram in Dhul-Hulayfa, he would perform a prayer of two rak’ahs and pray as follows: "O Allah! I want to make hajj; this is my intention. Make it easy for me and accept it from me." This is intention for hajj. Those who want intend for umrah, umrah instead of hajj. After that, talbiyah is uttered. 

A person who utters talbiyah without making intention for ihram is not regarded as "muhrim". For, worshipping is based on intention. (Ibnul-Humam, Fathul-Qadir, Beirut 1315, II, 139) A person who makes intention and utters talbiyah becomes a "muhrim". Talbiyah is uttered after prayers, when one walks up to a high place on the way, down a valley or meets a group of people. It is also possible to utter talbiyah aloud at dawn. (al-Maydani, al-Lubab fi Sharhil Kitab, Beirut 1400, I, 183)

The issues that a person who enters ihram need to be careful about:

a) A person who enters ihram avoids everything that Allah prohibited. The following is stated in the Quran: "For Hajj are the months well known. If anyone undertakes that duty therein, Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj." (al-Baqara, 2/197). The word rafath (obscenity) mentioned in the verse means sexual intercourse or vulgar words, fusuq (wickedness) means all kinds of bad deeds and jidal (wrangling) means necessary or unnecessary quarrel with his fellow hajjis.

b) "…But forbidden is the pursuit of land-game;- as long as ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb" (al-Maida, 5/96). As it is mentioned in the verse, it is necessary for a muhrim to avoid hunting any animals on land. For, it is forbidden to hunt when a person is in ihram. (Mulla Khusraw, Durarul Hukkam fi Sharhi Ghuraril-Ahkam, Istanbul 1307, l, 221)

c) A person who is in ihram cannot wear sewed clothes like shirts and trousers; he cannot wear turbans, hats, gowns and khuffs either. (Mulla Khusraw, ibid, I, 221-222). As it was explained before, he wears an izar and rida.

d) A person who is in ihram cannot wear perfume; he cannot shave his head and other parts of his body; he cannot trim his nails; he cannot break off even a small part of his nails. He cannot spread oil and cream on his body. (al-Fatawal-Hindiyya, Beirut 1400, I, 223).

e) He cannot wear clothes with perfume. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) prohibited it.

f) It is forbidden to pick up and break off trees and plants that green and grow on their own, not planted or cultivated by people, and to benefit from those trees and plants in the Haram region.

g) The face and head of a muhrim who dies are covered. For, when he dies, his ihram ends. The following is stated in a hadith: "When man dies, all of his deeds except three deeds end..." (Muslim, Wasiyya, 14; Abu Dawud, Wasaya, 14; Tirmidhi, Ahkam, 36). Since ihram is a deed, it also ends. On the other hand, the Messenger of Allah stated the following for a Companion who fell of his camel, broke his neck and died: "Do not cover his head and face. For, he will come by uttering talbiyah on the Day of Judgment." (Tirmidhi, Hajj, 105). Hanafis hold the view that this practice was peculiar to that Companion only.

Miqats (Places to Enter Ihram):

Miqat means a limited place and time. Terminologically, it means a place of entering ihram for hajj and umrah. (Ibn Abidin, ibid, II, 474)

Hz. Umar stated the following about the places of miqat: "Any one of you who wants to enter ihram for hajj must not enter ihram anywhere except miqat places." The places of miqat that the Prophet showed are as follows: " Dhul-Hulayfa for the people of Madinah and other people who will come from Madinah;  al-Juhfa for the people of Damascus and other people who will come from there;  Qarn al-Manazil for the people of Najd and other people who will come from there; Yalamlam for the people of Yemen and other people who will come from there; Dhat al-Irq for the people of Iraq and other Muslims who will come from there.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "Nobody can pass a miqat place without ihram." (Ibnul-Humam, Fathul-Qadir, Beirut 1315, II, 132) Acting upon this hadith, Hanafi fiqh scholars state the following: "Nobody can pass a miqat place whether he comes for hajj and umrah or with another intention (business, journey). For, the reason for the obligation of ihram is showing respect to that place. It becomes fard for people who come from outside when they arrive in a miqat place shown by the Messenger of Allah to enter ihram." (Imam Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, Beirut (nd), IV, 167)

On the other hand, the believers who live within the boundaries of miqat can go to Makkah without ihram to meet their needs. Those who live in Makkah enter ihram for hajj in the place where they are. However, they enter ihram for umrah outside the haram region of Makkah especially in the place called "Tan'im". A certain amount of land around Makkah is called "Haram region". The region between Haram region and miqat places is called "Hill region" The nearest point of Hill region to Makkah is "Tan'im". The believers living in Hill region can enter ihram in the place where they are or in Makkah. They are given this ease because they come to Makkah a lot. (see al-Marghinani, ibid, I, 146; Ibn Abidin, ibid, II, 474 ff. al-Qasani, Badayius-Sanayi', Beirut 1402/1972, II, 161, ff)

Şâmil İA

 

MIKAT

Miqat location and miqat time are fiqh terms that express the special locations around Makkah for the people who come for hajj from various regions and countries; its plural form is mawaqit. It is not permissible for a person who comes for umrah or hajj to pass a miqat location without ihram. Otherwise, he has to sacrifice an animal or go back to a miqat location.

Ihram locations vary depending on whether a person who wants make hajj or umrah lives in Makkah or in a place between Makkah and a miqat location or in a place outside miqat locations.

Miqat locations in terms of the place of residence: I. Those who live in Makkah: The place of location of ihram for Makkans is Makkah. Hz. Prophet ordered Makkans to enter ihram in Makkah. (az-Zaylai, Nasbur-Raya, 1393/1973, n.p. III, 16). Those who live outside Makkah but inside the haram region enter ihram in the same way. The location of miqat for umrah for Makkans is the nearest place of Hill to the haram region. However, according to Hanafis and Hanbalis, the most virtuous place for ihram for umrah is “Tan’im”, “Jirana” and “Hudaybiya” respectively. Hz. Prophet (pbuh) ordered Abdurrahman b. Abi Bakr to have Hz. Aisha make umrah by entering ihram in Tan’im. (Bukhari, Jihad, 125, Umrah, 6; Muslim, Hajj, 135,136; Tirmidhi, Hajj, 91; Ahmad b. Hanbal, III, 309, 394).

2. Those who live in Hill: The area between the Harem region and the area surrounded by five miqat locations is called “hill”. Miqat (entering ihram) location for hajj or umrah for the people living in Hill is the place where their families live or any region of Hill between those places where their families live and the haram region. The verse ordering to complete hajj and umrah (al-Baqara, 2/196), the view of Hazrat Ali and Abdullah b. Mas'ud are evidence for it.

That is the view that Hanafis adopted. According to Imam Malik, their miqat location is their houses.

3. Afaqis: Those who live in towns and countries outside miqat places are called “afaqi”s. There are miqat locations determined for those who come to Hejaz for umrah or hajj outside miqat locations depending on the region or country that they come from. There are five miqat locations. The following is reported from Ibn Abbas: “The Prophet (pbuh) determined Dhul-Hulayfa for the people of Madinah, Juhfa for the people of Damascus, Qarn al-Manazil for the people of Najd, and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen. They are miqat locations for people coming from the stated regions and countries and from those directions." (Bukhari, Hajj, 7, 9, 11, 12, Sayd, 18; Muslim, Hajj, 11, 12; Abu Dawud, 8; Nasai, Manasik, 19, 20-23; Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 238). In another hadith, Dhat al-Irq is added for Iraqis. (Abu Dawud, Manasik, 8).

Miqat locations in terms of the countries people come from: 1. Miqat location for people coming from Turkey, Syria, Egypt, Morocco and people coming from Europe by sea is Juhfa (Rabigh). The distance between Juhfa and Makkah is about 187 km.

2. Miqat location for people coming from Madinah is Dhul-Hulayfa (Abar Ali). It is about 464 km away from Makkah. It is the most distant miqat location. 

3. Miqat location for people coming from Iraq, Iran and other eastern countries is Dhat al-Irq. It is about 94 km away from Makkah. 

4. Miqat location for people coming from the direction of Kuwayt and Najd is Qarn al-Manazil, known as as-Sayl today.

5. Miqat location for people coming from Yemen is Yalamlam, which is in the south of Makkah. It is about 54 km away from Makkah.

If the route of the people coming for hajj or umrah does not pass from those points, it is necessary to enter ihram from the alignment of those points. Those who come to Madinah and then set out for hajj have to enter ihram in Dhul-Hulayfa, called Abar Ali today.
If a person who comes for hajj or umrah from outside passes a miqat location without ihram, he has to sacrifice an animal as a penalty or has to go back to the miqat location and enter ihram there. If a person who does not aim to enter Makkah passes miqat location without ihram, nothing is necessary for him. (For details, see al-Qasani, Badayius-Sanayi', Beirut 1394/1974, II, 163 ff.; Ibnul-Humam, Fathul-Qadir, Egypt 1316/1898, II, 131-134; al-Maydani, al-Lubab, Istanbul, n.d. I, 178 ff.; ash-Shirazi, al-Muhadhdhab, Egypt, n.d.  I, 202-204; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni Cairo 1970, III, 257; az-Zuhayli, al-Fiqhul-Islami wa Edillatuh, Damascus 1405/1985, III, 68 ff.; Hamdi Döndüren, Delilleriyle İslam İlmihali, İstanbul 1991, p. 578 ff.)

Hamdi DÖNDÜREN

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